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Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby Chapter 9 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Kent L. McCorkle Cosumnes River College Sacramento,

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1 Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby Chapter 9 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Kent L. McCorkle Cosumnes River College Sacramento, CA

2 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 9 9.1General Properties of Aqueous Solutions Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes Strong Electrolytes and Weak Electrolytes 9.2Precipitation Reactions Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds in Water Molecular Equations Ionic Equations Net Ionic Equations 9.3Acid-Base Reactions Strong Acids and Bases Brønsted Acids and Bases Acid-Base Neutralization 9.4Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation Numbers Oxidation of Metals in Aqueous Solutions Balancing Simple Redox Equations Other Types of Redox Reactions

3 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 9 9.5Concentration of Solutions Molarity Dilution Serial Dilution Solution Stoichiometry 9.6Aqueous Reactions and Chemical Analysis Gravimetric Analysis Acid-Base Titrations

4 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions A solution is a homogenous mixture of two or more substances. The substance present in the largest amount (moles) is referred to as the solvent. The other substances present are called the solutes. A substance that dissolves in a particular solvent is said to be soluble in that solvent. 9.1

5 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes An electrolyte is a substance that dissolves in water to yield a solution that conducts electricity. An electrolyte undergoes dissociation and breaks apart into its constituent ions. NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl – (aq) H2OH2O

6 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes A nonelectrolyte is a substance that dissolves in water to yield a solution that does not conduct electricity. The sucrose molecules remain intact upon dissolving. C 12 H 22 O 11 (s) C 12 H 22 O 11 (aq) H2OH2O

7 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes An electrolyte that dissociates completely is known as a strong electrolyte. Water soluble ionic compounds Strong Acids Strong Bases HCl(g) H + (aq) + Cl – (aq) H2OH2O NaOH(s)Na + (aq) + OH – (aq) H2OH2O NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl – (aq) H2OH2O

8 Aqueous Solutions

9 Strong Electrolytes and Weak Electrolytes A weak electrolyte is a compound that produces ions upon dissolving but exists in solution predominantly as molecules that are not ionized. Weak Acids Weak Bases HC 2 H 3 O 2 (l) H + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) – NH 4 (aq) + OH – (aq) NH 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) +

10 Strong Electrolytes and Weak Electrolytes The double arrow,, denotes a reaction that occurs in both directions. When both the forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate, the reaction is in a state of dynamic chemical equilibrium.

11 Worked Example 9.1 Strategy Identify each compound as ionic or molecular; identify each molecular compound as acid, base, or neither; and identify each acid as strong or weak. Sucrose and fructose contain no cations and are therefore molecular compounds– neither is an acid or a base. Sodium citrate and potassium citrate contain metal cations and are therefore ionic comopunds. Ascorbic acid is an acid that does not appear on the list of strong acids in Table 9.1, so ascorbic acid is a weak acid. Sports drinks typically contain sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), fructose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), sodium citrate (Na 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 ), potassium citrate (K 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 ), and ascorbic acid (H 2 C 6 H 6 O 6 ), among other ingredients. Classify each of these ingredients as a nonelectrolyte, a weak electrolyte, or a strong electrolyte. Solution Sucrose and fructose are nonelectrolytes. Sodium citrate and potassium citrate are strong electrolytes. Ascorbic acid is a weak electrolyte. Think About It Remember that any soluble ionic compound is a strong electrolyte, whereas most molecular compounds are nonelectrolytes or weak electrolytes. The only molecular compounds that are strong electrolytes are the strong acids listed in Table 9.1.

12 Precipitation Reactions An insoluble product that separates from a solution is called a precipitate. 2NaI(aq) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) PbI 2 (s) + 2NaNO 3 (aq) 9.2

13 Precipitation Reactions A chemical reaction in which a precipitate forms is called a precipitation reaction.

14 Precipitation Reactions Water is a good solvent for ionic compounds because it is a polar molecule. The polarity of water results from electron distributions within the molecule. The oxygen atom has an attraction for the hydrogen atoms electrons and is therefore partially negative compared to hydrogen. – The oxygen atom is partially negative The hydrogen atoms are partially positive

15 Precipitation Reactions Hydration occurs when water molecules remove the individual ions from an ionic solid surrounding them so the substances dissolves.

16 Precipitation Reactions Solubility is defined as the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temperature.

17 Worked Example 9.2 Strategy Use the guidelines in Tables 9.2 and 9.3 to determine whether or not each compound is expected to be water soluble. Classify each of the following compounds as soluble or insoluble in water: (a) AgNO 3, (b) CaSO 4, (c) K 2 CO 3. Solution (a) Soluble, (b) Insoluble, (c) Soluble. Think About It Check the ions in each compound against the information in Tables 9.2 and 9.3 to confirm that you have drawn the right conclusion.

