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Developing and testing an Indigenous community development planning framework: a case study from Mindanao, Philippines Jayson Ibanez Stephen Garnett Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing and testing an Indigenous community development planning framework: a case study from Mindanao, Philippines Jayson Ibanez Stephen Garnett Research."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Developing and testing an Indigenous community development planning framework: a case study from Mindanao, Philippines Jayson Ibanez Stephen Garnett Research Institute for Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University

3 Introduction Global recognition of IP role in NRM (CBD 1992, UNDRIP 2007) RA No Philippine Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA) recognizes ownership of ancestral domains Traditional owners must make an Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection Plan (ADSDPP) to: Maintain ecological balance Restore denuded areas Platform to exercise bundle of rights (IRR, IPRA. Article 4, Sections 1-3)

4 ADSDPP By 2011, 156 Certificate of Ancestral Domain Titles awarded 95 ADSDPPs completed Criticisms: “ADSDPP process is defective…[and] is being implemented for compliance sake, instead of coming up with meaningful plans that are identified by Indigenous peoples themselves…” (IP resolution 2010) “ a heavy emphasis on investment generation at the expense of the protection of Indigenous peoples’ rights and culturally appropriate processes” (IWGIA 2012, pg. 275)

5 Research Goals Broad aim: Specific objectives:
Contribute to a more meaningful Indigenous planning policy and practice Specific objectives: Identify desired qualities of an Indigenous planning system Derive and field-test an Indigenous planning process framework Compare the proposed framework with the government planning framework

6 Study Area Indigenous groups: Talaandig Dulangan - Manobo Higaonon
Philippines Darwin Indigenous groups: Talaandig Dulangan - Manobo Higaonon Bagobo-Tagabawa Mansaka Obu-Manuvu Dibabawon Matigsalug-Manobo Mandaya Matigsalug

7 Study area

8 Theoretical guides and methods
“Constructivist” theoretical perspective Critical Social Theory Mixed Methods Approach

9 Ranking & scoring of criteria
Literature review Review to identify desirable qualities of an Indigenous planning system process resources plan content SLF capitals (human, social, natural, cultural, financial or physical) Focus groups Focus groups to know desired attributes of an Indigenous planning system: Ranking & scoring of criteria Ranking of literature criteria by Focus Group participants & then scoring ranks

10 Deriving the Indigenous planning framework
Focus groups with 10 tribes Review of planning literature Ranking literature criteria Deriving the Indigenous planning framework

11 Field-testing the framework
Community planning: 3 villages Consents, protocols, co-researcher training, village chief exposure trips Facilitators: primary researcher, Indigenous co-researchers, 2-3 NGO staff, IPO officers Framework assessment: survey questionnaire & interviews How well framework met 13 process and 10 outcomes criteria using Likert-scale Open-ended questions Co-researcher Dante Tumanding facilitating a community time-line workshop

12 Manobo Indigenous co-researcher Jimmy Ubay at the Bagogo Tagabawa workshop in Davao City
Manobo chieftain Badang Layuran at the Manobo Kulamanon workshop in Sultan Kudarat Danny Catihan and Airene Umbaoy of Pang-uandig: Community Planning Launch by the Obu Manuvu community Manobo Chieftains Layuran and Antayan Baguio at the Mandaya workshop in Davao Oriental

13 RESULTS: Number of focus group participants
Women Men

14 Age of participants in workshops

15 Resources Processes Content RESULTS : Focus groups and ranking
Adequate financial support Indigenous facilitators External partners Local leaders/elders Planning framework Processes Adequate consultations Local leaders/elders involved Inclusive Based on unity & cooperation Adequate preparation Indigenous rituals/ceremonies Content Clear vision Clear objectives Clear actions Factual base Performance monitoring

16 H N S C P/F Eradicate hunger Skills to manage resources
Formal education & literacy Maternal & child health Gender concerns N S P/F C Clear process of decision-making Policies against corruption Institutions that aid plan actions Activities that build unity Network building Biodiversity conservation Forest restoration Local tenure map Indicator monitoring Indigenous forest guards Infrastructure support Farming support Support to off-farm livelihoods Employment wages Worldview described Indigenous issues prioritized Enhance indigenous culture IEK described IEK used in the plan

