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Chapter 11 Differentiation

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**INTRODUCTORY MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS**

0. Review of Algebra Applications and More Algebra Functions and Graphs Lines, Parabolas, and Systems Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Mathematics of Finance Matrix Algebra Linear Programming Introduction to Probability and Statistics

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**INTRODUCTORY MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS**

Additional Topics in Probability Limits and Continuity Differentiation Additional Differentiation Topics Curve Sketching Integration Methods and Applications of Integration Continuous Random Variables Multivariable Calculus

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**Chapter 11: Differentiation**

Chapter Objectives To compute derivatives by using the limit definition. To develop basic differentiation rules. To interpret the derivative as an instantaneous rate of change. To apply the product and quotient rules. To apply the chain rule.

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**Chapter Outline The Derivative Rules for Differentiation**

Chapter 11: Differentiation Chapter Outline The Derivative Rules for Differentiation The Derivative as a Rate of Change The Product Rule and the Quotient Rule The Chain Rule and the Power Rule 11.1) 11.2) 11.3) 11.4) 11.5)

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**11.1 The Derivative Tangent line at a point:**

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.1 The Derivative Tangent line at a point: The slope of a curve at P is the slope of the tangent line at P. The slope of the tangent line at (a, f(a)) is

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**Chapter 11: Differentiation**

11.1 The Derivative Example 1 – Finding the Slope of a Tangent Line Find the slope of the tangent line to the curve y = f(x) = x2 at the point (1, 1). Solution: Slope = The derivative of a function f is the function denoted f’ and defined by

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**Chapter 11: Differentiation**

11.1 The Derivative Example 3 – Finding an Equation of a Tangent Line If f (x) = 2x2 + 2x + 3, find an equation of the tangent line to the graph of f at (1, 7). Solution: Slope Equation

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**a. For f(x) = x2, it must be continuous for all x. **

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.1 The Derivative Example 5 – A Function with a Vertical Tangent Line Example 7 – Continuity and Differentiability Find Solution: a. For f(x) = x2, it must be continuous for all x. b. For f(p) =(1/2)p, it is not continuous at p = 0, thus the derivative does not exist at p = 0.

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**11.2 Rules for Differentiation**

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.2 Rules for Differentiation Rules for Differentiation: RULE 1 Derivative of a Constant: RULE 2 Derivative of xn: RULE 3 Constant Factor Rule: RULE 4 Sum or Difference Rule

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**Chapter 11: Differentiation**

11.2 Rules for Differentiation Example 1 – Derivatives of Constant Functions a. b. If , then c. If , then

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**Differentiate the following functions: Solution: a.**

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.2 Rules for Differentiation Example 3 – Rewriting Functions in the Form xn Differentiate the following functions: Solution: a. b.

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**Differentiate the following functions:**

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.2 Rules for Differentiation Example 5 – Differentiating Sums and Differences of Functions Differentiate the following functions:

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**Chapter 11: Differentiation**

11.2 Rules for Differentiation Example 5 – Differentiating Sums and Differences of Functions

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**Find an equation of the tangent line to the curve when x = 1.**

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.2 Rules for Differentiation Example 7 – Finding an Equation of a Tangent Line Find an equation of the tangent line to the curve when x = 1. Solution: The slope equation is When x = 1, The equation is

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**11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change**

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change Example 1 – Finding Average Velocity and Velocity Average velocity is given by Velocity at time t is given by Suppose the position function of an object moving along a number line is given by s = f(t) = 3t2 + 5, where t is in seconds and s is in meters. Find the average velocity over the interval [10, 10.1]. b. Find the velocity when t = 10.

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**b. Velocity at time t is given by**

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change Example 1 – Finding Average Velocity and Velocity Solution: a. When t = 10, b. Velocity at time t is given by When t = 10, the velocity is

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**Chapter 11: Differentiation**

11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change Example 3 – Finding a Rate of Change If y = f(x), then Find the rate of change of y = x4 with respect to x, and evaluate it when x = 2 and when x = −1. Solution: The rate of change is .

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**Solution: Rate of change of V with respect to r is**

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change Example 5 – Rate of Change of Volume A spherical balloon is being filled with air. Find the rate of change of the volume of air in the balloon with respect to its radius. Evaluate this rate of change when the radius is 2 ft. Solution: Rate of change of V with respect to r is When r = 2 ft,

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**Applications of Rate of Change to Economics **

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change Applications of Rate of Change to Economics Total-cost function is c = f(q). Marginal cost is defined as . Total-revenue function is r = f(q). Marginal revenue is defined as Relative and Percentage Rates of Change The relative rate of change of f(x) is The percentage rate of change of f (x) is

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**If a manufacturer’s average-cost equation is **

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change Example 7 – Marginal Cost If a manufacturer’s average-cost equation is find the marginal-cost function. What is the marginal cost when 50 units are produced? Solution: The cost is Marginal cost when q = 50,

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**11.4 The Product Rule and the Quotient Rule**

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change Example 9 – Relative and Percentage Rates of Change 11.4 The Product Rule and the Quotient Rule Determine the relative and percentage rates of change of when x = 5. Solution: The Product Rule

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**Find F’(x). Find y’. Example 1 – Applying the Product Rule**

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.4 The Product and Quotient Rule Example 1 – Applying the Product Rule Example 3 – Differentiating a Product of Three Factors Find F’(x). Find y’.

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**The Quotient Rule If , find F’(x). Solution:**

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.4 The Product and Quotient Rule Example 5 – Applying the Quotient Rule The Quotient Rule If , find F’(x). Solution:

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**Differentiate the following functions.**

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.4 The Product and Quotient Rule Example 7 – Differentiating Quotients without Using the Quotient Rule Differentiate the following functions.

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**Chapter 11: Differentiation**

11.4 The Product and Quotient Rule Example 9 – Finding Marginal Propensities to Consume and to Save Consumption Function If the consumption function is given by determine the marginal propensity to consume and the marginal propensity to save when I = 100. Solution:

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**11.5 The Chain Rule and the Power Rule**

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.5 The Chain Rule and the Power Rule Example 1 – Using the Chain Rule Chain Rule: Power Rule: a. If y = 2u2 − 3u − 2 and u = x2 + 4, find dy/dx. Solution:

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**b. If y = √w and w = 7 − t3, find dy/dt. Solution:**

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.5 The Chain Rule and the Power Rule Example 1 – Using the Chain Rule Example 3 – Using the Power Rule b. If y = √w and w = 7 − t3, find dy/dt. Solution: If y = (x3 − 1)7, find y’. Solution:

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**If , find dy/dx. Solution: If , find y’. Solution:**

Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.5 The Chain Rule and the Power Rule Example 5 – Using the Power Rule Example 7 – Differentiating a Product of Powers If , find dy/dx. Solution: If , find y’. Solution:

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