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BRAIN & AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DEEPER INTO BODYMIND UNITY.

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Presentation on theme: "BRAIN & AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DEEPER INTO BODYMIND UNITY."— Presentation transcript:

1 BRAIN & AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DEEPER INTO BODYMIND UNITY

2 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Central Nervous System (p. 610) Brain and spinal cord Protected by – Skull – Vertebral column – Meninges – Cerebrospinal fluid 2

3 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Brain (pp. 610, 611) Main sections are: – Cerebrum – Diencephalon – Cerebellum – Brain stem 3

4 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Cerebrum (p. 610) Largest area of brain Contains: – Sensory areas and motor areas – Language centers – Limbic system (this also overlaps with diencephalon) Governs many emotions 4

5 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Cerebral Cortex (p. 611) Outer region Topography characterized by: – Sulci Grooves Fissures, or deep sulci, separate cerebrum into lobes – Gyri Elevated ridges 5

6 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Cerebral Hemispheres (p. 611) Cerebrum contains right and left hemispheres – Research indicates they possess specialized functions Longitudinal fissure – Separates hemispheres Corpus callosum – Transverse fibers connecting hemispheres 6

7 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Hemispheric Specialization (p. 611) Left hemisphere – Language: receptive and expressive – Reasoning and analytical skills such as math Right hemisphere – Music – Art and spatial relationships – Emotional expression 7

8 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Cerebral Lobes (p. 611) Four Lobes: – Frontal – Parietal – Temporal – Occipital 8

9 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Cerebral Lobes (p. 612) 9

10 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Frontal Lobe (p. 611) Regulates motor output and cognition Contains: – Brocas areas (left hemisphere only) Speech production – Prefrontal cortex Where emotions are processed – Precentral gyrus Called primary motor area 10

11 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Precentral Gyrus (p. 613) 11

12 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Parietal Lobe (p. 611) Regulates proprioception, reading, and taste Governs sensory input – Mainly skin and muscles Contains: – Postcentral gyrus Called primary somatosensory area 12

13 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Postcentral Gyrus 13

14 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Temporal and Occipital Lobes (p. 611) Temporal lobe – Contains auditory and olfactory areas – Wernicke area (left hemisphere only) Language comprehension Occipital lobe – Contains visual areas 14

15 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Brain Waves and States of Consciousness (p. 612) Consciousness: degree of mental alertness and responsiveness Levels of consciousness recorded as brain wave patterns – Beta – Alpha – Theta – Delta 15

16 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Brain Waves Patterns (p. 612) Beta – Wakeful consciousness and mental activity – REM sleep appears as beta waves Alpha – Awake and relaxed 16

17 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Brain Wave Patterns, contd (p. 613) Theta – Drowsiness and dreamlike awareness – Used in hypnosis to access deep-rooted memories Delta – Deep sleep from which subject is not easily aroused 17

18 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Diencephalon (p. 613) Located in center of brain Contains two primary structures: – Thalamus – Hypothalamus Also contains two glands: – Pituitary – Pineal 18

19 Diencephalon (overlaps with Limbic system) Hypothalamus - in charge of Autonomic Nervous System and Endocrine System – Emotion, anger, memory, hunger, thirst – body temperature, sexual desire & activity – sleep-wake, biorhythms – maternal behavior, blood pressure, immune responses

20 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Thalamus and Hypothalamus (p. 613) Thalamus – Nearly 80% of diencephalon – Relays sensory information (except olfaction) to appropriate parts of cerebrum Hypothalamus – in charge of Autonomic Nervous System and Endocrine System – Controls hunger and thirst, anger and aggression, emotions, body temperature, sexual desire & activity, sleep patterns, biorhythms, maternal behavior, blood pressure, immune responses, etc. – Hormones from hypothalmus: vasopression, dopamine, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone, melatonin, somatostatin thyrotropin-releasing hormone, ADH 20

21 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Pituitary and Pineal Gland (p. 613) Pituitary – Sits in sella turcica of sphenoid bone Pineal – Located below corpus callosum 21

22 Limbic System Located on border between the cerebrum and the diencephalon -C-shaped structure - wraps around thalamus and hypothalamus Functions 1) Emotions 2) Motivation 3) Learning and Memory 4) Olfaction- smell Structures 1) Amygdala- almond- shape, "RAGE CENTER" 2) Limbic lobe- Hippocampus, spatial learning and memory 3) Fornix- tract connecting limbic system to the hypothalamus

23 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Diencephalon, Cerebellum & Brainstem (p. 614) 23

24 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Cerebellum (pp ) Located posterior and inferior to cerebrum Regulates: – Muscle tone – Posture – Balance 24

25 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Brainstem (p. 614) Continuous with spinal cord Three main divisions: – Mid-brain – Pons – Medulla oblongata 25

26 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Mid-brain and Pons (p. 614) Mid-brain – Conducts impulses from cerebrum to pons – Conducts impulses from spinal cord to thalamus Pons – Bridges cerebellum and cerebrum with spinal cord 26

