Presentation on theme: "Instructional Strategies for Teaching Speaking"— Presentation transcript:
1 Instructional Strategies for Teaching Speaking ZolotonoshaFebruary 24, 2012Presented by Carol Haddaway, Sr. English Language Fellow, UkraineU.S. Department of State
2 “Speaking in a second or foreign language has often been viewed as the most demanding of the four skills.”(Bailey and Savage in Celce-Murcia, p. 103)Why? Because we must do it instantaneously and interactively with another person or people. Fluent speech contains reduced forms; slang and idioms (without sounds bookish); stress, rhythm and intonation; interaction with another speaker (thinking of one’s contribution, producing, monitoring its effect…(Lazarton, p.103)
3 WHY?Because we must do it instantaneously and interactively with another person or people.Fluent speech contains reduced forms (what do you want?)slang (cool), idioms (hit the road running), phrasal verbs (figure out)stress, rhythm, and intonation;During the interaction with another speaker one must monitor and understand the other person, think of one’s contribution, produce it, monitoring its effect…(Lazarton, p.103)Reduced forms: What do you want?
4 Implications for Teaching Create a relaxed atmosphereUse interesting topics and stimulating activitiesExpose Ls to naturally pronounced speech and integrate pronunciation into your lessonGet Ls used to combining listening and speaking in real time, in natural interaction.Establish English as the main classroom language(Davies , 2000, p. 82)Where/how is the most important opportunity for this to happen? --- general use of English in the classRelaxed atmosphere – pairs and groupsGeneral use of English in the classroom
5 “Talking classrooms” Create a classroom culture of speaking through the general use of English in the classroom.(Scott Thornbury in Harmer, p. 123)
6 Warm-up Find Someone Who Learners: motivate, involve, focuscreate expectations, introduce topicStart with warm up activityReasons for warm up: create expectations about topic, intrigue learners in topic, get learners communicating about the topic
8 Low Level Learners Build on their experience Share their expertise Use realia to keep learning as concrete as possibleS1: Have you ever been to Lviv?S2: No I haven’t . Have you?S1: Yes. It’s wonderfulS2: How long did you stayed?S1: One weekS2: The buildings are beautiful, yes?S1: Yes, and the streets….the chocolates..S2: Ah, have you ever been to Kyiv?Interactional exchange in which they are required to make only one or two utterances at a time (Shumin, p. 208)
9 Non-academic learners BICS (Basic interpersonal Communication Skills)Social language – interpersonal interactionsRepetitive – functional language (greetings, making requests, giving directions, sharing information).Evidence of mastery: good TL pronunciation, ease of TL social interactions, use of TL expressionsUsed primarily, though not exclusively in oral language – listening and speakingTakes 2-3 years to master(Jim Cummings, 1970)BICS – Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills. Social language used in interpersonal-social interactions. Mainly L & S. Highly repetitive in nature, including such functions as greetings, sharing, caring and relating. Takes 2-3 years to master.Evidence of mastery of BICS is good TL pronunciation, ease of TL social interaction and use of current TL expressions.CALPS – Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency. Language encountered in academic situation. Mainly R & W. Not repetitive, but evolves in complexity and nature as the learner’s academic settings become more advanced and more varied. Cummings and others have hypothesized that to become truly fluent in CALPS takes on average 7-9 years.
10 Academic Learners CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) Language encountered in academic situationsUsed primarily thought not exclusively in reading and writingNot repetitiveTakes on average 7-9 years to become truly fluentParticipate in learning activities such asClass participationDiscussions & PresentationsInteracting with peers and professorsAsking and answering questionsInterpersonal communication(Jim Cummings, 1970)
11 What makes an effective speaking class? Teacher, Learners, AtmosphereError Correction, ActivitiesHandout – TPS
12 Affective Filteras motives, needs, attitudes, and emotional states. A learner who is tense, angry, anxious, or board may ‘filter out’ input, making it unavailable for acquisition.The filter is ‘up’ (blocking input) when the learner is stressed, self-conscious, or unmotivated.The filter is ‘down” (letting the input in) when the learner is relaxed and motivated.All major methodologies aspire to the same result: a student who can read, write, speak, understand, translate, and recognize applications of the grammar of a foreign language.It is not WHAT activities are used so much as WHEN and HOW they are used that distinguishes methods from one another. (Omaggio p. 92)
13 Balance Accuracy and Fluency Is it more important to be able to speak a language with accuracy (grammatically correct) or with fluency (communicatively correct, but not always grammatically correct)?