18 Precipitation Reactions In a molecular equation compounds are represented by chemical formulas as though they exist in solution as molecules or formula units. Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + Ba(OH) 2 (aq) 2NaOH(aq) + BaSO 4 (s)

19 Precipitation Reactions In the reaction between aqueous Na 2 SO 4 and Ba(OH) 2 the aqueous species are represented as follows: In an ionic equation compounds that exist completely or predominately as ions in solution are represented as those ions. Na 2 SO 4 (aq) 2Na + (aq) + SO 4 (aq) 2– Ba(OH) 2 (aq) Ba 2+ (aq) + 2OH – (aq) NaOH(aq) Na + (aq) + OH – (aq) 2Na + (aq) + SO 4 (aq) + Ba 2+ (aq) + 2OH – (aq) 2Na + (aq) + 2OH – (aq) + BaSO 4 (s) 2– Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + Ba(OH) 2 (aq) 2NaOH(aq) + BaSO 4 (s)

20 Precipitation Reactions An equation that includes only the species that are actually involved in the reaction is called a net ionic equation. Ions that appear on both sides of the equation are called spectator ions. Spectator ions do not participate in the reaction. 2Na + (aq) + SO 4 (aq) + Ba 2+ (aq) +2OH – (aq) 2Na + (aq) + 2OH – (aq) + BaSO 4 (s) 2– Ba 2+ (aq) + SO 4 (aq)BaSO 4 (s) 2–

21 Precipitation Reactions To determine the molecular, ionic and net ionic equations: 1)Write and balance the molecular equation, predicting the products by assuming that the cations trade anions. 1)Write the ionic equation by separating strong electrolytes into their constituent ions. 1)Write the net ionic equation by identifying and canceling spectator ions on both sides of the equation. 1)If both the reactants and products are all strong electrolytes, all the ions in solution are spectator ions. In this case, there is no net ionic equation and no reaction takes place.

22 Worked Example 9.3 Strategy Predict the products by exchanging ions and balance the equation. Determine which product will precipitate based on the solubility guidelines in Tables 9.2 and 9.3. Rewrite the equation showing strong electrolytes as ions. Identify and cancel spectator ions. Write the molecular, ionic, and net ionic equations fro the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of lead acetate [Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 ], and calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), are combined. Solution Molecular equation: Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 (aq)+ CaCl 2 (aq) PbCl 2 (s) + Ca(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 (aq) Ionic equation: Pb 2+ (aq) + 2C 2 H 3 O 2 - (aq) + Ca 2+ (aq) + 2Cl - (aq) PbCl 2 (s) + Ca 2+ (aq) + 2C 2 H 3 O 2 - (aq) Net ionic equation: Pb 2+ (aq) + 2Cl - (aq) PbCl 2 (s) Think About It Remember that the charges on ions in a compound must sum to zero. Make sure that you have written correct formulas for the products and that each of the equations you have written is balanced. If you find that you are having trouble balancing an equation, check to make sure you have correct formulas for the products.

23 Acid-Base Reactions Acids can be either strong or weak. A strong acid is a strong electrolyte. 9.3

24 Acid-Base Reactions A weak acid is a weak electrolyte; it does not dissociate completely. Acetic acid, HC 2 H 3 O 2, is an example. Most acids are weak acids. HC 2 H 3 O 2 (l)H + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) – acidic proton

25 Acid-Base Reactions Strong bases are strong electrolytes (dissociate completely). Strong bases are the hydroxides of Group 1A and heavy Group 2A. Sodium hydroxide, NaOH, is an example. NaOH(s)Na + (aq) + OH – (aq) H2OH2O

26 Acid-Base Reactions An Arrhenius acid is one that ionizes in water to produce H + ions. An Arrhenius base is one that dissociates in water to produce OH – ions. HCl(g) H + (aq) + Cl – (aq) H2OH2O NaOH(s)Na + (aq) + OH – (aq) H2OH2O

27 Acid-Base Reactions A Brønsted acid is a proton donor. A Brønsted base is a proton acceptor. In these definitions, a proton refers to a hydrogen atom that has lost its electronalso known as a hydrogen ion (H + ). H 2 O is a Brønsted acid: donates a proton to become OH – NH 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) NH 4 (aq) + OH – (aq) + NH 3 is a Brønsted base: accepts a proton to become NH 4 +

28 Acid-Base Reactions Brønsted acids donate protons to water to form the hydronium ion (H 3 O + ). hydrogen ion (H + ) proton hydronium ion (H 3 O + ) All refer to the same aqueous species

