Presentation on theme: "Diabetes and Your Feet (Physicians Name Here) (Practice Name Here) (Practice Address Here) (Practice Phone Number Here) (Practice Website Here)"— Presentation transcript:
Diabetes and Your Feet (Physicians Name Here) (Practice Name Here) (Practice Address Here) (Practice Phone Number Here) (Practice Website Here)
Expected Increase in Diabetes From 2000 to 2030 Zimmet P, et al. Nature. 2001;414: M +23% 15.6 M +44% 9.4 M +50% 26.5 M +24% 84.5 M +57% 1.0 M +33% 2030: 370 million patients (~145% increase) 2000: 151 million patients
Prevalence of Diabetes in the US Now up to 18 Million
The Facts About Diabetes Diabetes affects minority populations disproportionately: million African Americans age 20 or older have diabetes -1.2 million Mexican Americans age 20 and older have diabetes -diabetes can affect up to 50 percent of some Native American populations
Diabetic Complications Affect Every Part of The Body Diabetic Retinopathy Leading cause of blindness in working age adults Diabetic Nephropathy Leading cause of end-stage renal disease Cardiovascular Disease Stroke 2 to 4 fold increase in cardiovascular mortality and stroke Diabetic Neuropathy Leading cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputations
How do diabetic foot problems compare with other diabetes- complications? Infected wounds: most common reason for hospital admission –Infection:Ulcer ratio = in 5 leads to lower extremity amputation Trautner, et al, Invest Opthalmol Vis Sci, 2003 Lavery, Armstrong, et al, Diabetes Care, 2003 Fedele, et al, J Urol, 2001 Bruno, Diabetes Care, 2003
Financial implications 7 th leading cause of death Direct and indirect costs 2002 was $132 billion 25% of all Medicare expenditures
Diabetes Can Be Controlled Diabetes treatment includes food management to control blood sugar, getting regular physical activity, taking oral medications and/or insulin, and monitoring blood glucose levels. By keeping blood sugar levels in the normal range, people with diabetes lower their risk of long-term complications of diabetes, such as eye disease, kidney disease, and nerve damage. UKPDS, NDEP
Blood Sugar/Glucose Monitoring Patient Home & Office Setting Patient education & encouragement in maintaining good glucose control is essential in avoiding complications; both in a primary care and specialist clinic setting.
A1c An Indication For Healing HbA1C (Now simply A1c) Reveals a combination/average; reflects mean of fasting and post-meal glucose levels for past 2-3 months Good indicator of how a patient will heal, as well as how well the blood sugar is controlled on a daily basis
Reduced Risk of Diabetes Complications Risk Reduction per 1% Decrease in A1C EyeKidneyNerveHeart DCCT27- 38% 22-28%29-35%40% Kumamoto28%50%NCV25% UKPDS19%26%18%14%
Patient Education Ask the patient if they know how diabetes affects the foot and if they have ever had their foot examined. This question can provide information on the presence or absence of effective behaviors to institute prevention through appropriate self-maintenance.and recognition of pivotal events
Patient Education (continued) Helping patients recognize pivotal events that require professional medical attention. Knowing the duration of diabetes and level of control (A1c #) would indicate level of risk of developing co morbid systemic disease involving the foot since manifestations of complications are time and control dependent. Checking your own feet everyday and seeing a podiatrist at the earliest sign of redness, skin breakdown UKPDS, DCCT, CDC, ADA, UTHSC-San Antonio
Risk Factors Leading to Ulceration Neuropathy Foot deformities History of foot ulcers/amputations Adapted from Armstrong et al, 1991; Pecoraro et al, 1990; Mayfield et al, 1996.
Neuropathy The presence of subjective complaints : tingling, burning, numbness or formication (sensation of bugs crawling on skin) may indicate the clinical presence of peripheral sensory neuropathy.
Neuropathy in People with Diabetes Neuropathy is present in >80% of diabetic patients with foot ulcers
Left Placement of Semmes-Weinstein monofilament
Ulcerations Are Pivotal Events In Limb Loss Portal for infection Necrosis in the presence of critical ischemia
Etiology of Neuropathic Diabetic Foot Ulcers Pressure x Cycles of Repetitive Stress = Wound Lavery, Armstrong, et al, Diabetes, Care, 2003 A PRESSURE-ACTIVITY IMBALANCE
Diabetic Amputation Ulceration usually precedes an amputation Amputation 15 times more likely in people with diabetes 50% have contralateral amputation within 3-5 years 3-year mortality rate 20-50% Adapted from reiber et al, 1995; CDC, 1997; Jiwa, 1997; Glover et al, 1997.
Musculoskeletal Biomechanical changes in the diabetic foot develop in conjunction with muscle- tendon imbalances as a result of motor neuropathy. These deformities include the presence of hammertoes, bunions, high arched foot, or flatfoot, all of which increase the potential for focal irritation of the foot within the shoe.
Example of Shoe Pressure This photo shows the results of shoe pressure on the foot where the shoe in not properly fitted to accommodate an individuals foot size.
Foot Deformities Corns and calluses (hyperkeratotic lesions) of the feet are a result of elevated areas of focal mechanical pressure and shearing of the skin. This focal build-up often precedes breakdown of skin forming either a blister or ulceration.
Perpheral Arterial Disease Symptoms of cramping of the calf when walking the requires frequent periods of rest- intermitant claudication Intense cramping and aching to the toes only at night characteristically relieved with hanging the feet down or with walking
PAD This symptom signifies the end-stage disease. Though poor blood supply is not an dependent risk factor for the development of ulceration, it is a significant risk factor for amputation.
Non-Invasive Vascular Test A non-invasive vascular test was performed in order to determine blood flow levels in a diabetic patient with a leg wound. Good vascular status aids in healing potential.
Offloading Its Importance for Reducing Foot Pressure Points Adapted from Janisse, Pressure Desquamation Blisters Callus Ulcer
Off-loading : For Healing & Prevention Total contact casting Removable walker Felt and foam Half-shoe Scotch cast boot For Prevention Extra-depth shoe Custom-molded shoe Custom Insoles Oxford type athletic shoe Adapted from Janisse, 1995; Lavery et al, 1996
Examples of Off-Loading Devices
Example of Off-loading Treatment
Instant Total Contact Cast Armstrong, et al, J Amer Podiatr Med Assn, 2002 Boulton & Armstrong, Diabetes Care, 2003
How might I prevent recurrence?
Computerized Gait Analysis
Additional Methods/Aids In Reducing Footwear Friction
Diabetic Foot Screening L.E.A.P. Lower Extremity Amputation Prevention Proactive Screen Low Risk Moderate Risk High Risk (Refer to Handout)