Presentation on theme: "A Hands-On Approach to Qualitative Methods and Analysis"— Presentation transcript:
1A Hands-On Approach to Qualitative Methods and Analysis CBR 302A Hands-On Approach to Qualitative Methods and Analysis
2Introduction We’re all part of solution No one way Use dialogue About making the world a better place via Community Based Research (CBR) :We’re all part of solutionNo one wayUse dialogueDeep learning to get at root of problem (Aha)
3Learning ObjectivesUpon completion of this workshop, you will be able to:Describe qualitative research conceptsExplain some of the important terms associated with qualitative researchList misconceptions and limitations of ‘qualitative’ methodsFollow the steps to develop a research projectDifferentiate between Methods, Methodology and ResearchDevelop strategies and skill for gathering and managing 'good' data (e.g. recording, transcribing, note-taking, qualitative software, etc)Participate in the analysis of data and develop strategies for coding dataLearn effective approaches for presenting qualitative data
4Qualitative Research: Prevalent Concepts “seek … how social experience is created and given meaning” (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000, p. 8)Produce findings without statistical procedures or quantificationAccept different ways of making sense of the worldSeek participant interpretationEmphasize participant more than researcher view
5Qualitative Research: Prevalent Concepts Researcher primary instrumentFocus on subjective (or lived) experienceObtain descriptive, rich, in-depth accountsAllow ‘from the ground up’ theory buildingCan use open, exploratory, ‘unstructured’ means
6One Definition of Qualitative Research Understanding actions & meanings in their social context (or ‘natural settings’)Focus on subjective (or lived) experienceDescriptive, rich, in-depthAllows for ‘from the ground up’ theory buildingOpen ended, exploratory, ‘unstructured’
7What is Qualitative Data? Data in the form of wordsLanguage in the form of texts such as : interviews, questionnaire responses & long textObservation of settings & events (researcher’s notes)Personal document such as letter, diaries, etc
8Aspects of QR Methods Increases understanding of context, content Increases understanding of what is affected & howAnalyzes why particular impacts are occurringAssesses how policy can be improved
9Qualitative Research: Common Misconceptions Easier than quantitative researchNot methodologically rigorousDoesn’t reveal anything about ‘populations’Data more manageableOnly experts can do itOnly a first step (for survey development)
10Limitations of Qualitative Methods Can be difficult to focus (holistic)Researcher may have difficulty reconciling differences in the data & assessing how representative they areCannot make predictionsCannot be objective since objectivity rejected on principleCannot be replicated
11Qualitative Research Stages State Research Purpose and ProblemDesign Research Project - MethodConduct Research ProjectData Collection & AnalysisDisseminate Results
12Exercise 1:Define Qualitative Research in your own words & discuss its application in the context of your work?
13Methods, Methodology & Research Method: The practice of researchThe specific techniques that are employed in collecting, analyzing and disseminating the researchMethodology: The experience of researchThe situations, contexts and social factors that informs the researcher’s and participants’ involvement in the project
14Method Observation Interview Focus Group Case study A set of procedures and techniques for gathering and analyzing data (Strauss & Corbin, 1998, p. 3)Observation- Participant- NonparticipantInterviewFocus GroupCase studyShort-answer QuestionnaireLife history, Narrative,Document analysis
15Methods, Methodology & Research Methodology – Process issues that can significantly impact on the quality and validity of the research dataRelationships to the communityPower and researchNature of the questionsRole of prior knowledge in developing the project and analyzing the data
16Research Design and Methods … there is no one design or method appropriate for allInstead, each partnership has to decide what worksbest for its research question and intervention goal in its particular community context. P. 70Reference: Minkler & Wallerstein, 2003
17DataRich DescriptionCaptures sufficient data (e.g., quotations) so reader can follow process, results, themes, conclusionsCaptures sufficient detail to capture themes or patterns to summarize essence of data
18Method Exercise 1: Continued Working with your table mates please discuss:What factors should you consider when making the decision about which method to use to collect the data?Be prepared to discuss your recommendations with the class.
19Stages of ResearchIdentifying the Research Project – Collaborative Venture with community partnersClearly identify the focus and objectives of the research projectDesigning the Research Project – MethodConducting the Research ProjectData Collection & AnalysisDissemination of the Data
20Develop Interview Guide Using Standard Open–Ended Questions Sub-questions should help answer main research questionAsk only what you need to knowAsk easier questions firstDo not ask more than one question within a sentenceSeeking more than a yes or no answerUse exploratory words e.g., “describe,” “tell me”, “how,” “where,” ‘imagine,” “think back”
21Develop Interview Guide Using Standard Open–Ended Questions Create dialogue, encouraging participant to talkAsk factual before controversial onesAsk demographical questions as requiredLast question for additional comments, interview impressionsNo leading questions
22Develop Interview Guide Unstructured Open-Ended InterviewAsk one question and allow questions to emergeGood for initial explorations of topic when not much known
23Develop Interview Guide Closed fixed questionsParticipants choose from possible answersUseful for non-practiced interviewers
24Be prepared to present your group’s results to the class Group Exercise 2:Using the scenarios that you have been given, please identify the following:A specific focus of the research projectTwo primary goals of the research projectThe method that you would use to conduct the researchFour research / interview questionsBe prepared to present your group’s results to the class
25Considerations for Sampling Exclusion:Decide if, why, how will exclude certain members who want to be in the studyCollaboration:Decide norms, decision process, how to make change, procedures to encourage follow principles (e.g., member checks; data collection/analysis personnel)
26Data AnalysisThe process through which data are organized so that comparisons can be made and conclusions drawn
27Analyzing the DataManifest Content – the actual ideas that are present and observable in the dataLatent Content – the ideas and themes that emerge as you analyze and interpret the data
28Data Analysis: Levels of Exploration (Described from Interview)EventsReference: Hagland, (1997), see also Argyris, C. & SchÖn (1974)
29Group Exercise: Data Collection Using a copy of the newspaper provided, please conduct a research analysis of the document and explore the following:What messages does the media provide you about issues of gender?In what way are those messages evidenced?What are the potential benefits and drawbacks of providing those messages?Record your findings and make notes of your observations and responses – verbal, non-verbal and emotional.