14 AccuracyPractice typically involves focusing only in the new language structures (e.g. comparisons)Focus on pronunciation, vocabulary, word formation, sentence formationErrors are usually dealt with immediatelyA balance between accuracy and fluency.
15 Accuracy example L1: Is the Toyota bigger than the Chevy? L2: Yes, it is. Is the Lexus cheap than….Teacher: Cheap…?L2: Is the Lexus cheaper than the Chevy?L3: No, it isn’t. Is the Lexus faster than the Toyota?L4: Yes, it is. Is prettier the Toyota?Teacher: Is the……..
16 FluencyLikely to take place when speaking activities focus on meaning and its negotiation, when speaking strategies are used, and when overt correction is minimized.)Holistic sense of fluency is what Hedge calls ‘natural language use’Fluency practice should be more on the information they are communicating than on the language
17 Information Gap Think Pair Share Telling Stories Speaking ActivitiesInformation GapThink Pair ShareTelling Stories
19 Information Gap Characteristics To exchange informationMain attention is sharing informationNeed to communicate to reach objectiveLearners must ‘fill the gap’ to complete the activity/communication
20 Why information gap activities? Allow for comprehensible input (i+1)Input should be at the right level of difficulty to promote acquisitionLearners produce language – this output ‘pushes’ learners to undertake complete grammatical processing (M. Swain)Help lower students’ affective filterAccording to S. Krashen, comprehensible input or I+1 is input just beyond the learner’s current L2 competenceUtterances/input should be at the right level of difficulty to promote acquisition
22 Think-Pair-Share How: Teacher presents a question or problem Students are given “think/wait time” and write answers (1)Students pair with a partner (2)Pair share with another pair (4)Group share their responses and ideas with another small group or with the entire class.Why:Have time to think, plan, and rehearse, with feedbackCan practice before talking to whole group
23 Question/Problem 1Interaction is the key to improving EFL learners’ speaking ability. How do you promote this interaction in your classroom?
24 Question/Problem 2What types of speaking activities do you normally use in your classroom? Do they serve different purposes?
25 Question/Problem 3Your students are really shy and don’t say anything. How do you arouse in your learners a willingness and need or reason to speak?
27 Question/Problem 4Your students say they can’t talk because they’ll make lots of mistakes. What do/can you do to help them overcome this fear?
28 Question/Problem 5What are effective ways to give students feedback on their performance during oral activities?
29 Feedback and Error Correction Self – CorrectionGive learners the opportunity to correct themselves, helping as necessaryPeer – CorrectionIf learner cannot self-correct, invite other learners to make the correctionTeacher CorrectionRecast, Error or Mistake, Accuracy or Fluency focus
30 Error TreatmentShould errors be treated? What errors should be treated?How should they be treated?Who and When?“There is a French widow in every bedroom.”“The different city is another one in the another two.”
32 A successful speaking activity Learners talk a lotStudent (STT) vs teacher (TTT) – wait timeParticipation is evendiscussion not dominated by a minority of talkative studentsMotivation is highlearners are eager to speak; interested in topicLanguage is of an acceptable levelutterances are easily comprehensibleacceptable level of accuracyUR, 1991, p. 120
33 “Communication derives essentially from interaction” (Rivers, 1987 in Richards & Renandyn, p.208)Therefore, language instructors should provide learners with opportunities for meaningful communication about relevant topics by using learner-learner interaction as the key to teaching language for communication (R&R, p. 208.
34 References Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by Principles. Longman Davies, P. and Pearse, E. (2000). Success in English Teaching. Oxford University Press.Farrell, T. (2006). Succeeding with English Language Learners. Corwin Press.Harmer, J. (2007). How to teach English. Pearson Longman.Lazaraton, A. (2001). Teaching Oral Skills. In Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language 3rd Ed., edited by M. Celce-Mircia. Heinle & Heinle.Richards, J.C. & Renandya, W.A. (2002). Methodology in Language Teaching. Cambridge.Ur, P. (1996).. A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge.