4About Dryden AquaStarted trading 1984, focus molecular sieve ion exchange filtrationPrimarily a research and development company, initial focus, water treatment in aquaculture & aquarium systemsNew products had to be developed to try and resolve water treatment issues. One of our main products is AFM (Active Filter Media)Dryden Aqua became a manufacturing companyProducts and technology now applied to;Aquaculture & Public aquariaSwimming poolsLandfill leachateDrinking water , surface, borehole and ground waterPre-treatment prior to UF ultra filtration, and replacement of UFPre-treatment prior to RO membranes for desalinationPart of the treatment system in high purity water for semi-conductor manufacture
5AFM is the recommended filter media for all public aquaria, aquatic mammals and zoological parks
640,000 AFM systems installed in Europe. AFM is the leading manufactured filtration media for the industry.
7Dryden Aqua wins top award in Dubai October 2012 Dubai Channel 1 News
9Activated sludge fine bubble diffused SBR system supplied to Saudi Arabia for the city of Medina, AFM filtration can be used on the discharge from the system to provide class 1 irrigation water.
10FP7 Research Eco-India, drinking water treatment for India, arsenic, flouride, iron and biosecurity
11Research and EthicsEco-India and FP7 research project to remove arsenicScottish Government survey of pool industry to quantify environmental status of the industryNation Health Service collaborative project to determine the toxicity of disinfection by-productsTechnology Strategy Board of the UK, development of zero waste, water treatment strategyScottish Government Hydro-Nation initiative
12AFM filters getting ready for dispatch, from Dryen Aqua warehouse and AFM production facilities in the back-ground
13Direct replacement for sand in all types of sand filters, for clean water and waste water.
15Wastewater tertiary treatment AFM may be used in existing pressure sand filters or rapid gravity filtersThere is no requirement to use moving bed filters, but AFM can also be used in moving bed filters to improve performanceBed depth 300mm to 1200mmHydraulic loading, relates to solids load, usually around 5 m/hr, when solids are over 50mg/l. Under 50 mg/l SS, flows can be increase to 10 m/hrBack-wash at 55 m/hr after air scourAFM media will last for the life of the filters. Should never need to be changed.
16AFM is being used to treat landfill leachate SBR no sedimentation, AFM solids load, approx 200 mg/l. Product water After AFM < less that 20 mg/lOther waste water applicationsmunicipal waste waterbrewery effluent, yeast controlfarm / agricultural wasteeffluent from anaerobic digestersIndustrial waste water; circuit board manufactures, chemical industry, oil platformsEffective for hydrocarbon polishing, and heavy metal removal
17Wastewater after humus tanks from fixed film biofilters or activated sludge Before & after AFM filtration full scale installation… solids 80mg/l down to <5 mg/l using a pressure AFM filter, single pass no flocculation
18AFM performance for the tertiary treatment of sewage effluent compared against different technologies Independent tests conducted by Spanish Water Company and reported in Technology del Agua , December 2009, page 47.TYPE OF FILTERSS. (mg/l)Performance % Turbidity ntubacteriaVelocityinletoutletinlet m3/m2/hRGF sand filter with sand7.142.2693.52.2336461.2Pressure filter with sand8.183.82535.874.76182231118023194.96Moving bed sand filter with sand7.082.131.79161406710307265.4Drum filter 10 micron14.667.33507.163.88455671238460323.23Disc Filter 10 micron5.63.1442.222.0673045021138302.12Ring Filter 10 micron7.413.983.013.1794477761172.5AFM® Pressure filter10.600.8996%2.980.2492 %230001000058 %3.59AFM media in a pressure filter out-performed all other technologies, some of which were 10 times the cost
19comparative evaluation of a high quality Tertiary treatmentofsewage effluentcomparative evaluation of a high qualitySandagainstAFMusing Gravity Sand filters independently certified under identical conditions
20AFM Run-phase & back-wash profile Tertiary treatment using Rapid Gravity Sand filter Channelling through bedThe graph shows the build up of pressure in the Sand filter followed by the back-wash. Run phase performance & back-wash frequency is variable. Periods where most of the water channels through the sand bed are self evident.
21Run-phase & back-wash profile Tertiary treatment using Rapid Gravity AFM filter .AFM filter media, run phase performance and back-wash frequency. Same run phase duration between a back-wash, no by-passing or channelling of waste water through the bed, stable & predictable effluent quality
22AFM removes chemicalsAFM can perform well to remove chemicals such as ferric, manganese, TBT, copper, mercury, arsenic and PCB`sWorks effluentAFM product waterAFM back-wash4.6<22.214.171.1241.15.24.010.46.19.9TBT concentrations ug/l, from a working WWT systems.BioActive chemicals are link to causing damage to the marine ecosystem and impact on climate change.
