Presentation on theme: "Developing and testing an Indigenous community development planning framework: a case study from Mindanao, Philippines Jayson Ibanez Stephen Garnett Research."— Presentation transcript:
2 Developing and testing an Indigenous community development planning framework: a case study from Mindanao, PhilippinesJayson IbanezStephen GarnettResearch Institute for Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University
3 IntroductionGlobal recognition of IP role in NRM (CBD 1992, UNDRIP 2007)RA No Philippine Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA) recognizes ownership of ancestral domainsTraditional owners must make an Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection Plan (ADSDPP) to:Maintain ecological balanceRestore denuded areasPlatform to exercise bundle of rights(IRR, IPRA. Article 4, Sections 1-3)
4 ADSDPPBy 2011, 156 Certificate of Ancestral Domain Titles awarded95 ADSDPPs completedCriticisms:“ADSDPP process is defective…[and] is being implemented for compliance sake, instead of coming up with meaningful plans that are identified by Indigenous peoples themselves…” (IP resolution 2010)“ a heavy emphasis on investment generation at the expense of the protection of Indigenous peoples’ rights and culturally appropriate processes” (IWGIA 2012, pg. 275)
5 Research Goals Broad aim: Specific objectives: Contribute to a more meaningful Indigenous planning policy and practiceSpecific objectives:Identify desired qualities of an Indigenous planning systemDerive and field-test an Indigenous planning process frameworkCompare the proposed framework with the government planning framework
6 Study Area Indigenous groups: Talaandig Dulangan - Manobo Higaonon PhilippinesDarwinIndigenous groups:TalaandigDulangan - ManoboHigaononBagobo-TagabawaMansakaObu-ManuvuDibabawonMatigsalug-ManoboMandayaMatigsalug
8 Theoretical guides and methods “Constructivist” theoretical perspectiveCritical Social TheoryMixed Methods Approach
9 Ranking & scoring of criteria Literature reviewReview to identify desirable qualities of an Indigenous planning systemprocessresourcesplan contentSLF capitals (human, social, natural, cultural, financial or physical)Focus groupsFocus groups to know desired attributes of an Indigenous planning system:Ranking & scoring of criteriaRanking of literature criteria by Focus Group participants & then scoring ranks
10 Deriving the Indigenous planning framework Focus groups with 10 tribesReview of planning literatureRanking literature criteriaDeriving the Indigenous planning framework
11 Field-testing the framework Community planning: 3 villagesConsents, protocols, co-researcher training, village chief exposure tripsFacilitators: primary researcher, Indigenous co-researchers, 2-3 NGO staff, IPO officersFramework assessment: survey questionnaire & interviewsHow well framework met 13 process and 10 outcomes criteria using Likert-scaleOpen-ended questionsCo-researcher Dante Tumanding facilitating a community time-line workshop
12 Manobo Indigenous co-researcher Jimmy Ubay at the Bagogo Tagabawa workshop in Davao City Manobo chieftain Badang Layuran at the Manobo Kulamanon workshop in Sultan KudaratDanny Catihan and Airene Umbaoy of Pang-uandig: Community Planning Launch by the Obu Manuvu communityManobo Chieftains Layuran and Antayan Baguio at the Mandaya workshop in Davao Oriental
13 RESULTS: Number of focus group participants WomenMen
16 H N S C P/F Eradicate hunger Skills to manage resources Formal education & literacyMaternal & child healthGender concernsNSP/FCClear process ofdecision-makingPolicies against corruptionInstitutions that aid plan actionsActivities that build unityNetwork buildingBiodiversity conservationForest restorationLocal tenure mapIndicator monitoringIndigenous forest guardsInfrastructure supportFarming supportSupport to off-farm livelihoodsEmployment wagesWorldview describedIndigenous issues prioritizedEnhance indigenous cultureIEK describedIEK used in the plan
17 Indigenous Community Development Planning Radical Planning(principles)Equitable • Community-based • Transactive• Innovative • Normative• Social learning approach to knowledge and policy• Re-localization of primary production and infrastructureStrategic Planning (process)Sequence of steps: from general to specific • Focuses on priority outcomes • Environmental scan and self audit to know community strengths & opportunities • Pursues long-term goals and adapts to changing circumstancesIndigenous Community Development PlanningHolistic, inclusive and equitable • Underpinned by Indigenous worldviews and aspirations • Sequence of steps, focused actions • Continuous, reflective, and iterative processIndigenous Planning (principles)Upholds Indigenous worldview • Holistic development viewpoint • Incorporates traditional knowledge and cultural identity • Sustains communal land tenureThe Indigenous Community Planning Model
18 Indigenous community development planning process framework Tools:• Categorizing social & well-being groups• Transect walks• Timeline• VENN• Seasonality• Oral histories• Long-term trends• Semi-structured interviews• Participatory mappingPhotovoiceSWOT AnalysesRanking methodFocus-group discussionsIdentify context, conditions and trendsSet (adjust) desired plan outcomesSet objectives &means to get thereDescribe systemRural livelihood analysesDefine Indigenousworldview4. Identify (adjust) desired outcomes5. Reconcile andprioritize outcomes6. Setting the vision7. Set (adjust) objectives8. Identify strategies9. Plan the actions10. Define indicators& collect baselines11. Assess progress12. Disseminate andget feed-backGroup workshopsBrainstormingCommunity surveys & monitoringFeed-back sessionsMonitoring &Measure successIndigenous community development planning process framework
21 Indigenous Community Development Planning Period VillagePlanning leadPlanning periodsSitio Pang-uandig, Ganatan, Arakan, North CotabatoPang-uandig Lumadnong Panaghiusa (PALUPA)September 20 – October 15, 2011Sitio Enamong, Datu Ladayon, Arakan, North CotabatoNagkahiusang Manobo sa Datu Ladayon (NAMADLA)October 27 – Nov 26, 2011Sitios Kayupaton, Napunangan, Bagtok and Nassot, Tumanding, Arakan, North CotabatoSinaka Eagle Bagtok, Napunangan, Kayupaton Association (SEBNAKA)January 6 – 10, 2012
26 The ADSDPP and the Indigenous Community Development Frameworks ADSDPP (NCIP Admin Order No. 1, Series of 2004 and in practice)Indigenous CDP process frameworkWide geographic scopeLocal/village-basedUnified and centralized –Community Working Group plans on behalf of community and sectors they representLocalized and inclusive, everyone who wants to can attend the planning and are supportedProblems/needs-based approach (negative)Asset-building approach (positive)Indigenous worldview implicitIndigenous worldview explicit.
27 “Tsinelas lang ang among kinahanglan pero abi nila sapatos ang among gipangayo- ‘We only wanted slippers (thongs) yet they thought shoes are what we needed.’…Lito Namansila – Manobo Tinananon and former chairman and now BOD member of PALUPA.
28 Acknowledgement Acknowledgement National Commission on Indigenous Peoples – Region XIPALUPA • NAMADLA • SEBNAKAResearch Institute for Environment and Livelihoods - CDU • Aus-AID • Philippine Eagle Foundation • Foundation for Philippine Environment• MATTCI • MITA • OMTCA • FEMMATRICS – Arakan • BUHITA • MILALITTRA • SKT • KLC • MMTRPCDI • KMDO
29 Thanks for your attention! Review of Philippine indigenous plans What is the nature of contemporary indigenous plans in the Philippines?What are the literature criteria for a good indigenous plan with respect to advancing community empowerment and indigenous knowledge integration?How well do contemporary plans meet the criteria in terms of content?