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The UNEV Pipeline Project: An Update Results of data recovery investigations David T. Yoder, John C. Ravesloot, Brandon M. Gabler, and William D. Self.

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Presentation on theme: "The UNEV Pipeline Project: An Update Results of data recovery investigations David T. Yoder, John C. Ravesloot, Brandon M. Gabler, and William D. Self."— Presentation transcript:

1 The UNEV Pipeline Project: An Update Results of data recovery investigations David T. Yoder, John C. Ravesloot, Brandon M. Gabler, and William D. Self William Self Associates, Inc.

2 In 2010 the Holly Corporation is scheduled to construct the UNEV pipeline, a 400-mile- long project that will carry liquid petroleum products from a refinery in Woods Cross in north Salt Lake City to northeast Las Vegas. In 2009, as part of the mitigation effort for UNEV, William Self Associates performed phased data recovery at 11 prehistoric and 4 historic sites along the pipelines route. The preliminary results from two of the more interesting prehistoric sites (42MD3014 and 42MD3285, both near Delta, Utah) are presented. A human behavioral ecology framework is used to investigate issues related to site use and occupation.

3 Hypothesis 1: Archaic groups practiced a high degree of residential mobility Hypothesis 2: Formative groups practiced a low degree of residential mobility Hypothesis 3: Late Prehistoric groups practiced a high degree of residential mobility Hypothesis 4: According to Madsen and Simms (1998), Fremont groups both farmed and foraged full-time, and switched between these strategies Expectations: Elements of Fremont material culture associated with characteristics of both high and low residential mobility should be present Multiple types of Fremont complex sites should be present - some indicating long- term occupations associated with cultigens, others indicating foraging occupations Material culture should provide indications of connections between foragers and farmers during the Formative period Hypothesis 5: Wetlands environments were particularly productive, and therefore groups resided near them throughout prehistory UNEV Research Themes

4 42MD3014: Class III Results Overview of site, view to the east Site type: Artifact scatter - flaked stone Culture and period: Archaic, Formative, Late Prehistoric Diagnostic artifacts: One Gatecliff Contracting-stem point Description situated on low sand knoll on a flat plain, 2 miles north of Sevier River moderate-density lithic scatter of 50 flakes, represents core reduction 10 obsidian specimens collected for sourcing and hydration analyses 8 from Black Rock, 1 from Topaz Mountain, 1 from Wild Horse Canyon hydration rims suggest Archaic, Formative, and Late Prehistoric periods

5 42MD3014: Surface Material ClassCount Elko Corner-notched point 1 Bifaces10 Cores4 Debitage609 Snake Valley Gray sherd 1 Sevier Gray sherd1

6 42MD3014: Subsurface Material ClassCount Projectile points (Elko Corner-notched fragment and an unknown fragment) 2 Bifaces7 Debitage1,398 Hammerstone1 Ground stone2 Fremont plain gray sherds 110 Sevier Gray sherd1 Shell bead1 Faunal bone53 Feature 1: Large basin-shaped depression Feature 2: Medium basin-shaped depression Feature 3: Brush structure or wikiup Feature 4: Medium pit Feature 5: Medium pit

7 42MD3014 Medium depression (Feature 2) post-excavation; view to the south

8 42MD3014 Wikiup (Feature 3) pre-excavation; view to the north

9 42MD3014 Wikiup (Feature 3) post-excavation; view to the east

10 42MD3014 Medium pit (Feature 4) post-excavation; view to the south and down

11 42MD3014 Medium pit (Feature 5) pre-excavation; view to the west and down

12 42MD3014: Absolute dating Beta AnalyticConventional AgeContext ± 40 B.P. (Cal 3020 to 2880 B.C.) Stratum IV very dark gray, massive silt, wetland/paludal deposit ± 40 B.P. (Cal A.D. 870 to 1010) Feature 1, depression ± 40 B.P. (Cal A.D. 780 to 980) TU 29, stratum 2, level 3, above Feature ± 40 B.P. (Cal A.D. 980 to 1060) Feature 3, wikiup or brush structure ± 40 B.P. (Cal A.D. 780 to 980) Feature 4, medium pit