17 Indigenous Community Development Planning
Radical Planning (principles) Equitable • Community-based • Transactive • Innovative • Normative • Social learning approach to knowledge and policy • Re-localization of primary production and infrastructure Strategic Planning (process) Sequence of steps: from general to specific • Focuses on priority outcomes • Environmental scan and self audit to know community strengths & opportunities • Pursues long-term goals and adapts to changing circumstances Indigenous Community Development Planning Holistic, inclusive and equitable • Underpinned by Indigenous worldviews and aspirations • Sequence of steps, focused actions • Continuous, reflective, and iterative process Indigenous Planning (principles) Upholds Indigenous worldview • Holistic development viewpoint • Incorporates traditional knowledge and cultural identity • Sustains communal land tenure The Indigenous Community Planning Model

18 Indigenous community development planning process framework
Tools: • Categorizing social & well-being groups • Transect walks • Timeline • VENN • Seasonality • Oral histories • Long-term trends • Semi-structured interviews • Participatory mapping Photovoice SWOT Analyses Ranking method Focus-group discussions Identify context, conditions and trends Set (adjust) desired plan outcomes Set objectives & means to get there Describe system Rural livelihood analyses Define Indigenous worldview 4. Identify (adjust) desired outcomes 5. Reconcile and prioritize outcomes 6. Setting the vision 7. Set (adjust) objectives 8. Identify strategies 9. Plan the actions 10. Define indicators & collect baselines 11. Assess progress 12. Disseminate and get feed-back Group workshops Brainstorming Community surveys & monitoring Feed-back sessions Monitoring & Measure success Indigenous community development planning process framework

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21 Indigenous Community Development Planning Period
Village Planning lead Planning periods Sitio Pang-uandig, Ganatan, Arakan, North Cotabato Pang-uandig Lumadnong Panaghiusa (PALUPA) September 20 – October 15, 2011 Sitio Enamong, Datu Ladayon, Arakan, North Cotabato Nagkahiusang Manobo sa Datu Ladayon (NAMADLA) October 27 – Nov 26, 2011 Sitios Kayupaton, Napunangan, Bagtok and Nassot, Tumanding, Arakan, North Cotabato Sinaka Eagle Bagtok, Napunangan, Kayupaton Association (SEBNAKA) January 6 – 10, 2012

22 Demographics ENAMONG PANG-UANDIG TUMANDING college 3 % none 11 % none
4 % high school 4 % high school 12 % high school 17 % none 13 % elementary 92 % elementary 72 % ENAMONG (n = 47) PANG-UANDIG (n = 48) TUMANDING (n = 40) Income (Aus $) 23 .00 73.00 60.00 F/M ratio 2:1 0.7:1 0.5/1

23 Village 1 (Enamong) : Percentage Agreement
Strongly agree Somewhat agree A. Process B. Outcome

24 Village 2 (Pang-uandig): Percentage Agreement
Strongly agree Somewhat agree A. Process B. Outcome

25 Village 3 (Tumanding): Percentage Agreement
Strongly agree Somewhat agree A. Process B. Outcome

26 The ADSDPP and the Indigenous Community Development Frameworks
ADSDPP (NCIP Admin Order No. 1, Series of 2004 and in practice) Indigenous CDP process framework Wide geographic scope Local/village-based Unified and centralized –Community Working Group plans on behalf of community and sectors they represent Localized and inclusive, everyone who wants to can attend the planning and are supported Problems/needs-based approach (negative) Asset-building approach (positive) Indigenous worldview implicit Indigenous worldview explicit .

27 “Tsinelas lang ang among kinahanglan pero abi nila sapatos ang among gipangayo-
‘We only wanted slippers (thongs) yet they thought shoes are what we needed.’… Lito Namansila – Manobo Tinananon and former chairman and now BOD member of PALUPA .

28 Acknowledgement Acknowledgement
National Commission on Indigenous Peoples – Region XI PALUPA • NAMADLA • SEBNAKA Research Institute for Environment and Livelihoods - CDU • Aus-AID • Philippine Eagle Foundation • Foundation for Philippine Environment • MATTCI • MITA • OMTCA • FEMMATRICS – Arakan • BUHITA • MILALITTRA • SKT • KLC • MMTRPCDI • KMDO

29 Thanks for your attention! Review of Philippine indigenous plans
What is the nature of contemporary indigenous plans in the Philippines? What are the literature criteria for a good indigenous plan with respect to advancing community empowerment and indigenous knowledge integration? How well do contemporary plans meet the criteria in terms of content?

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