23Clean Water Treatment AFM mechanical filtration of drinking water AFM is certified under Reg 31, it is the only filter media that is certified
24Africa Drinking water before AFM after AFM AFM is used in gravity flow system as well as pressure filters.Bed depth 1200 to 1400mmRun phase water flow <10m/hrAir purge 55 to 100m/hrBack-wash at >45 m/hrAFM in simple gravity flow filters with no pre coagulation or flocculation used in Africa to produce clean water with a turbidity less than 0.5 ntuAFM is used as a pre-treatment for RO and UF membranes. Full scale trials in progress to compare AFM against UF as primary drinking water treatment process in SE AsiaAfrica
25Filtration AFM verses sand filtration Trials conducted on parallel systems with AFM and Leighton Buzzard SandWhat goes into a filter must come out in the back-wash The graph opposite is the back-wash profile for identical sand and AFM filters after 10 weeks. The profile shows that 30% more solids are back-washed out of the AFM. 30% more solids have there been removed during the run phase AFM performance is maintained while sand filters continue deteriorate with time.A high percentage of the chlorine is actually consumed by the sand filters, and changing to new sand can dramatically reduce the chlorine demand of the filter.A key point isthat the more chlorine that is consumed in oxidation of the alginates and bacterial cell biomass, the more volatile chlorine and combined chlorine compounds produced, this is a straight stoichiometric equationResearch supported by the European Commission over the last 5 years by Professor Alfred Bernard from the Catholic University in Brussels has shown, that there is a potentially serious issue with a link between high levels of volatile chlorine compounds in swimming pools and respiratory disorders such as asthma in children.The link hasn’t been categorically proved, but it is perhaps best to err on the side of caution, and give serious consideration to this point.Data from trials conducted by Suez Lyonnaise des Eaux30% improvement after 10 weeks, 50% after 52 weeks.
26Bacteria levels before and after sand and AFM Plate count at 22 deg C. The linear trend line shows a 50% performance benefit over sand.Plate count at 37 deg C confirm bacteria levels from AFM are half the level from sand filters.The data confirms the bio-instability of sand filters, and due to transient worm-hole channelling they may occasionally discharge into the product water. This does not happen with AFMThe above trials were conducted with parallel filters in Scotland operating on a drinking water treatment facility. Data was collected and analysed by Scottish Water.
27AFM is an active filter media Adsorption Sand generates dissolved organic matter (DOC) through autotrophic bacterial cell growthHydrophilic surface with a negative Zeta potential of AFM adsorbs small particles and dissolved organic molecules from water.Major reduction in DOC and this is without coagulationDOC levels approx 50% lower after AFMTests conducted by Suez Lyonnaise des Eaux
28Iron & Manganese levels before and after sand and AFM Iron levels, linear trend line confirms AFM performance is improving, sand performance is deteriorating over time. AFM performance twice as good as sand.Manganese linear trend line confirms AFM 400% better performance than sand.The data confirms the bio-instability of sand filters, and due to transient worm-hole channelling they may occasionally discharge iron and manganese back into the water. Again this this does not happen with AFMThe above trials were conducted with parallel filters in Scotland operating on a drinking water treatment facility. Data was collected and analysed by a water company.
29Autotrophic bacteria growth on sand Autotrophic nitrifying bacteria rapidly become established on sandThe autotrophs increase the suspend solids as well as DOC level in the product water by converting inorganic carbon to organic carbon.The extracellular alginate excreted by bacteria form worm holes and coagulation of sand.AFM resists biofouling and stays cleanThe above two graphs show that the sand is becoming a biofilter as indicated by the reduced ammonium and high nitrite levels. Test conducted by Scottish Water.
30Biofouling of sand and AFM Electron micro graphs of sand and AFMSand has 100% bacteria coverage after 3 days in a drinking water filterAFM stays free of biofilm, even after 5 years in sewage effluentAlginates excreted by bacteria coagulate the sand and cause wormhole channeling.New sandUsed sandNew AFMUsed AFM
31Performance AFM vs Sand ParametersandAFMcommentsSolids removalPerformance in terms of solids removed, 25% to 50% better than sand.Bacteria levelsAFM will remove 100% more bacteria from the water than sandIronAFM is very good at removing iron and manganese, due to surface –ve chargeManganeseDOCSand can generate organic matter (clean water), AFM will remove organic matterParticle size10-15< 5 umAFM will remove most particles down to 5 micron, but also many sub-micron and dissolved components by surface adsorptionBiofilter capacityAFM does not become a biofilter, not subjected bio-mechanical coagulation and worm-hole channelling
32Bacteria levels on sand and AFM transient worm holes Sand filters are biological, bio-mechanical instability results in media coagulation, transient worm hole channel and discharge of solids into the product waterAFM is electro-mechanical, media does not suffer from bacterial coagulation so no channeling of water through the filter bed.Total colony count ( aerobic) at 37 deg C, on 5 grams of filter mediaAFM18sand3,600,000Media samples were taken just prior to a back-wash at a depth of 200mm into the bed, and 500 mm from the side of the filter.Bacterial levels on AFM and sand after 3 months in a clean water filter. The Table is certified data showing total bacterial levels of 3.6 million with sand, and essentially zero with AFM.
