Presentation on theme: "The UNEV Pipeline Project: An Update"— Presentation transcript:
1The UNEV Pipeline Project: An Update Results of data recovery investigationsDavid T. Yoder, John C. Ravesloot, Brandon M. Gabler, and William D. SelfWilliam Self Associates, Inc.
2In 2010 the Holly Corporation is scheduled to construct the UNEV pipeline, a 400-mile-long project that will carry liquid petroleum products from a refinery in Woods Cross in north Salt Lake City to northeast Las Vegas. In 2009, as part of the mitigation effort for UNEV, William Self Associates performed phased data recovery at 11 prehistoric and 4 historic sites along the pipeline’s route. The preliminary results from two of the more interesting prehistoric sites (42MD3014 and 42MD3285, both near Delta, Utah) are presented. A human behavioral ecology framework is used to investigate issues related to site use and occupation.
3UNEV Research ThemesHypothesis 1: Archaic groups practiced a high degree of residential mobilityHypothesis 2: Formative groups practiced a low degree of residential mobilityHypothesis 3: Late Prehistoric groups practiced a high degree of residential mobilityHypothesis 4: According to Madsen and Simms (1998), Fremont groups both farmed and foraged full-time, and switched between these strategiesExpectations:Elements of Fremont material culture associated with characteristics of both high and low residential mobility should be presentMultiple types of Fremont complex sites should be present - some indicating long-term occupations associated with cultigens, others indicating foraging occupationsMaterial culture should provide indications of connections between foragers and farmers during the Formative periodHypothesis 5: Wetlands environments were particularly productive, and therefore groups resided near them throughout prehistory
4Overview of site, view to the east 42MD3014: Class III ResultsSite type: Artifact scatter - flaked stoneCulture and period: Archaic, Formative, Late PrehistoricDiagnostic artifacts: One Gatecliff Contracting-stem pointDescriptionsituated on low sand knoll on a flat plain, 2 miles north of Sevier Rivermoderate-density lithic scatter of 50 flakes, represents core reduction10 obsidian specimens collected for sourcing and hydration analyses8 from Black Rock, 1 from Topaz Mountain, 1 from Wild Horse Canyonhydration rims suggest Archaic, Formative, and Late Prehistoric periodsOverview of site, view to the east
542MD3014: Surface Material Class Count Elko Corner-notched point 1 Bifaces10Cores4Debitage609Snake Valley Gray sherdSevier Gray sherd
642MD3014: Subsurface Material Class Count Feature 1: Large basin-shaped depressionFeature 2: Medium basin-shaped depressionFeature 3: Brush structure or wikiupFeature 4: Medium pitFeature 5: Medium pitMaterial ClassCountProjectile points (Elko Corner-notched fragment and an unknown fragment)2Bifaces7Debitage1,398Hammerstone1Ground stoneFremont plain gray sherds110Sevier Gray sherdShell beadFaunal bone53
7Medium depression (Feature 2) post-excavation; view to the south
8Wikiup (Feature 3) pre-excavation; view to the north 42MD3014Wikiup (Feature 3) pre-excavation; view to the north
9Wikiup (Feature 3) post-excavation; view to the east 42MD3014Wikiup (Feature 3) post-excavation; view to the east
10Medium pit (Feature 4) post-excavation; view to the south and down 42MD3014Medium pit (Feature 4) post-excavation; view to the south and down
11Medium pit (Feature 5) pre-excavation; view to the west and down 42MD3014Medium pit (Feature 5) pre-excavation; view to the west and down
12very dark gray, massive silt, wetland/paludal deposit 42MD3014: Absolute datingBeta AnalyticConventional AgeContext2663304310 ± 40 B.P.(Cal 3020 to 2880 B.C.)Stratum IVvery dark gray, massive silt, wetland/paludal deposit2663311110 ± 40 B.P.(Cal A.D. 870 to 1010)Feature 1, depression2663321150 ± 40 B.P.(Cal A.D. 780 to 980)TU 29, stratum 2, level 3,above Feature 32663331000 ± 40 B.P.(Cal A.D. 980 to 1060)Feature 3, wikiup orbrush structure266334Feature 4, medium pit
