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Developing and testing an Indigenous community development planning framework: a case study from Mindanao, Philippines Jayson Ibanez Stephen Garnett Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing and testing an Indigenous community development planning framework: a case study from Mindanao, Philippines Jayson Ibanez Stephen Garnett Research."— Presentation transcript:


2 Developing and testing an Indigenous community development planning framework: a case study from Mindanao, Philippines Jayson Ibanez Stephen Garnett Research Institute for Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University

3 Introduction Global recognition of IP role in NRM (CBD 1992, UNDRIP 2007) RA No. 8371- Philippine Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA) recognizes ownership of ancestral domains Traditional owners must make an Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection Plan (ADSDPP) to: Maintain ecological balance Restore denuded areas Platform to exercise bundle of rights (IRR, IPRA. Article 4, Sections 1-3)

4 ADSDPP By 2011, 156 Certificate of Ancestral Domain Titles awarded 95 ADSDPPs completed Criticisms: ADSDPP process is defective…[and] is being implemented for compliance sake, instead of coming up with meaningful plans that are identified by Indigenous peoples themselves… (IP resolution 2010) a heavy emphasis on investment generation at the expense of the protection of Indigenous peoples rights and culturally appropriate processes (IWGIA 2012, pg. 275)

5 Broad aim: Contribute to a more meaningful Indigenous planning policy and practice Specific objectives: Identify desired qualities of an Indigenous planning system Derive and field-test an Indigenous planning process framework Compare the proposed framework with the government planning framework Research Goals

6 Study Area Indigenous groups: TalaandigDulangan - Manobo HigaononBagobo-Tagabawa MansakaObu-Manuvu DibabawonMatigsalug-Manobo MandayaMatigsalug Philippines Darwin

7 Study area

8 Theoretical guides and methods Constructivist theoretical perspective Critical Social Theory Mixed Methods Approach

9 Review to identify desirable qualities of an Indigenous planning system process resources plan content SLF capitals (human, social, natural, cultural, financial or physical) Literature review Focus groups to know desired attributes of an Indigenous planning system: process resources plan content Focus groups Ranking of literature criteria by Focus Group participants & then scoring ranks Ranking & scoring of criteria

10 Deriving the Indigenous planning framework Ranking literature criteria Review of planning literature Focus groups with 10 tribes

11 Community planning: 3 villages Consents, protocols, co-researcher training, village chief exposure trips Facilitators: primary researcher, Indigenous co-researchers, 2-3 NGO staff, IPO officers Framework assessment: survey questionnaire & interviews How well framework met 13 process and 10 outcomes criteria using Likert-scale Open-ended questions Co-researcher Dante Tumanding facilitating a community time- line workshop

12 Danny Catihan and Airene Umbaoy of Pang- uandig: Community Planning Launch by the Obu Manuvu community Manobo chieftain Badang Layuran at the Manobo Kulamanon workshop in Sultan Kudarat Manobo Chieftains Layuran and Antayan Baguio at the Mandaya workshop in Davao Oriental Manobo Indigenous co-researcher Jimmy Ubay at the Bagogo Tagabawa workshop in Davao City

13 RESULTS: Number of focus group participants Women Men

14 Age of participants in workshops

15 Clear vision Clear objectives Clear actions Factual base Performance monitoring RESULTS : Focus groups and ranking

16 H Eradicate hunger Skills to manage resources Formal education & literacy Maternal & child health Gender concerns N S P/F C Clear process of decision-making Policies against corruption Institutions that aid plan actions Activities that build unity Network building Biodiversity conservation Forest restoration Local tenure map Indicator monitoring Indigenous forest guards Infrastructure support Farming support Support to off-farm livelihoods Employment wages Worldview described Indigenous issues prioritized Enhance indigenous culture IEK described IEK used in the plan