29 Acid-Base Reactions A monoprotic acid has one proton to donate. Hydrochloric acid is an example: HCl(g)H + (aq) + Cl – (aq) one equivalent of solvated hydrogen ion

30 Acid-Base Reactions A polyprotic acid has more than one acidic hydrogen atom. Sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4, is an example of a diprotic acid; there are two acidic hydrogen atoms. Polyprotic acids lose protons in a stepwise fashion: H 2 SO 4 (aq) H + (aq) + HSO 4 (aq) – – HSO 4 (aq) H + (aq) + SO 4 (aq) 2– Step 1: Step 2: In H 2 SO 4, the second ionization occurs only to a very small extent. In H 2 SO 4, the first ionization is strong.

31 Acid-Base Reactions Bases that produce only one mole of hydroxide per mole of compound are called monobasic. Sodium hydroxide is an example: NaOH(s)Na + (aq) + OH – (aq) H2OH2O one equivalent of hydroxide

32 Acid-Base Reactions Some strong bases produce more than one hydroxide per mole of compound. Barium hydroxide is an example of a dibasic base. Ba(OH) 2 (s)Ba 2+ (aq) + 2OH – (aq) H2OH2O two equivalents of hydroxide

33 Acid-Base Neutralization A neutralization reaction is a reaction between an acid and a base. Generally, a neutralization reaction produces water and a salt. HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) H 2 O(l) + NaCl(aq) The net ionic equation of many acid-base reactions is: H + (aq) + OH – (aq)H 2 O(l) acid basewater salt

34 Worked Example 9.4 Milk of magnesia, an over-the-counter laxative, is a mixture of magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH) 2 ] and water. Because Mg(OH) 2 is insoluble in water (see Table 9.3), milk of magnesia is a suspension rather than a solution. The undissolved solid is responsible for the milky appearance of the product. When acid such as HCl is added to milk of magnesia, the suspended Mg(OH) 2 dissolves, and the result is a clear, colorless solution. Write balanced molecular, ionic, and net ionic equations for this reaction.

35 Worked Example 9.4 (cont.) Strategy Determine the products of the reaction; then write and balance the equation. Remember that one of the reactants, Mg(OH) 2, is a solid. Identify any strong electrolytes and rewrite the equation showing strong electrolytes as ions. Identify and cancel the spectator ions. Solution Mg(OH) 2 (s) + 2HCl(aq) 2H 2 O(l) + MgCl 2 (aq) Of the species in the molecular equation, only HCl and MgCl 2 are strong electrolytes. Therefore, the ionic equation is Mg(OH) 2 (s) + 2H + (aq) + 2Cl - (aq) 2H 2 O(l) + Mg 2+ (aq) + 2Cl - (aq) Cl - is the only spectator ion. The net ionic equation is Mg(OH) 2 (s) + 2H + (aq) 2H 2 O(l) + Mg 2+ (aq) Think About It Make sure your equation is balanced and that you only show strong electrolytes as ions. Mg(OH) 2 is not shown as aqueous ions because it is insoluble.

36 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions An oxidation-reduction (or redox) reaction is a chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred from one reactant to another. Oxidation is the loss of electrons. Reduction is the gain of electrons. Zn(s) + Cu 2+ (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu(s) Zn metal loses 2 electrons and is oxidized to Zn 2+ Zn 2+ is called the reducing agent Cu 2+ gains 2 electrons and is reduced to Cu metal Cu is called the oxidizing agent 9.4

37 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Zn(s) + Cu 2+ (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu(s)

38 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions A redox reaction is the sum of an oxidation half-reaction and a reduction half-reaction. Oxidation half-reaction: Zn(s)Zn 2+ (aq) + 2e – Cu 2+ (aq) + 2e – Cu(s) Cu 2+ (aq) + Zn(s)Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu(s) Reduction half-reaction: Overall redox reaction: Zn(s) + Cu 2+ (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu(s) Oxidation (lose 2e – ) Reduction (gain 2e – )

39 Oxidation Numbers The oxidation number is the charge an atom would have if electrons were transferred completely. The oxidation number is sometimes called the oxidation state. H 2 (g) + F 2 (g) 2HF(g) +1– –1 Oxidation number: Total contribution to charge: N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) –3– –3–3+3 Oxidation number: Total contribution to charge:

40 Oxidation Numbers To assign oxidation numbers: 1)The oxidation number of an element, in its elemental form, is zero. 1)The oxidation numbers in any chemical species must sum to the overall charge on the species. must sum to zero for any molecule must sum to the charge on any polyatomic ion the oxidation number of a monoatomic ion is equal to the charge on the ion