1342MD3014 Summary42MD3014 represents a moderate- to high-density, multicomponent habitation sitesurface assemblage626 artifacts: debitage, cores, bifaces, ceramics, and an Elko Corner-notched pointdisturbed subsurface assemblage1,723 artifacts: debitage, bifaces, projectile points, ground stone, ceramics, faunal bone, a hammerstone, a stone bead, and a piece of shelltwo pit features, two depressions, and a possible wikiupthree features (Features 2, 3, 4) have clustering 14C dateswikiup absolute date (Cal A.D. 980 to 1060) is during the Formative/Fremont periodwikiup represents short-term habitationflaked stone tool manufacture occurredfood processing, evidenced by:ground stonefaunal bone (cottontails, jackrabbits, small mammals, duck, and common teal)macrobotanical remains (pickleweed, cheno-am, bullrush, sunflower, dropseed, little barley grass, Indian rice grass, saltbush fruit)
14Overview of site, view to the north 42MD3285: Class III ResultsSite Type: Artifact scatter - flaked stone, ceramics, FCRCulture and Period: FremontDiagnostic Artifacts: Fremont Sevier GrayDescriptionsituated on broad, flat alluvial plain or terrace, one mile south of the Old River Bedextensive, diffuse artifact scatter500+ Fremont Sevier Gray sherds visible on surfaceOverview of site, view to the north
1542MD3285: Surface Material Class Count Bifaces 2 Unifaces 1 Debitage 451Sevier Gray sherds42Snake Valley Gray sherds
1642MD3285: Subsurface Material Class Count Parowan Basal-notched point Feature 1: FCR concentrationFeature 2: Artifact concentrationFeature 3: FCR concentrationFeature 4: FCR concentrationFeature 5: Basin-shaped depression, possible wikiupFeature 7: FCR and ground stone concentrationNot shown: Feature 6, a natural soil stain42MD3285: SubsurfaceMaterial ClassCountParowan Basal-notched point1BifacesUnifacesHammerstoneDebitage254Sevier Gray sherds2Ground stone9Faunal boneMineral/Manuport6
17FCR concentration (Feature 1); view to the northeast 42MD3285FCR concentration (Feature 1); view to the northeast
18Possible wikiup (Feature 5) post-excavation, moistened for emphasis; 42MD3285Possible wikiup (Feature 5) post-excavation, moistened for emphasis;view to the northwest
1942MD3285: Absolute dating Beta Analytic Conventional Age Context 2663351960 ± 40 B.P.(Cal 40 B.C.to Cal A.D. 120)Stratum IIIblack, massive, sandy silt, wet meadow deposit2663361240 ± 40 B.P.(Cal A.D. 670 to 890)Stratum V, Trench 12663371490 ± 40 B.P.(Cal A.D. 450 to 450,460 to 480, 530 to 640)Feature 5, possible wikiup
2042MD3285 Summary42MD3285 represents a low- to moderate-density artifact scatter and possible habitation sitesurface assemblage498 artifacts: debitage, a uniface, bifaces, and Sevier Gray and Snake Valley Gray ceramicsmultiple FCR and artifact concentrationsdisturbed subsurface assemblage277 artifacts: debitage, a hammerstone, a uniface, a biface, a Parowan Basal-notched point, ground stone, Sevier Gray ceramics, faunal bone, and a manuporta possible wikiupabsolute date of Cal A.D. 450 to 450, 460 to 480, 530 to 640if a wikiup, it represents short-term habitationfood processing, evidenced by:ground stonefaunal bone (a rodent)macrobotanical remains (pickleweed, cheno-am, bullrush, Indian rice grass)
21ConclusionsData gathered during Phase I data recovery from 15 sites are most useful for:contributing to knowledge of regional prehistoric occupation in Utahaddressing research questions posed earlier in this presentation directed towards local and regional mobility and settlement patternsaddressing some site-specific mobility questionsPrimary field work ended in Octoberanalysis of the large collection of artifacts and samples is in progressfor example, preliminary analyses of the materials from 42MD3014 and 42MD3285 suggest that:lithic tool manufacture occurred, with little on-site core reductionthere were multiple occupations, minimally during the Archaic and Formative/Fremont periods
22ConclusionsMany of the prehistoric sites failed to produce a lot of data, but:negative data are data nonetheless, andsome of our historic sites are quite interesting, such as 42SL255, the subject of the next paper by Scott O'MackThanks to Holly Energy Partners and Sinclair Oil Corporation for providing the means to collect and disseminate this information, and the agency archaeologists who helped to facilitate it.