13 42MD3014 represents a moderate- to high-density, multicomponent habitation site surface assemblage 626 artifacts: debitage, cores, bifaces, ceramics, and an Elko Corner-notched point disturbed subsurface assemblage 1,723 artifacts: debitage, bifaces, projectile points, ground stone, ceramics, faunal bone, a hammerstone, a stone bead, and a piece of shell two pit features, two depressions, and a possible wikiup three features (Features 2, 3, 4) have clustering 14 C dates wikiup absolute date (Cal A.D. 980 to 1060) is during the Formative/Fremont period wikiup represents short-term habitation flaked stone tool manufacture occurred food processing, evidenced by: ground stone faunal bone (cottontails, jackrabbits, small mammals, duck, and common teal) macrobotanical remains (pickleweed, cheno-am, bullrush, sunflower, dropseed, little barley grass, Indian rice grass, saltbush fruit) 42MD3014 Summary

14 42MD3285: Class III Results Overview of site, view to the north Site Type: Artifact scatter - flaked stone, ceramics, FCR Culture and Period: Fremont Diagnostic Artifacts: Fremont Sevier Gray Description situated on broad, flat alluvial plain or terrace, one mile south of the Old River Bed extensive, diffuse artifact scatter 500+ Fremont Sevier Gray sherds visible on surface

15 42MD3285: Surface Material ClassCount Bifaces2 Unifaces1 Debitage451 Sevier Gray sherds42 Snake Valley Gray sherds 2

16 42MD3285: Subsurface Material ClassCount Parowan Basal- notched point 1 Bifaces1 Unifaces1 Hammerstone1 Debitage254 Sevier Gray sherds2 Ground stone9 Faunal bone2 Mineral/Manuport6 Feature 1: FCR concentration Feature 2: Artifact concentration Feature 3: FCR concentration Feature 4: FCR concentration Feature 5: Basin-shaped depression, possible wikiup Feature 7: FCR and ground stone concentration Not shown: Feature 6, a natural soil stain

17 42MD3285 FCR concentration (Feature 1); view to the northeast

18 42MD3285 Possible wikiup (Feature 5) post-excavation, moistened for emphasis; view to the northwest

19 42MD3285: Absolute dating Beta AnalyticConventional AgeContext ± 40 B.P. (Cal 40 B.C. to Cal A.D. 120) Stratum III black, massive, sandy silt, wet meadow deposit ± 40 B.P. (Cal A.D. 670 to 890) Stratum V, Trench 1 black, massive, sandy silt, wet meadow deposit ± 40 B.P. (Cal A.D. 450 to 450, 460 to 480, 530 to 640) Feature 5, possible wikiup

20 42MD3285 represents a low- to moderate-density artifact scatter and possible habitation site surface assemblage 498 artifacts: debitage, a uniface, bifaces, and Sevier Gray and Snake Valley Gray ceramics multiple FCR and artifact concentrations disturbed subsurface assemblage 277 artifacts: debitage, a hammerstone, a uniface, a biface, a Parowan Basal- notched point, ground stone, Sevier Gray ceramics, faunal bone, and a manuport a possible wikiup absolute date of Cal A.D. 450 to 450, 460 to 480, 530 to 640 if a wikiup, it represents short-term habitation food processing, evidenced by: ground stone faunal bone (a rodent) macrobotanical remains (pickleweed, cheno-am, bullrush, Indian rice grass) 42MD3285 Summary

21 Data gathered during Phase I data recovery from 15 sites are most useful for: contributing to knowledge of regional prehistoric occupation in Utah addressing research questions posed earlier in this presentation directed towards local and regional mobility and settlement patterns addressing some site-specific mobility questions Primary field work ended in October analysis of the large collection of artifacts and samples is in progress for example, preliminary analyses of the materials from 42MD3014 and 42MD3285 suggest that: lithic tool manufacture occurred, with little on-site core reduction there were multiple occupations, minimally during the Archaic and Formative/Fremont periods Conclusions

22 Many of the prehistoric sites failed to produce a lot of data, but: negative data are data nonetheless, and some of our historic sites are quite interesting, such as 42SL255, the subject of the next paper by Scott O'Mack Thanks to Holly Energy Partners and Sinclair Oil Corporation for providing the means to collect and disseminate this information, and the agency archaeologists who helped to facilitate it. Conclusions


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