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1-1 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUALITY CHAPTER 2.

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Presentation on theme: "1-1 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUALITY CHAPTER 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 1-1 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUALITY CHAPTER 2

2 EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVES Sociobiology - application of evolutionary biology to understanding the social behavior of animals, including humans. 1-2 Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

3 EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVES Evolution occurs via natural selection, a process by which animals that are best adapted to their environment are more likely to: Survive Reproduce Pass genes to the next generation 1-3 Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

4 EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVES Parental investment - behavior and resources invested by parents to achieve the survival and reproductive success of their genetic offspring. 1-4 Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5 EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVES Sexual selection Competition between members of one gender (usually male). Preferential choice by members of one gender (usually female). 1-5

6 EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY Focuses on the psychological mechanisms that have been shaped by natural selection. Assumes that every characteristic that we observe must have some adaptive significance. Some human traits, however, may simply be design flaws. 1-6

7 1-7 Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

8 PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES: PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Freud s psychoanalytic theory focuses on human sexuality. He saw libido (sex drive or sex energy) as one of the two major forces in human life. The other is thanatos (the death instinct). 1-8

9 FREUD: CONSCIOUSNESS Conscious level Normal awareness Preconscious level Easily brought to consciousness Unconscious level Hidden thoughts and desires

10 Freud s Parts of the Personality Id - the basic part of personality which is present at birth - operates on the pleasure principle. Ego operates on the reality principle and tries to keep the id in line. Superego is the conscience and operates on idealism Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

11 FREUD: STRUCTURAL MODEL The id Unconscious level Present at birth Home to sexual and aggressive drive Governed by the pleasure principle Think Homer Simpson

12 FREUD: STRUCTURAL MODEL The superego Preconscious and unconscious levels Develops in childhood Home to morality and conscience Governed by the ego ideal Think Ned Flanders

13 FREUD: STRUCTURAL MODEL The ego Conscious, preconscious, and unconscious levels Develops in childhood (before superego) Acts as a referee between id and superego Governed by the reality principle

14 FREUD: PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT We must pass through psychosexual stages successfully Each stage focuses on how we receive pleasure Failure to pass through a stage leads to fixation In times of stress, we regress to that stage

15 FREUD: PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES Oral stage (birth to 1 year) Anal stage (1 to 3 years) Phallic stage (3 to 6 years) Oedipus and Electra complexes Latency period (6 to puberty) Genital stage (puberty onward)

16 Freud s Early Stages of Psychosexual Development Oral stage (birth to one year) - child s chief pleasure is derived from sucking and otherwise stimulating the lips and mouth. Anal stage (second year) - child s interest is focused on elimination Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

17 Freud s Phallic Stage (Ages 3 to 5 or 6) Boy s interest is focused on his phallus (penis). Oedipus complex develops but is resolved by castration anxiety. Girls feel cheated and suffer from penis envy. Electra complex develops but resolution is not as complete as for boys Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

18 Freud s Later Stages of Psychosexual Development Latency, in which sexual impulses are repressed or are in a quiescent state, lasts until adolescence. Sexual urges reawaken with puberty, when the child moves into the genital stage Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

19 FIXATIONS AT FREUDIAN STAGES According to Freud, people do not always mature from one stage to the next as they should. Most adults have at least traces of earlier stages remaining in their personalities Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

20 FREUD ON WOMEN Freud assumed the female is biologically inferior because she lacks a penis. Feminists object to the notion that women are anatomically inferior, and argue that psychoanalytic theory may cause harm to women Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

21 EVALUATION OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY May provide a view of disturbances in the human personality rather than the human personality. The recognition that humans pass through stages in their psychological development was a great contribution Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

22 PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES: LEARNING THEORY Much of human sexual behavior is biologically controlled, but much of it is also learned Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

23 CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical conditioning takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an original unconditioned stimulus. Operant conditioning means a person is more likely to repeat a behavior if it is rewarded (reinforcement) Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

24 PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES: LEARNING THEORIES Behavior modification involves a set of techniques used to change behavior. Social learning is based on operant conditioning, imitation and identification Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

25 PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES Social exchange theory uses the concept of reinforcement to explain stability and change in relationships between people. Successful experiences with an activity over time create a sense of competence or self-efficacy Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

26 PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES: COGNITIVE THEORY Cognitive psychologists believe it is very important to study the way people perceive and think Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

27 PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES: GENDER SCHEMA THEORY Gender schemas - set of attributes that we associate with males and females. Schemas predispose us to process information on the basis of gender Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

28 GENDER STEREOTYPE CONSISTENT 1-28 Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

29 GENDER STEREOTYPE INCONSISTENT 1-29 Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

30 SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES: THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIETY Societal influence occurs on several levels including: The macro level - society as a whole. The subcultural level at which one s social class or ethnic group may have an impact on one s sexuality Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

31 SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES: SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS At the macro level our sexuality is influenced by powerful social institutions, including: Religion Economy Family Medicine Law 1-31 Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

32 SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES: SYMBOLIC INTERACTION THEORY Human nature and the social order are products of symbolic communication among people. Develop a definition of the situation Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

33 SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES: SYMBOLIC INTERACTION THEORY Role-taking - when an individual imagines how he or she looks from the other person s viewpoint. Other-directed individuals - primarily concerned with meeting other s standards Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

34 SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES: SEXUAL SCRIPTS Suggest that sexual behavior is as scripted as a play in a theater. Tell us an etiquette of sexual behavior. Tell us the meaning we should attach to a particular sexual event Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

35 SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES: THE SOCIAL IMPORTANCE Ira Reiss defines sexuality as erotic and genital responses produced by the cultural scripts of a society. Kinship system Power structure Ideologies of a culture 1-35 Copyright 2008 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


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