Presentation on theme: "The Cradle of Western Thought"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Cradle of Western Thought Pre-Socratic Philosophy600 – 450 B.C.
2 In the beginning…“The history of philosophy began on May 28, 585 B.C. At 6:13 p.m. Greek Standard Time.” (Gordon Clark)
3 The Pre-Socratics Asia Minor (Ionia) Southern Italy Thales, Anaximander, & Anaximenes (Miletus)Heraclitus (Ephesus)AnaxagorasThe AtomistsSouthern ItalyThe PythagoreansParmenides, Zeno, and Empedocles
5 The Ionians/Milesians Fundamental to their cosmogony was the belief that the world came into being, that is, the first reality was a single living stuff.NaturalistsTries to explain the world without any reference to a supernatural beingMaterialistsReferred to the Arch as divine, but probably meant nothing more than that it was eternal.HylozoistsLiving matter (ex: magnet)MonistsThe ultimate explanation for reality is one basic thing
6 They would have loved the weather channel. Arch one of four basic elementsMixed by the weather
7 Thales 625-546 B.C. First to predict the eclipse of the sun Scientist, philosopher, and businessmanFell in an open well while contemplating the heavensBought up the olive pressesCosmogony = Arch is water (“the moist”)
8 Anaximenes 585-525 B.C. The arch is aer (breath) Method: condensation – increase in density (turns into earth)rarefaction – decrease in density (clouds & fire)
9 AnaximanderB.C.Given credit for Inventing the sundial, making the first map, and making astronomical discoveries.Apeiron - the boundless is the archPeiron = fence, boundaryFormless, shapeless, propertyless
10 Heraclitus of Ephesus 535-475 B.C. The “dark one” First to use logos as a technical termPantheisticPhilo, Stoics, John the Bishop of EphesusValuable for expressing Christian truthChristians use of the same language to explain something is not necessarily a sign of influenceDied in deep doo-doo
12 The Atomists Leucippus Democritus (460-370 B.C) Matter is made up of propertyless, imperishable, indivisible elements called atomaNothing beyond the natural order.Only two things, atoms and empty space.
13 Parmenides The first rationalist (vs. empiricism) Starting point for Platonic dialectic and Aristotelian logic [Armstrong, p. 12]God is one; an immanent all-pervading world soulPhilosopher most respected by PlatoBill Clinton’s favorite philosopherWhat is, is. What is not, is not.
14 ZenoZeno’s paradoxesInfinite division of space so movement is not possibleTortoise and hare
16 The Orphic Movement Ascetic life Purification rituals to release the god inside us allFantastic cosmologies (like Scientology)Reincarnation until our inner god is released by Orphic practicesKilling an animal is murderVegetarians
17 The Pythagoreans Pythagoras ??? (580-500 B.C??) Monastic brotherhood Pebbles / CalculusBy contemplating form, order, proportion & harmony, the soul is purified, thus mathematics and music“things are numbers”Good vs. BadForm, the male principle, is goodMatter, the female principle, is evil
18 The Pythagoreans (cont.) Emphasized purification of the soul to escape the reincarnation cycleDon’t poke a fire with a knifeGet out on the right side of bedPut on the right shoe firstDon’t let the swallows land on your roofDon’t eat beans!Influenced Plato (Phaedo and Meno)
19 Important Beliefs of the Pythagoreans Mind-body dualism!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Immortality of the SoulBody is a Prison of the SoulTransmigration of the Soul
20 “Philosophy in the sense in which the word was generally used in the ancient world may be defined as the search after the truth about the nature of the universe and man, a search that philosophers (with certain exceptions) believed could result in the attainment and sure knowledge of the truth sought.” (A. H. Armstrong, An Introduction to Ancient Philosophy, page 1)
21 Texts on ancient philosophy An Introduction to Ancient Philosophy, by A. H. ArmstrongLives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, by Diogenes LaertiusA History of Philosophy, Vol. 1, by Frederick Copleston
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