30Data AnalysisCodinga word or short phrase that serves to organize or categorize your data (community; equitable coverage; stereotyping)Themesclusters or patterns of codes that thematically ‘hang together’ (positive portrayal of women; equitable portrayal;)
31CodingCoding means going through your data systematically (i.e., read each transcript carefully)Decide ahead of time how you are going to approach analyzing the dataYou get to make up the names for the codesRemember – not everything is importantChoose what is important to study by going back to your goals & objectives.
32CategoriesCodes are grouped to see where patterns occur (observations over time causing event)From your exercise, examine both sets of data to see if there are any codes that could be grouped together to form a categoryTip: look at definitions of codes as well E.g., some codes might be all about “process”Try to see if any other categories could be formed
33Themes or StructureAfter categories are formed ……….. look for themes or structure (reasons why you might be getting the particular pattern or trend)
34Exercise 3: Data Analysis Using the data you have collected, try to develop a simple ‘coding scheme’ of main ideas (maximum 10 codes)Pick 1 code to apply: Look for all the times that this idea is mentioned in your data.Analyze your code: What are the range of experiences here? What patterns/themes do you see here? What does this mean?
35Discussion Questions What are the themes that emerged? What are the factors that determined the choice of the particular themes?How did your prior knowledge about the issue impact on the themes that you identified?How would that knowledge impact on the analysis of the data?
36Collaborative Data Analysis Seeing the world through different eyes –Staff, clients & researchers all come with different perspectivesThe more people you involve in developing your coding scheme – the better.Different eyes lends credibility to data analysis
37Collaborative Data Analysis Members of the team can examine specific parts of the dataE.g., stratified data: executive interviews by some members; low-income interviews coded by other team membersSome members may code only for a certain period of time due to their availabilityCode because of knowledge and expertise of certain memberCode because of lack of knowledge and expertise of certain members
38Advocacy Look for those persistent patterns that block social change Once you identify the patterns, you can start to do something about them
39Analysis QR and CBR seeks “authenticity” or ‘truthfulness” Because of research rigor, results are credible, demonstrates authenticity, truthfulness, provides voiceReference: Lincoln & Guba, 2000
40Strategies for Optimizing Validity Triangulation: - the process of using a variety of data sources and approaches to understanding a problem.Thick description: Rich, thick descriptions of the participants allow readers to assess ‘transferability’ to other research settings and context.Member checks: Asking participants to reflect on preliminary analyses and read rough drafts of chapters/reports to ensure accuracy. These “checks” can take place individually or in a group setting.Clear audit trail: Keeping a complete and accurate record of the steps taken to come to the conclusions. This includes keeping organized notes, a clear and consistent coding scheme and a ‘transparent’ data analysis process in a reflective journal.
41Remember...software manages ...YOU DO ANALYSIS! What about Software?PROs:manages large amounts of data, gives an ‘air’ of legitimacy, makes organization and retrieval easy, provides structure especially for teams not co-locatedHelps easily look at various slices of the dataHelps track decisions over timeCONssteep learning curve (may not be worth it), too much structure, expenseRemember...software manages ...YOU DO ANALYSIS!
43Dissemination Approaches for presenting qualitative data effectively Predefine who your audience will beHow do they receive their communications now?What will help them hear the message?Write in a language that is easily understoodCan depict environment in which research took place
44Critical Questions to Examine Who owns the data?What commitment have you made to share the findings/results with the community?How do you ensure that the results are accessible to the community?What role will the community play in dissemination, and any resulting action outcomes?
45Presenting Your DataDescribe your methods – tell your audience exactly what it is that you did to come up with your results.Be descriptive & analytical (so conclusions are accepted)Use lots of quotes (as evidence, let people see them)Consider tables, charts, figures, models & diagramsContextualize – where does this data come from, who does it apply to (particularity, applicability)...Speak with confidence about your data
46Final Phase What are the future indications of your research? Are there other areas that have been highlighted for future research?Are there any other steps to be taken?
47Workshop Reflections Any surprises? What are the most important learnings/messages that you will take away from today?Is there anything that you will plan to do differently?
48Learning ObjectivesHaving completed this workshop you should now be able to:Describe qualitative research conceptsExplain some of the important terms associated with qualitative researchList misconceptions and limitations of ‘qualitative’ methodsFollow the steps to develop a research projectDifferentiate between Methods, Methodology and ResearchDevelop strategies and skill for gathering and managing 'good' data (e.g. recording, transcribing, note-taking, qualitative software, etc)Participate in the analysis of data and develop strategies for coding dataLearn effective approaches for presenting qualitative data
49A Hands-On Approach to Qualitative Methods and Analysis CBR 302A Hands-On Approach to Qualitative Methods and Analysis