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By : Uday Kumar. What is.htaccess? How to use.htaccess? Error documents Redirects & Rewrites Password protection Deny visitors by IP address DirectoryIndex.

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Presentation on theme: "By : Uday Kumar. What is.htaccess? How to use.htaccess? Error documents Redirects & Rewrites Password protection Deny visitors by IP address DirectoryIndex."— Presentation transcript:

1 By : Uday Kumar

2 What is.htaccess? How to use.htaccess? Error documents Redirects & Rewrites Password protection Deny visitors by IP address DirectoryIndex uses Adding MIME types Activate Caching Disable directory listings Setting server timezone Changing server signature Preventing access to your PHP includes files Preventing access to your PHP includes files Prevent access to php.ini Ensuring media files are downloaded instead of played Ensuring media files are downloaded instead of played Setting up Associations for Encoded Files Setting up Associations for Encoded Files Preventing requests with invalid characters Preventing requests with invalid characters Regular Expressions Useful Resources

3 Hypertext Access or htaccess is an Apache configuration web server configuration file. It is loaded by the server and allows you to significantly modify its behaviour by specifying redirects, turning features on and off or protecting special sections of your site. In a most literal way htaccess is simple a small text file with the filetype of.htaccess and no name.

4 '.htaccess' is the filename in full, it is not a file extension. For instance, you would not create a file called, 'file.htaccess', it is simply called, '.htaccess'. This file will take effect when placed in any directory which is then in turn loaded via the Apache Web Server software. The file will take effect over the entire directory it is placed in and all files and subdirectories within the specified directory. ##Rewrite Engine on code - MUST BE ACTIVE for rewrites## RewriteEngine on

5 AuthName "Member's Area Name" AuthUserFile /path/to/password/file/.htpasswd AuthType Basic require valid-user ErrorDocument 401 /error_pages/401.html AddHandler server-parsed.html

6 One of the most common uses for htaccess is handling header status errors, these are the numbers that come back from the server when a client makes a request, for example you will all be familiar with the error status 404, commonly called page not found. By default your browser will show an ugly generic 404 page in the event of this error but with some htaccess magic we can customise this page!

7 You need to report the correct status code to search engines. This means if a page has moved for good you report 301, if its not there and has never been there it should be 404, if its there and working it should be 200, incorrect reporting of errors can lead to duplicate crawling and indexing problems. It helps your users, they will know when they are in the wrong section of a site and can easily follow some recommended links or go back, if you just bounce them back to the homepage or throw up a generic browser 404 it can shake their confidence and force them to leave the site.

8 It will fail to return the 404 status and likely return 301 or 200. a full list of error codes is available on Wikipedia ErrorDocument 404 ##Error Handling-Note to preserve error stratus DO NOT use full URLs## ErrorDocument 401 /401.html ErrorDocument 403 /403.html ErrorDocument 404 /404.html ErrorDocument 400 /400.html ErrorDocument 404

9 404 – Not Found; (The file is missing or could not be accessed ) 401/403 – Unauthorized/Forbidden; (You are not allowed to access the content, entering the corrected details may fix a 401 but not a 403) 400 – Bad Request; (Something is wrong with the syntax of your request, usually a typo in the url.) 500 – Internal Server Error; (Frequently caused when playing around with htaccess if you are not careful, it indicates a generic server error.)

10 Redirects enable us to direct web site visitors from one document within your web site to another. This is useful for example, if you have moved your web site content and would like to redirect visitors from old links to the new content location. The above line tells the Apache Web Server that if a visitor requests a documents located in the directory 'old_dir', then to display the document 'index.html' located in the directory 'new_dir'. Redirect /old_dir/

11 Another frequent duplicate index problem occurs when search engines index the default file of a directly, most frequently the home in its file and root form causing and to both be indexed. With this piece of code you will need to modify both the name of the index file (99% of the time this is just index) and the extension (usually html, htm or php). ## Redirect index to root ## RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^[A-Z]{3,9}\/.*index\.html\HTTP/ RewriteRule ^(.*)index\.html$ /$1 [R=301,L]

12 While not the most useful code for every affiliate, this code can still be very useful for secure subsections of a site, it will move every thing in the folder and below into https however so its not a good idea to use this one in your root htaccess. Note the backslash proceeding the period (".") to actually donate a period, as in Regular Expressions.Regular Expressions ## Redirect all Pages to Secure ## RewriteCond %{HTTPS} !on RewriteRule (.*) https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI}

13 The password protection and authentication systems offered by the Apache Web Server are probably the most important use of.htaccess files. The password file would contain something similar to the following text: AuthName "Member's Area Name" AuthUserFile /path/to/password/file/.htpasswd AuthType Basic require valid-user username:encryptedpassword fred_smith:oCF9Pam/MXJg2

14 The visitor blocking facilities offered by the Apache Web Server enable us to deny access to specific visitors, or allow access to specific visitors. This is extremely useful for blocking unwanted visitors, or to only allow the web site owner access to certain sections of the web site, such as an administration area. order allow,deny deny from deny from allow from all