41 Oxidation Numbers To assign oxidation numbers: 1)Know the elements that nearly always have the same oxidation number.

42 Oxidation Numbers Assign the oxidation numbers to the elements in the compound KMnO 4. Step 1:Start with the oxidation numbers you know: Step 2:The numbers in the boxes (total contribution to charge) must sum to zero (KMnO 4 is a neutral compound). K Mn O 4 +1 Oxidation number: Total contribution to charge: +7 –2 –8

43 Oxidation Numbers Assign the oxidation numbers to the elements in the compound H 2 SO 4. Step 1:Start with the oxidation numbers you know: Step 2:The numbers in the boxes (total contribution to charge) must sum to zero (the chemical species is neutral). H 2 S O Oxidation number: Total contribution to charge: +6 –2 –8

44 Oxidation Numbers Assign the oxidation numbers to the elements in the ion ClO 3. Step 1:Start with the oxidation numbers you know: Step 2:The numbers in the boxes (total contribution to charge) must sum to negative one (the chemical species is a –1 anion). Cl O 3 +5 Oxidation number: Total contribution to charge: –2 –6–6 – –

45 Worked Example 9.5 Strategy For each compound, assign an oxidation number first to the element that appears higher in Table 9.5. Then use rule 2 to determine the oxidation number of the other element. Determine the oxidation number of each atom in the following compounds and ion: (a) SO 2, (b) NaH, (c) CO 3 2-, (d) N 2 O 5. Solution (a) O appears in Table 9.5 but S does not, so we assign oxidation number -2 to O. Because there are two O atoms in the molecule, the total contribution to charge by O is 2(-2) = -4. The lone S atom must therefore contribute +4 to the overall charge. SO

46 Worked Example 9.5 (cont.) Solution (b) Both Na and H appear in Table 9.5, but Na appears higher in the table, so we assign the oxidation number +1 to Na. This means that H must contribute -1 to the overall charge. NaH (c) We assign the oxidation number -2 to O. Because there are three O atoms in the carbonate ion, the total contribution to charge by O is -6. To have the contributions to charge sum to the charge on the ion (-2), the C atom must contribute CO 3 2-

47 Worked Example 9.5 (cont.) Solution (d) We assign the oxidation number -2 to O. Because there are five O atoms in the N 2 O 5 molecule, the total contribution to charge by O is -10. To have the contributions to charge sum to zero, the contribution by N must be +10, and because there are two N atoms, each one must contribute +5. Therefore, the oxidation number of N is +5. N2O5N2O Think About It Use the circle and square system to verify that the oxidation numbers you have assigned do indeed sum to the overall charge on each species.

48 Oxidation of Metals in Aqueous Solutions In a displacement reaction, an atom or an ion in a compound is replaced by an atom of another element. Zn(s) + CuCl 2 (aq) ZnCl 2 (aq) + Cu(s) Zinc displaces, or replaces copper in the dissolved salt. Zn is oxidized to Zn 2+. Cu 2+ is reduced to Cu. When a metal is oxidized by an aqueous solution, it becomes an aqueous ion. 0+2–1 +2– –2+2–2 0

49 Oxidation of Metals in Aqueous Solutions The activity series is a list of metals (and hydrogen) arranged from top to bottom in order of decreasing ease of oxidation. Cu(s) + ZnCl 2 (aq) no reaction ElementOxidation Half-Reaction ZincZn Zn e – IronFe Fe e – NickelNi Ni e – HydrogenH 2 2H + + 2e – CopperCu Cu e – SilverAg Ag + + e – GoldAu Au e – Zn(s) + CuCl 2 (aq) ZnCl 2 (aq) + Cu(s) Metals listed at the top are called active metals. Metals listed at the bottom are called noble metals. An element in the series will be oxidized by the ions of any element that appears below it in the table. Activity Series (partial)

50 Oxidation of Metals in Aqueous Solutions Which of the following reactions will occur? Solution: ?Co(s) + BaI 2 (aq) Cu(s) + SnBr 2 (aq)Sn(s) + CuBr 2 (aq) ? ?Ag(s) + NaCl(aq) No reaction. Cobalt is below barium.Co(s) + BaI 2 (aq) No reaction. Silver is below sodium.Ag(s) + NaCl(aq) ElementOxidation Half-Reaction BariumBa Ba e – SodiumNa Na + + e – CobaltCo Co e – TinSn Sn e – CopperCu Cu e – SilverAg Ag + + e – GoldAu Au e – Activity Series (partial)