17 Radical Planning (principles) Equitable Community- based Transactive Innovative Normative Social learning approach to knowledge and policy Re-localization of primary production and infrastructure Strategic Planning (process) Sequence of steps: from general to specific Focuses on priority outcomes Environmental scan and self audit to know community strengths & opportunities Pursues long-term goals and adapts to changing circumstances Indigenous Community Development Planning Holistic, inclusive and equitable Underpinned by Indigenous worldviews and aspirations Sequence of steps, focused actions Continuous, reflective, and iterative process The Indigenous Community Planning Model Indigenous Planning (principles) Upholds Indigenous worldview Holistic development viewpoint Incorporates traditional knowledge and cultural identity Sustains communal land tenure

18 Tools: Categorizing social & well-being groups Transect walks Timeline VENN Seasonality Oral histories Long-term trends Semi-structured interviews Participatory mapping Tools: Photovoice SWOT Analyses Ranking method Focus-group discussions Identify context, conditions and trends Set (adjust) desired plan outcomes Set objectives & means to get there 1.Describe system 2.Rural livelihood analyses 3.Define Indigenous worldview 4. Identify (adjust) desired outcomes 5. Reconcile and prioritize outcomes 6. Setting the vision 7. Set (adjust) objectives 8. Identify strategies 9. Plan the actions 10. Define indicators & collect baselines 11. Assess progress 12. Disseminate and get feed-back Tools: Group workshops Tools: Brainstorming Community surveys & monitoring Feed-back sessions Monitoring & Measure success Indigenous community development planning process framework



21 Indigenous Community Development Planning Period VillagePlanning leadPlanning periods Sitio Pang-uandig, Ganatan, Arakan, North Cotabato Pang-uandig Lumadnong Panaghiusa (PALUPA) September 20 – October 15, 2011 Sitio Enamong, Datu Ladayon, Arakan, North Cotabato Nagkahiusang Manobo sa Datu Ladayon (NAMADLA) October 27 – Nov 26, 2011 Sitios Kayupaton, Napunangan, Bagtok and Nassot, Tumanding, Arakan, North Cotabato Sinaka Eagle Bagtok, Napunangan, Kayupaton Association (SEBNAKA) January 6 – 10, 2012

22 ENAMONG (n = 47) elementary 92 % PANG-UANDIG (n = 48) high school 17 % none 11 % high school 4 % none 4 % none 13 % high school 12 % college 3 % elementary 72 % TUMANDING (n = 40) Income (Aus $) 23.00 73.00 60.00 F/M ratio2:10.7:10.5/1 Demographics

23 A. ProcessB. Outcome Village 1 (Enamong) : Percentage Agreement Strongly agree Somewhat agree

24 A. ProcessB. Outcome Village 2 (Pang-uandig): Percentage Agreement Strongly agree Somewhat agree

25 A. ProcessB. Outcome Village 3 (Tumanding): Percentage Agreement Strongly agree Somewhat agree

26 The ADSDPP and the Indigenous Community Development Frameworks ADSDPP (NCIP Admin Order No. 1, Series of 2004 and in practice) Indigenous CDP process framework Wide geographic scope Local/village-based Unified and centralized – Community Working Group plans on behalf of community and sectors they represent Localized and inclusive, everyone who wants to can attend the planning and are supported Problems/needs-based approach (negative) Asset-building approach (positive) Indigenous worldview implicit Indigenous worldview explicit

27 Tsinelas lang ang among kinahanglan pero abi nila sapatos ang among gipangayo- We only wanted slippers (thongs) yet they thought shoes are what we needed. … Lito Namansila – Manobo Tinananon and former chairman and now BOD member of PALUPA

28 National Commission on Indigenous Peoples – Region XI PALUPA NAMADLA SEBNAKA Research Institute for Environment and Livelihoods - CDU Aus-AID Philippine Eagle Foundation Foundation for Philippine Environment MATTCI MITA OMTCA FEMMATRICS – Arakan BUHITA MILALITTRA SKT KLC MMTRPCDI KMDO Acknowledgement

29 What is the nature of contemporary indigenous plans in the Philippines? What are the literature criteria for a good indigenous plan with respect to advancing community empowerment and indigenous knowledge integration? How well do contemporary plans meet the criteria in terms of content? Review of Philippine indigenous plans Thanks for your attention!


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