15 The directoryindex command allows you to specify a default page to display when a directory is accessed. For instance, if a visitor requests a directory on your web site, you can specify the file to load when the directory is accessed. The above lines tell the Apache Web Server to display the 'index.html' file as the directoryindex, if this file is not available then display 'index.cgi', and if this is not available then display 'index.php'. DirectoryIndex index.html DirectoryIndex index.html index.cgi index.php

16 MIME types set what a file is, or rather what file extensions refer to what file types. For example, a '.html' file extension refers to a HTML document, a '.zip' file extension refers to a ZIP archive file. The server needs to know this so it knows how to deal with the file. This is often used to create custom file extension for common file types. AddType text/html.html.htm AddType text/plain.txt AddType text/x-setext.etx AddType application/pdf.pdf AddType application/slate AddType application/zip.zip

17 Caching is a way to stop repeat visitors completely redownloading every element of your site ##Enable Caching## ##Files to Cache for One Month Header set Cache - Control "max - age= " ## Files to Cache for One Day Header set Cache - Control "max - age=43200" ## Disable cache for script files Header unset Cache - Control

18 Preventing directory listings can be very useful if for example, you have a directory containing important '.zip' archive files or to prevent viewing of your image directories. Alternatively it can also be useful to enable directory listings if they are not available on your server, for example if you wish to display directory listings of your important '.zip' files. The above line tells the Apache Web Server to list all files except those that end with '.zip'. IndexIgnore *.zip

19 To set your web servers date timezone SetEnv TZ America/Indianapolis SetEnv TZ America/Los_Angeles America/New_York - Eastern Time America/Detroit - Eastern Time - Michigan (most locations) America/Louisville - Eastern Time (Louisville, Kentucky) America/Indianapolis - Eastern Standard Time (Indiana, most locations) America/Indiana/Knox - Eastern Standard Time (Indiana, Starke County) America/Chicago - Central Time

20 To change the server signature which is displayed as part of the default Apache error documents, use the following code: To remove the server signature completely, use the following code: ServerSignature SetEnv SERVER_ADMIN ServerSignature Off

21 If you have a directory containing PHP includes, that you do not wish to be accessed directly from the browser, there is a way of disabling the directory using Mod_Rewrite. ## Enable Mod Rewrite, this is only required once in each.htaccess file RewriteEngine On RewriteBase / ## Test for access to includes directory RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^[A-Z]{3,9}\ /includes/.*$ [NC] ## Test that file requested has php extension RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} ^.+\.php$ ## Forbid Access RewriteRule.* - [F,NS,L]

22 If you run the risk of someone accessing your php.ini or php.cgi files directly through their browsers, you can limit access to them using.htaccess. Order Deny,Allow Deny from All Allow from env=REDIRECT_STATUS

23 It is possible to ensure that any media files are treated as a download, rather than to be played by the browser. This tells the Apache Web Server to treat.zip,.mp3, and.mp4 files as downloadable, and should be used instead of specifiying them as audio/video/zip files in your MIME types section. AddType application/octet-stream.zip.mp3.mp4

24 Some browsers are capable of uncompressing encoded information as they receive it. This tells the Apache Web Server to treat.gz and.tgz files as encoded by x-gzip, and.Z files as encoded by x- compress. AddEncoding x-gzip.gz.tgz AddEncoding x-compress.Z

25 If you wish, you can use Mod_Rewrite to deny requests containing invalid characters, please be aware that with certain site setups this may break links. RewriteEngine On RewriteBase / RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} !^[A-Z]{3,9}\ [a-zA-Z0-9\.\+_/\-\?\=\&]+\ HTTP/ [NC] RewriteRule.* - [F,NS,L]

26 A regular expression is basically a small piece of code that checks for patterns. The pattern can range from a single character that matches to absolutely everything. There are some predefined 'terms' in regular expressions [ ] enclose the expression or a portion of the expression. (Used for determining the characters, or range of characters to be matched.) letter-letter (EG [a-z] matches any single lowercase alphabetical character in the range of a to z), so [c-e] will match any single character that is the lowercase letter c, d, or e.

27 LETTER-LETTER (EG [A-Z] matches any single capital alphabetical character in the range of A to Z), so [C-E] will match any single character that is the capital letter C, D, or E. number-number (EG [0-9] matches any single number in the range of 0 to 9), so [4-6] would match any single number 4, 5, or 6. character list (EG [dog123] matches any single character, either d, o, g, 1, 2, or 3.

28 ^ has two purposes, when used inside of [ ] it designates 'not'. (EG [^0-9] would match any character that is not 0 to 9 and [^abc] would match any character that is not a lowercase a, b, or c.) When used at the beginning of a pattern in mod_rewrite, it also designates the begining of a 'line'. It is very important to understand and remember [dog] does not match the word 'dog', it matches any individual lowercase letter d, o, or g anywhere in the comparison. In the same way, [^dog] does not exclude the word 'dog' from matching, it excludes the lowercase letter d, o, or g from matching individually.