51 Oxidation of Metals in Aqueous Solutions

52 Balancing Simple Redox Equations Redox reactions must have both mass balance and charge balance. Before adding half-reactions, the electrons must balance. Cr(s) + Ni 2+ (aq) Cr 3+ (aq) + Ni(s) Cr(s)Cr 3+ (aq) + 3e – Oxidation half-reaction: Ni(s)Ni 2+ (aq) + 2e – Reduction half-reaction:

53 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Prior to adding the two half-reactions, balance the electrons. Step 1: Multiply the oxidation half-reaction by 2 Step 2: Multiply the reduction half-reaction by 3 This is known as the half-reaction method. Cr(s)Cr 3+ (aq) + 3e – Oxidation half-reaction: Ni(s)Ni 2+ (aq) + 2e – Reduction half-reaction: 2 3 2Cr(s)2Cr 3+ (aq) + 6e – Oxidation half-reaction: 3Ni(s)3Ni 2+ (aq) + 6e – Reduction half-reaction: 3Ni(s) + 2Cr 3+ (aq)3Ni 2+ (aq) + 2Cr(s)

54 Worked Example 9.6 Strategy Recognize that the salt in each equation (the compound on the reactant side) is a strong electrolyte. What is important is the identity of the metal cation in the salt. If the cation appears lower in the table, the solid metal will be oxidized (i.e., the reactions will occur). If the cation appears higher in the table, the solid metal will not be oxidized (i.e., no reaction will occur). Using the activity series, predict which of the following reactions will occur, and for those that will occur, write the net ionic equation and indicate which element is oxidized and which is reduced: (a) Fe(s) + PtCl 2 (aq) ?, (b) Cr(s) + AuCl 3 (aq) ?, (c) Pb(s) + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) ? Solution (a)The cation in PtCl 2 is Pt 2+. Platinum appears lower in Table 9.6 than iron, so Pt 2+ (aq) will oxidize Fe(s). Fe(s) + Pt 2+ (aq) Fe 2+ (aq) + Pt(s) Iron is oxidized (0 to +2) and platinum is reduced (+2 to 0).

55 Worked Example 9.6 (cont.) Solution (a)The cation in AuCl 3 is Au 3+. Gold appears lower in Table 9.6 than chromium, so Au 3+ (aq) will oxidize Cr(s). Cr(s) + Au 3+ (aq) Cr 3+ (aq) + Au(s) Chromium is oxidized (0 to +3) and gold is reduced (+3 to 0). (a)The cation in Zn(NO 3 ) 2 is Zn 2+. Zinc appears higher in Table 9.6 than lead, so Zn 2+ (aq) will not oxidize Pb(s). Think About It Check your conclusions by working each problem backward. For part (b), for example, write the net ionic equation in reverse, using the same products as reactants: Au(s) + Cr 3+ (aq) ? Now compare the positions of gold and chromium in Table 9.6 again. Chromium is higher, so chromium(III) ions cannot oxidize gold. This confirms your conclusion that the forward reaction (the oxidation of chromium by gold ions) will occur.

56 Worked Example 9.7 Strategy (a) The cation in CaCl 2 is Ca 2+. Calcium appears higher in Table 9.6 than aluminum, so Ca 2+ (aq) will not oxidize Al(s). (b) The cation in Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 is Pb 2+. Lead appears lower in Table 9.6 than chromium, so Pb 2+ (aq) will oxidize Cr(s). (c) The cation in HI is H +. Hydrogen appears lower in Table 9.6 than tin, so H + (aq) will oxidize Sn(s). Predict which of the following reactions will occur, and for those that will occur, balance the equation and indicate which element is oxidized and which is reduced: (a) Al(s) + CaCl 2 (aq) ? (b) Cr(s) + Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 (aq) (c) Sn(s) + HI(aq) ? Solution (a)No reaction.

57 Worked Example 9.7 (cont.) Solution (a)The two half-reactions are represented by the following: Oxidation: Cr(s) Cr 3+ (aq) + 3e - Reduction: Pb 2+ (aq) + 2e - Pb(s) In order to balance the charges, we must multiply the oxidation half-reaction by 2 and the reduction half-reaction by 3: 2×[Cr(s) Cr 3+ (aq) + 3e - ] = 2Cr(s) 2Cr 3+ (aq) + 6e - 3×[Pb 2+ (aq) + 2e - Pb(s)] = 3Pb 2+ (aq) + 6e - 3Pb(s) We can then add the two half-reactions, canceling the electrons on both sides to get 2Cr(s) + 3Pb 2+ (aq) 2Cr 3+ (aq) + 3Pb(s) The overall balanced molecular equation is 2Cr(s) + 3Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 (aq) 2Cr(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 3 (aq) + 3Pb(s) Chromium is oxidized (0 to +3) and lead is reduced (+2 to 0).