27 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Medulla Oblongata (p. 614) Conducts sensory and motor impulses between brain and spinal cord Located at inferior portion of brainstem Contains: – Respiratory center – Cardiovascular center – Vasomotor center Often considered most vital part of brain 27

28 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Medulla Oblongata, contd (p. 614) Contains many crossing over fibers Ex: right side of brain governs left side of body and vice versa This crossing is called decussation 28

29 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Blood-Brain Barrier (p. 614) Semipermeable wall of blood capillaries Has thick basement membrane and glial cells Prevents or slows passage of some chemicals and pathogens from blood into CNS 29

30 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Spinal Cord (p. 614) Exits skull via foramen magnum Integrating center and information highway Cauda equina – Lower portion of cord shaped like a horse tail Filum terminale – Fibrous extension of cauda equina 30

31 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Spinal Cord, contd (p. 614) Cross section reveals: – White matter: located on periphery – Gray matter: located in center H-shaped Central canal – Center of spinal cord contains CSF 31

32 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Spinal Cord: Horns (p. 614) Gray matter in H contain regions called horns – Anterior horn – Lateral horn – Posterior horn 32

33 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Spinal Cord: Columns (p. 615) White matter contain regions called columns – Anterior column – Lateral column – Posterior column 33

34 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Spinal Cord (p. 615) 34

35 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Spinal Cord: Tracts (p. 615) Collection of nerves running up and down spine Two types: – Ascending Sensory (afferent) impulses travel up cord – Descending Motor (efferent) impulses travel down cord 35

36 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Meninges (p. 615) Connective tissue coverings surrounding brain and spinal cord Contains three layers 36

37 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Meningeal Layers (p. 615) Pia mater – Innermost delicate layer – Attaches to brain and spinal cord Arachnoid – Middle layer resembling a spiders web Dura mater – Outermost dense layer – Lies against skull and spinal column 37

38 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Meningeal Spaces (p. 615) Subarachnoid space – Located between pia and arachnoid – Filled with CSF Subdural space – Located between dura and arachnoid – Filled with serous fluid Epidural space – Located between dura and vertebral canal – Filled with fat and blood vessels 38

39 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Cerebrospinal Fluid (p. 616) Fluid circulating around brain and spinal cord Functions include: – Supplies O 2 and nutrients – Carries away wastes – Acts as a shock absorber 39

40 ACB 81

41 ACB 82

42 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Meninges in Skull Region (p. 615) 42

43 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Cranial Nerves (p. 616) I: Olfactory II: Optic III: Oculomotor IV: Trochlear V:Trigeminal VI: Abducens VII:Facial VIII: Vestibulocochlear IX: Glossopharyngeal X: Vagus XI: Accessory/spinal accessory XII: Hypoglossal 43

44 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Cranial Nerves (p. 617) 44

45 ACB 88

46 ACB 89

47 Autonomic Nervous System A Spectrum from Parasympathetic…..to……Sympathetic Rest/repose……balance..….Fight/flight

48 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Autonomic Nervous System (p. 621) Innervates cardiac and smooth muscles/glands, thus regulating: – Heart and respiration rates – Blood circulation – Body temperature – Gastrointestinal activity Two divisions: – Sympathetic – Parasympathetic 48

49 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Dual Innervation (p. 621) Innervated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions Some have only sympathetic innervation – Ex: adrenal glands and blood vessels Some have only parasympathetic innervation – Ex: lacrimal apparatus 49

50 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Parasympathetic Nervous System (p. 621) Supports functions that conserve and restore energy – Maintains homeostasis – Regulates urinary and digestive processes, defecation, and storing nutrients Most active under calm conditions – Called rest-and-digest or housekeeping division Referred to as craniosacral outflow 50

51 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Sympathetic Nervous System (p. 623) Uses body energy for periods of physical exertion or emotional stress Adrenals secrete epinephrine – Effects include increased respiration and heart rate and blood pressure Called fight-or-flight or stress response Referred to as thoracolumbar outflow 51

52 Copyright © 2012, 2007, 2003, 1999 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Autonomic Nervous System (p. 622) 52

53 Sympathetic-Parasympathetic Emphasis Pupils widenPupils contract Sweatn/a Less salivationMore salvation Less G-I secretionMore G-I secretion More epinephrine & n/a glucorticoid secretion Dilates brochiolesConstricts bronchioles Increases rate & strength Decreases rate & of hearts contractionstrength of contraction

54 Sympathetic-Parasympathetic Emphasis Constricts blood vessels In skin and viscera Dilates vessels in muscles Dilates vessels in viscera GlycogenolysisGlycogenesis Decreases activity of Increases activity gallbladder, stomach, intestines, kidneys, pancreas, intestines, kidneys, pancreas, bladder, uterus bladder, uterus

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57 Touch can… Expand the autonomic range of motion Facilitate greater autonomic balance Teach person to inhabit fertile mid-ground between sleeping and waking Create non-verbal learning/neurological repatterning

58 Massage & the Nervous System Tissue dysfunction Self-image Posture & Movement Emotion Memory Awareness / Learning Spirit


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