29 To match a 'word' or a group of characters in order, you do not need to use [] so ^dog$ would match the word dog, and not d, o, or g as a single character.. (a dot) matches any single character, except the ending of a line. ? matches 0 or 1 of the characters or set of characters in brackets or parentheses immediately before it. (EG a? would match the lowercase letter 'a' 0 or 1 time, (abc)? would match the phrase 'abc' 0 or 1 time, while [a-z]? would match any lowercase letter from 'a to z' 0 or 1 time.)

30 + matches 1 or more of the characters or set of characters in brackets or parentheses immediately before it. (EG a+ would match the lowercase letter 'a' 1 or more times, (abc)+ would match the phrase 'abc' 1 or more times, while [a-z]+ would match 1 or more lowercase letters from 'a to z'.) * matches 0 or more of the characters or set of characters immediately before it. (EG a* would match the lowercase letter 'a' 0 or more times, (abc)* would match the phrase 'abc' 0 or more times, while [a-z]* would match 0 or more lowercase letters from 'a to z'.)

31 RewriteRule tells the server to interpret the following information as a rule. RewriteCond tells the server to interpret the following information as a condtion of the rule(s) that are immediately after it. ^ defines the begining of a 'line' (starting anchor). Remember, ^ also designates 'not' in a regular expression, so please don't get confused. ( ) creates a variable to be stored and possibly used later, and is also used to group text for use with the quantifiers ?, +, and * described above.

32 $ defines the ending of a 'line' (ending anchor), and when followed by a number from 1 to 9, also references a variable defined in the RewriteRule pattern (used for variables on the right side of the equation or to match a variable from the rule in a condition, see example below). % references a variable defined in a preceding rewrite condition. (used for variables on the right side of the equation only, see example below)

33 *note* - The right side of the equation is everything that follows the $ in a RewriteRule.

34 RewriteRule ^(var1)/no-var/(var2)$ /to-use-variables-type-$1-and-$2 The final result would look like this: to-use-variables-type-var1-and-var2 RewriteCond %{CONDITION_STUFF} ^(var1)/no-var/(var2) RewriteRule ^no-var/no-var/no-var$ /to-use-variables-type-%1-and-%2 The final result would look like this: to-use-variables-type-var1-and-var2 RewriteCond %{CONDITION_STUFF} ^(var1)/no-var/(var2) RewriteRule ^(var1)/no-var/(var2)$ /to-use-variables-type-$1-and-%2-$2 The final result would look like this: to-use-variables-type-var1-and-var2-var2

35 ** Do not use this flag if you are trying to make a 'silent' redirect. (EG proxy /outlook mailing) Flags, in mod_rewrite are what give you the control of the response sent by the server when a specific URL is requested. They are an integral part of the rule writing process, because they designate any special instructions that might be needed. (EG If I want to tell everyone a page is moved permanently, I can add R=301 to my rule and they will know.) Flags follow the rule and the most often used, are enclosed with [ ] (Not all flags are covered here, but the main and widely used ones are.)

36 [R] stands for Redirect. The default is 302-Temporarily Moved. This can be set to any number between 300 and 400, by entering it as [R=301] or [R=YourNumberHere], but 301 (Permanently Moved) and 302 (Temporarily Moved) are the most common. (If you just use [R] this will work, and defaults to 302- Temporarily Moved)

37 [F] stands for Forbidden. Any URL or file that matches the rule (and condition(s) if present) will return a 403- Forbidden response to anyone who tries to access them. (Useful for files that you would like to keep private, or you do not want indexed prior to 'going live' with them.) [G] stands for Gone. (Similar to 404-Not Found, but it indicates that a resource was intentionally removed.) Not recommended for use unless you test the HTTP protocol level used by the client and return 410-Gone only to HTTP/1.1 or enhanced HTTP/1.0 clients. Older true HTTP/1.0 clients will treat 410-Gone as 400-Bad Request.

38 [P] stands for Proxy. This creates a type of 'silent redirect' for files or pages that are not actually part of your site and can be used to serve pages from a different host, as though they were part of your site. (DO NOT mess with copyrighted material, some of us get very upset.) [NC] stands for No Case as applied to letters, so if you use this on a rule, MYsite.com, will match mysite.com... even though they are not the same case. (This can also be used with regular expressions, so instead of [a-zA-Z], you can use [a-z] and [NC] at the end of the rule for the same effect.)

39 [QSA] stands for Query String Append. This means the 'query string' (stuff after the?) should be passed from the original URL (the one we are rewriting) to the new URL. [L] stands for Last rule. As soon as this flag is read, no other following rules are processed. (Every rule should contain this flag, until you know exactly what you are doing.)

40 Expression: [a-z]+ Explanation: [a-z] matches any single letter. + matches 1 or more of the previous character or string of characters. When you put the two together you have a regular expression that matches any single letter from a to z over and over, until it runs into a character that is not a letter. Expression: ([a-z]+) [NC] Explanation: Same as above with the addition of () and [NC]. In mod_rewrite, () creates a single variable out of the regular expression, so the word matched is now in a variable. [NC] stands for 'No Case' (from mod_rewrite) specifying that the regular expression or regular text strings match both upper and lowercase letters. With this expression you can match any single word.

41 guide.pdf

42 Thanks & Regards, Uday Kumar


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