58 Worked Example 9.7 (cont.) Solution (a)The two half-reactions are as follows: Oxidation: Sn(s) Sn 2+ (aq) + 2e - Reduction: 2H + (aq) + 2e - H 2 (g) Adding the two half-reactions and canceling the electrons on both sides yields Sn(s) + 2H + (aq) Sn 2+ (aq) + H 2 (g) The overall balanced molecular equation is Sn(s) + 2HI(aq) SnI 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) Tin is oxidized (0 to +2) and hydrogen is reduced (+1 to 0). Reactions in which hydrogen ion is reduced to hydrogen gas are known as hydrogen displacement reactions. Think About It Check your conclusions by working each problem backward. Write each equation in reverse and compare the positions of the elements in the activity series.

59 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Combination reactions can involve oxidation and reduction. Hydrogen is oxidized from 0 to +1. Nitrogen is reduced from 0 to –3. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) –3– –3–3+3

60 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Decomposition can also be a redox reaction. Na + is reduced to Na. H – is oxidized to H 2. NaH(s) 2Na(s) + 3H 2 (g) – –1–10

61 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Disproportionation reactions occur when one element undergoes both oxidation and reduction. Oxygen in H 2 O 2 (and other peroxides) has an oxidation number of –1. 2H 2 O 2 (aq) 2H 2 O(l) + O 2 (g) – –2–20 oxidation reduction –2

62 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Combustion is also a redox process. CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(l) +1 0 – –2 +4 –2 –4

63 Concentration of Solutions Molarity (M), or molar concentration, is defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. Other common rearrangements: 9.5

64 Worked Example 9.8 Strategy Convert the mass of glucose given to moles, and use the equations for interconversions of M, liters, and moles to calculate the answers. moles of glucose = For an aqueous solution of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), determine (a) the molarity of 2.00 L of a solution that contains 50.0 g of glucose, (b) the volume of this solution that would contain mole of glucose, and (c) the number of moles of glucose in L of this solution. Solution (a)molarity = = M (a)volume = = 1.80 L (a)moles of C 6 H 12 O 6 in L = L×0.139 M = mol 50.0 g g/mol mol C 6 H 12 O L solution mol C 6 H 12 O M solution = mol Think About It Check to see that the magnitude of your answers are logical. For example, the mass given in the problem corresponds to mole of solute. If you are asked, as in part (b), for the volume that contains a number of moles smaller than 0.277, make sure your answer is smaller than the original volume.

65 Concentration of Solutions Dilution is the process of preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated one. moles of solute before dilution = moles of solute after dilution

66 Concentration of Solutions In an experiment, a student needs mL of a M CuCl 2 solution. A stock solution of 2.00 M CuCl 2 is available. How much of the stock solution is needed? Solution:Use the relationship that moles of solute before dilution = moles of solute after dilution. (2.00 M CuCl 2 )(L c ) = (0.100 M CuCl 2 )( L) L c = L or 12.5 mL To make the solution: 1)Pipet 12.5 mL of stock solution into a mL volumetric flask. 2) Carefully dilute to the calibration mark. M c × L c = M d × L d

67 Concentration of Solutions Because most volumes measured in the laboratory are in milliliters rather than liters, it is worth pointing out that the equation can be written as M c × mL c = M d × mL d

68 Worked Example 9.9 Strategy M c = 12.0 M, M d = M, mL d = mL What volume of 12.0 M HCl, a common laboratory stock solution, must be used to prepare mL of M HCl? Solution 12.0 M × mL c = M × mL mL c = M × mL 12.0 M = 2.60 mL Think About It Plug the answer into Equation 9.4, and make sure that the product of concentration and volume on both sides of the equation give the same result.

69 Worked Example 9.10 Strategy (a) M d = Starting with a 2.0 M stock solution of hydrochloric acid, four standard solutions (1 to 4) are prepared by sequential diluting mL of each solution to mL. Determine (a) the concentrations of all four standard solutions and (b) the number of moles of HCl in each solution. Solution (a) M d1 = M d2 = M d3 = M d4 = 2.00 M × mL mL M c × mL c mL d ; (b) mol = M×L, mL = 2.500×10 -1 L = 8.00×10 -2 M 8.00×10 -2 M × mL mL = 3.20×10 -3 M 3.20×10 -3 M × mL mL = 1.28×10 -4 M 1.28×10 -4 M × mL mL = 5.12×10 -6 M

