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INTRODUCTORY MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS For Business, Economics, and the Life and Social Sciences 2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11 Differentiation

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2007 Pearson Education Asia INTRODUCTORY MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS 0.Review of Algebra 1.Applications and More Algebra 2.Functions and Graphs 3.Lines, Parabolas, and Systems 4.Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5.Mathematics of Finance 6.Matrix Algebra 7.Linear Programming 8.Introduction to Probability and Statistics

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2007 Pearson Education Asia 9.Additional Topics in Probability 10.Limits and Continuity 11.Differentiation 12.Additional Differentiation Topics 13.Curve Sketching 14.Integration 15.Methods and Applications of Integration 16.Continuous Random Variables 17.Multivariable Calculus INTRODUCTORY MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS

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2007 Pearson Education Asia To compute derivatives by using the limit definition. To develop basic differentiation rules. To interpret the derivative as an instantaneous rate of change. To apply the product and quotient rules. To apply the chain rule. Chapter 11: Differentiation Chapter Objectives

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2007 Pearson Education Asia The Derivative Rules for Differentiation The Derivative as a Rate of Change The Product Rule and the Quotient Rule The Chain Rule and the Power Rule 11.1) 11.2) 11.3) Chapter 11: Differentiation Chapter Outline 11.4) 11.5)

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.1 The Derivative Tangent line at a point: The slope of a curve at P is the slope of the tangent line at P. The slope of the tangent line at (a, f(a)) is

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.1 The Derivative Example 1 – Finding the Slope of a Tangent Line Find the slope of the tangent line to the curve y = f(x) = x 2 at the point (1, 1). Solution: Slope = The derivative of a function f is the function denoted f and defined by

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.1 The Derivative Example 3 – Finding an Equation of a Tangent Line If f (x) = 2x 2 + 2x + 3, find an equation of the tangent line to the graph of f at (1, 7). Solution: Slope Equation

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.1 The Derivative Example 5 – A Function with a Vertical Tangent Line Example 7 – Continuity and Differentiability Find. Solution: a. For f(x) = x 2, it must be continuous for all x. b. For f(p) =(1/2)p, it is not continuous at p = 0, thus the derivative does not exist at p = 0.

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.2 Rules for Differentiation Rules for Differentiation: RULE 1 Derivative of a Constant: RULE 2 Derivative of x n : RULE 3 Constant Factor Rule: RULE 4 Sum or Difference Rule

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.2 Rules for Differentiation Example 1 – Derivatives of Constant Functions a. b. If, then. c. If, then.

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.2 Rules for Differentiation Example 3 – Rewriting Functions in the Form x n Differentiate the following functions: Solution: a. b.

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.2 Rules for Differentiation Example 5 – Differentiating Sums and Differences of Functions Differentiate the following functions:

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.2 Rules for Differentiation Example 5 – Differentiating Sums and Differences of Functions

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.2 Rules for Differentiation Example 7 – Finding an Equation of a Tangent Line Find an equation of the tangent line to the curve when x = 1. Solution: The slope equation is When x = 1, The equation is

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change Example 1 – Finding Average Velocity and Velocity Average velocity is given by Velocity at time t is given by Suppose the position function of an object moving along a number line is given by s = f(t) = 3t 2 + 5, where t is in seconds and s is in meters. a.Find the average velocity over the interval [10, 10.1]. b. Find the velocity when t = 10.

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change Example 1 – Finding Average Velocity and Velocity Solution: a. When t = 10, b. Velocity at time t is given by When t = 10, the velocity is

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change Example 3 – Finding a Rate of Change If y = f(x), then Find the rate of change of y = x 4 with respect to x, and evaluate it when x = 2 and when x = 1. Solution: The rate of change is.

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change Example 5 – Rate of Change of Volume A spherical balloon is being filled with air. Find the rate of change of the volume of air in the balloon with respect to its radius. Evaluate this rate of change when the radius is 2 ft. Solution: Rate of change of V with respect to r is When r = 2 ft,

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change Applications of Rate of Change to Economics Total-cost function is c = f(q). Marginal cost is defined as. Total-revenue function is r = f(q). Marginal revenue is defined as. Relative and Percentage Rates of Change The relative rate of change of f(x) is. The percentage rate of change of f (x) is

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change Example 7 – Marginal Cost If a manufacturers average-cost equation is find the marginal-cost function. What is the marginal cost when 50 units are produced? Solution: The cost is Marginal cost when q = 50,

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.3 The Derivative as a Rate of Change Example 9 – Relative and Percentage Rates of Change 11.4 The Product Rule and the Quotient Rule Determine the relative and percentage rates of change of when x = 5. Solution: The Product Rule

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.4 The Product and Quotient Rule Example 1 – Applying the Product Rule Example 3 – Differentiating a Product of Three Factors Find F(x). Find y.

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.4 The Product and Quotient Rule Example 5 – Applying the Quotient Rule If, find F(x). Solution: The Quotient Rule

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.4 The Product and Quotient Rule Example 7 – Differentiating Quotients without Using the Quotient Rule Differentiate the following functions.

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.4 The Product and Quotient Rule Example 9 – Finding Marginal Propensities to Consume and to Save If the consumption function is given by determine the marginal propensity to consume and the marginal propensity to save when I = 100. Solution: Consumption Function

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.5 The Chain Rule and the Power Rule Example 1 – Using the Chain Rule a. If y = 2u 2 3u 2 and u = x 2 + 4, find dy/dx. Solution: Chain Rule: Power Rule:

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.5 The Chain Rule and the Power Rule Example 1 – Using the Chain Rule Example 3 – Using the Power Rule b. If y = w and w = 7 t 3, find dy/dt. Solution: If y = (x 3 1) 7, find y. Solution:

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2007 Pearson Education Asia Chapter 11: Differentiation 11.5 The Chain Rule and the Power Rule Example 5 – Using the Power Rule Example 7 – Differentiating a Product of Powers If, find dy/dx. Solution: If, find y. Solution:

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