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Instructional Strategies for Teaching Speaking Zolotonosha February 24, 2012 Presented by Carol Haddaway, Sr. English Language Fellow, Ukraine U.S. Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Instructional Strategies for Teaching Speaking Zolotonosha February 24, 2012 Presented by Carol Haddaway, Sr. English Language Fellow, Ukraine U.S. Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Instructional Strategies for Teaching Speaking Zolotonosha February 24, 2012 Presented by Carol Haddaway, Sr. English Language Fellow, Ukraine U.S. Department of State 1

2 Speaking in a second or foreign language has often been viewed as the most demanding of the four skills. (Bailey and Savage in Celce-Murcia, p. 103) 2

3 Because we must do it instantaneously and interactively with another person or people. Fluent speech contains reduced forms (what do you want?) slang (cool), idioms (hit the road running), phrasal verbs (figure out) stress, rhythm, and intonation; During the interaction with another speaker one must monitor and understand the other person, think of ones contribution, produce it, monitoring its effect… (Lazarton, p.103) 3 WHY?

4 Create a relaxed atmosphere Use interesting topics and stimulating activities Expose Ls to naturally pronounced speech and integrate pronunciation into your lesson Get Ls used to combining listening and speaking in real time, in natural interaction. Establish English as the main classroom language (Davies, 2000, p. 82) 4 Implications for Teaching

5 Talking classrooms Create a classroom culture of speaking through the general use of English in the classroom. (Scott Thornbury in Harmer, p. 123) 5

6 Information Gap Learners: motivate, involve, focus create expectations, introduce topic create expectations, introduce topic

7 Oral Skills Class Who are my learners? 7

8 Build on their experience Share their expertise Use realia to keep learning as concrete as possible S1: Have you ever been to Lviv? S2: No I havent. Have you? S1: Yes. Its wonderful S2: How long did you stayed? S1: One week S2: The buildings are beautiful, yes? S1: Yes, and the streets….the chocolates.. S2: Ah, have you ever been to Kyiv? 8 Low Level Learners

9 BICS (Basic interpersonal Communication Skills) Social language – interpersonal interactions Repetitive – functional language (greetings, making requests, giving directions, sharing information). Evidence of mastery: good TL pronunciation, ease of TL social interactions, use of TL expressions Used primarily, though not exclusively in oral language – listening and speaking Takes 2-3 years to master (Jim Cummings, 1970) 9 Non-academic learners

10 CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) Language encountered in academic situations Used primarily thought not exclusively in reading and writing Not repetitive Takes on average 7-9 years to become truly fluent Participate in learning activities such as Class participation Discussions & Presentations Interacting with peers and professors Asking and answering questions Interpersonal communication (Jim Cummings, 1970) 10 Academic Learners

11 Small Groups Teacher, Learners, Atmosphere Error Correction, Activities

12 12 Affective Filter

13 Balance Accuracy and Fluency Is it more important to be able to speak a language with accuracy (grammatically correct) or with fluency (communicatively correct, but not always grammatically correct)? 13

14 Practice typically involves focusing only in the new language structures (e.g. comparisons) Focus on pronunciation, vocabulary, word formation, sentence formation Errors are usually dealt with immediately 14 Accuracy

15 L1: Is the Toyota bigger than the Chevy? L2: Yes, it is. Is the Lexus cheap than…. Teacher: Cheap…? L2: Is the Lexus cheaper than the Chevy? L3: No, it isnt. Is the Lexus faster than the Toyota? L4: Yes, it is. Is prettier the Toyota? Teacher: Is the…….. 15 Accuracy example

16 Likely to take place when speaking activities focus on meaning and its negotiation, when speaking strategies are used, and when overt correction is minimized. ) 10 Fluency

17 Information Gap Think Pair Share Telling Stories

18 18

19 To exchange information Main attention is sharing information Need to communicate to reach objective Learners must fill the gap to complete the activity/communication Information Gap Characteristics

20 Allow for comprehensible input (i+1) Input should be at the right level of difficulty to promote acquisition Learners produce language – this o utput pushes learners to undertake complete grammatical processing (M. Swain) Help lower students affective filter Sleep questionnaire One thing in common Why information gap activities?

21 21 Cooperative Activity Think Pair Share

22 Think-Pair-Share How: Teacher presents a question or problem Students are given think/wait time and write answers (1) Students pair with a partner (2) Pair share with another pair (4) Group share their responses and ideas with another small group or with the entire class. Why: Have time to think, plan, and rehearse, with feedback Can practice before talking to whole group

23 Interaction is the key to improving EFL learners speaking ability. How do you promote this interaction in your classroom? 23 Question/Problem 1

24 What types of speaking activities do you normally use in your classroom? Do they serve different purposes? 24 Question/Problem 2

25 Your students are really shy and dont say anything. How do you arouse in your learners a willingness and need or reason to speak? 25 Question/Problem 3

26 26

27 Your students say they cant talk because theyll make lots of mistakes. What do/can you do to help them overcome this fear? 27 Question/Problem 4

28 What are effective ways to give students feedback on their performance during oral activities? 28 Question/Problem 5

29 Self – Correction Give learners the opportunity to correct themselves, helping as necessary Peer – Correction If learner cannot self-correct, invite other learners to make the correction Teacher Correction Recast, Error or Mistake, Accuracy or Fluency focus 29 Feedback and Error Correction

30 Error Treatment Should errors be treated? What errors should be treated? How should they be treated? Who and When? There is a French widow in every bedroom. The different city is another one in the another two.

31 Story telling Groups of 3 31

32 Learners talk a lot Student (STT) vs teacher (TTT) – wait time Participation is even discussion not dominated by a minority of talkative students Motivation is high learners are eager to speak; interested in topic Language is of an acceptable level utterances are easily comprehensible acceptable level of accuracy UR, 1991, p A successful speaking activity

33 33 (Rivers, 1987 in Richards & Renandyn, p.208) (Rivers, 1987 in Richards & Renandyn, p.208)

34 Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by Principles. Longman Davies, P. and Pearse, E. (2000). Success in English Teaching. Oxford University Press. Farrell, T. (2006). Succeeding with English Language Learners. Corwin Press. Harmer, J. (2007). How to teach English. Pearson Longman. Lazaraton, A. (2001). Teaching Oral Skills. In Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language 3 rd Ed., edited by M. Celce-Mircia. Heinle & Heinle. Richards, J.C. & Renandya, W.A. (2002). Methodology in Language Teaching. Cambridge. Ur, P. (1996).. A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge. 34 References

35 Thank you! 35

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