70 Worked Example 9.10 (cont.) Think About It Serial dilution is one of the fundamental practices of homeopathy. Some remedies undergo so many serial dilutions that very few (if any) molecules of the original substance still exist in the final preparation. Solution (b) mol 1 = 8.00×10 -2 M × 2.500×10 -1 L = 2.00×10 -2 mol mol 2 = 3.20×10 -3 M × 2.500×10 -1 L = 8.00×10 -4 mol mol 3 = 1.28×10 -4 M × 2.500×10 -1 L = 3.20×10 -5 mol mol 4 = 5.12×10 -6 M × 2.500×10 -1 L = 1.28×10 -6 mol

71 Worked Example 9.11 Strategy Use the concentration given in each case and the stoichiometry indicated in the corresponding chemical formula to determine the concentration of the specified ion or compound. Using square-bracket notation, express the concentration of (a) chloride ion in a solution that is 1.02 M in AlCl 3, (b) nitrate ion in a solution that is M in Ca(NO 3 ) 2, and (c) Na 2 CO 3 in a solution in which [Na + ] = M. Solution (a) There are 3 moles of Cl - ion for every 1 mole of AlCl 3, AlCl 3 (s) Al 3+ (aq) + 3Cl - (aq) so the concentration of Cl- will be three times the concentration of AlCl 3. [Cl - ] = [AlCl 3 ] × = × = = 3.06 M 3 mol Cl - 1 mol AlCl mol AlCl 3 L 3 mol Cl - 1 mol AlCl mol Cl - L

72 Worked Example 9.11 (cont.) Solution (b) There are 2 moles of nitrate ion for every 1 mole of Ca(NO 3 ) 2, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (s) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3 - (aq) so [NO 3 - ] will be twice [Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ]. [NO 3 - ] = [Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ] × = × = = M 2 mol NO mol Ca(NO 3 ) mol Ca(NO 3 ) 2 L 2 mol NO mol Ca(NO 3 ) mol NO 3 - L

73 Worked Example 9.11 (cont.) Solution (c) There is 1 mole of Na 2 CO 3 for every 2 moles of sodium ion, Na 2 CO 3 (s) 2Na + (aq) + CO 3 2- (aq) so [Na 2 CO 3 ] will be half of [Na + ]. (Assume that Na 2 CO 3 is the only source of Na + ions in this solution.) [Na 2 CO 3 ] = [Na + ] × = × = = M 1 mol Na 2 CO 3 2 mol Na mol Na + L 1 mol Na 2 CO 3 2 mol Na mol Na 2 CO 3 L Think About It Make sure that units cancel properly. Remember that the concentration of an ion can never be less than the concentration of its dissolved parent compound. It will always be the concentration of the parent compound times its stoichiometric subscript in the chemical formula.

74 Aqueous Reactions and Chemical Analysis Gravimetric analysis is an analytical technique based on the measurement of mass. Gravimetric analysis is highly accurate. Applicable only to reactions that go to completion or have nearly 100 % yield. 9.6

75 Worked Example 9.12 Strategy Using the mass of AgCl precipitate and the percent composition of AgCl, determine what mass of chloride the precipitate contains. The chloride in the precipitate was originallly in the unknown compound. Using the mass of chloride and the mass of the original sample, determine the percent Cl in the compound. A g sample of an ionic compound containing chloride ions and an unknown metal cation is dissolved in water and treated with an excess of AgNO 3. If g of AgCl precipitate forms, what is the percent by mass of Cl in the original sample? Setup To determine the percent Cl in AgCl, divide the molar mass of Cl by the molar mass of AgCl: The mass of Cl in the precipitate is × g = g g (34.35 g g) × 100% = 24.72%

76 Worked Example 9.12 (cont.) Solution The percent Cl in the unknown compound is the mass of Cl in the precipitate divided by the mass of the original sample: g g × 100% = 44.71% Think About It Pay close attention to which numbers correspond to which quantities. It is easy in this type of problem to lose track of which mass is the precipitate and which is the original sample. Dividing by the wrong mass at the end will result in an incorrect sample.

77 Acid-Base Titrations Quantitative studies of acid-base neutralization reactions are most conveniently carried out using a technique known as a titration. A titration is a volumetric technique that uses burets. The point in the titration where the acid has been neutralized is called the equivalence point.

78 Aqueous Reactions and Chemical Analysis The equivalence point is usually signalled by a color change. The color change is brought about by the use of an indicator. Indicators have distinctly different colors in acidic and basic media. The indicator is chosen so that the color change, or endpoint, is very close to the equivalence point. Phenolphthalein is a common indicator.

79 Aqueous Reactions and Chemical Analysis Sodium hydroxide solutions are commonly used in titrations. NaOH solutions must be standardized as the concentrations change over time. (NaOH reacts with CO 2 that slowly dissolves into the solution forming carbonic acid.) The acid potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) is frequently used to standardize NaOH solutions. acidic proton of KHP; KHP is a monoprotic acid

80 Worked Example 9.13 Strategy Using the mass given and the molar mass of KHP, determine the number of moles of KHP. Recognize that the number of moles of NaOH in the volume given is equal to the number of moles of KHP. Divide moles of NaOH by volume (in liters) to get molarity. The molar mass of KHP (KHC 8 H 4 O 4 ) = [39.1 g + 5(1.008 g) + 8(12.01 g) + 4(16.00 g)] = g/mol. In a titration experiment, a student finds that mL of an NaOH solution is needed to neutralize g of KHP. What is the concentration (in M) of the NaOH solution? Solution moles of KHP = Because moles of KHP = moles of NaOH, then moles of NaOH = mol. molarity of NaOH = g g/mol = mol mol L = M

81 Worked Example 9.13 (cont.) Think About It Remember that molarity can also be defined as mmol/mL. Try solving the problem again using millimoles and make sure you get the same answer mol = 3.495×10 -3 mol = mmol and mmol mL = M

82 Worked Example 9.14 Strategy First, write and balance the chemical equation that corresponds to the neutralization reaction: 2NaOH(aq) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) The base and the diprotic acid combine in a 2:1 ratio: 2NaOH H 2 SO 4. Use the molarity and the volume given to determine the number of millimoles of H 2 SO 4. Use the number of millimoles of H 2 SO 4 to determine the number of millimoles of NaOH. Using millimoles of NaOH and the concentration given, determine the volume of NaOH that will contain the correct number of millimoles. What volume (in mL) of a M NaOH solution is needed to neutralize 25.0 mL of a M H 2 SO 4 solution?

83 Worked Example 9.14 (cont.) Think About It Notice that the two concentrations M and M are similar. Both round to the same value (~0.20 M) to two significant figures. Therefore, the titration of a diprotic acid with a monobasic base of roughly equal concentration should require roughly twice as much base as the beginning volume of acid 2 × 25.0 mL 46.3 mL. Solution millimoles of H 2 SO 4 = M × 25.0 mL = 4.70 mmol millimoles of NaOH required = 4.70 mmol H 2 SO 4 × volume of M NaOH = 9.40 mmol NaOH × 2 mmol NaOH 1 mmol H 2 SO 4 = 9.40 mmol NaOH 1 mL NaOH mmol NaOH = 46.3 mL

84 Worked Example 9.15 Strategy Because the acid is monoprotic, it will react 1:1 ratio with the base; therefore, the number of moles of acid will be equal to the number of moles of base. The volume of base in liters is L. A g sample of a monoprotic acid is dissolved in 25 mL water, and the resulting solution is titrated with M NaOH solution. A 12.5-mL volume of the base is required to neutralize the acid. Calculate the molar mass of the acid. Solution moles of base = Because moles of base = moles of acid, the moles of acid = mol. Therefore, molar mass of the acid = L mol/L = mol g mol = 88.1 g/mol Think About It In order for this technique to work, we must know whether the acid is monoprotic, diprotic, or polyprotic. A diprotic acid, for example, would combine in a 1:2 ratio with the base, and the result would have been a molar mass twice as large.

85 Chapter Summary: Key Points 9 Properties of Aqueous Solutions Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes Strong Electrolytes and Weak Electrolytes Precipitation Reactions Solubility of Ionic Compounds in Water Molecular Equations Ionic Equations Net Ionic Equations Acid-Base Reactions Strong Acids and Bases Brønsted Acids and Bases Acid-Base Neutralization Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation Numbers Oxidation of Metals in Aqueous Solutions Balancing Simple Redox Equations Other Types of Redox Reactions Concentration of Solutions Molarity Dilution Solution Stoichiometry Aqueous Reactions and Chemical Analysis Gravimetric Analysis Acid-Base Titrations

86 Determine the products of the reaction. Identify the phase of each compound, and balance the equation. Also write the ionic and net ionic equations. Molecular: Na 2 S + Cr(NO 3 ) 3 Complete Ionic: Net Ionic: Group Quiz #17

87 Identify the oxidation number of each element in the compounds or ions below: Ba(ClO 3 ) 2 SO 3 2- For the reaction below, identify what has been oxidized and reduced; identify the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent. Cu(s) + 2AgNO 3 (aq) 2Ag(s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Group Quiz #18

88 Predict products of the following reactions. Write correct phases for the products and balance each equation: ___ Al (s) + ___ NaNO 3 (aq) ___ Na (s) + ___ O 2 (g) ___ Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + ___ Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Group Quiz #19

89 Group Quiz # mL of lithium hydroxide are required to neutralized mL of 1.20 M phosphoric acid. What is the concentration of base?


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