33technical specification & mechanism How does AFM work technical specification & mechanism How does AFM work? For clean water and waste water applications
34AFM active filter media, performance summary Typically improves performance by 30% to 50% in terms of solids removed for both waste water and clean water applications. AFM does not need to be replaced, the media may be used for the life of the filter, and can be recycled and used again. AFM does not bio-coagulate or experience worm-hole channelling. Performance is stable and predictable AFM® is certified under Regulation 31 of the UK Drinking Water inspectorate, AFM® is compliance with European Water Directive (98/83/EC) & (80/778/EEC).
35O2 + H20 3O + OH Some technical aspects of AFM.. catalysis Manufactured by Dryden Aqua in Scotland from reprocessed glass and glass manufactured to Dryden Aqua specifications.The glass is reduced to a precise particle size distribution and shape to maximise the hydraulic flow characteristics and mechanical filtration performance.The raw material is chemically processed to open up the aluminosilcate atomic lattice and activate the surface physio-chemistry.Catalytic reactionsAFM catalysisO2 + H O + OHWater containing oxygen to free radicals by surfacecatalytic reactionsThe free radicals help prevent biofouling and will cause some oxidation of dissolved organic matter and heavy metals and metaloids. Dissolved oxygen levels must be above 2mg/l for the reactions to proceed
36Some technical aspects of AFM…surface charge AFM mechanically removes most particles down to 5 microns.Sand surface area, approx 3000m2/tonne, AFM surface area >1,000,000 m2/tonneThe high surface negative charge potential helps to adsorb micron and sub-micron particles as well as some dissolved organicsWorks synergistically with +ve charged cationic flocculants and polymersAFM rejects bacteria growth and worm-hole channelling-ve charge AFM surfacestern layer (slip zone) predominantly divalent and trivalent cationsAnion diffuse layer sulphate and bicarbonatesZeta –ve potential+ve cationic flocculated solids+ve charge coagulated and polar & dipolar dissolved organicsZeta Potential reactionson the surface of AFM and the behaviour of +ve and –ve ions as well as sub-micron particles and dissolved organics.
37Cost benefit analysisAFM is around 2 to 3 x the cost of sand, however we are already dealing with a relatively low cost product.AFM has been confirmed to work a great deal better than sand, and will give a return in capital out of revenue savings measured in months through savings in;a. water; back wash water reduced by up to 50%b. energy; increased run phase and reduced back-wash could give 15% savingsC. chemicals; reduced chemical consumption, chlorine, ammonium & flocculantsd. filter media; no requirement to replace AFM for the life of the filter
38Performance summary? Wastewater Clean water Performance advantage Suspended solids100 to 400%COD/BOD/TOC200%Turbidity100% to 400%AmmoniumNo change with AFMBacteria TTC50% reductionTHMs50% to 90% reductionBack-wash profileUsed to check performance
39Dryden Aqua aeruginosa Tel +44 (0) 18758 22222 Fax +44 (0) 18758 22229 Dryden Aqua LTD Butlerfield Bonnyrigg Edinburgh EH19 3JQ Scotland. UKaeruginosaTel +44 (0)Fax +44 (0)
40Annex Bacteria analytical report Spanish waste water reports AFM back-wash videoScottish Water recommendationsCertification under UK regulations Reg 31 for drinking water. AFM is also compliant with NSF Reg 61. UK regulations are much more strict than NSF.
41Faecal coliforms cfu/100ml Bacterial analysis reportFilter media samples taken from a swimming pool water treatment system, free chlorine level 0.5 to 1.5mg/l, pH 7.2 to 7.4 at 28 deg CSampleEnterococci cfu/100mlFaecal coliforms cfu/100mlP. aeruginosacfu/100mlS. aureuscfu/10ml37 degCcfu/mlSilica sand<13,600,000AFM18Standard methods of water analysis 20th edition 19989230C9222D9213E9213B9215BAerobic Plate CountClientJonkers filtration P.O Box 708, KumeuNew ZealandDate received 22/07/04Dated completed 29/07/04LaboratorySGS New Zealand Ltd.Analyst name Marnie Sleeman NZCSLaboratory NumberFilter media sample bacteriological analysis.
42Spanish water company reports may be downloaded at the following link; Click hereFrench NGO reports AFM twice as good as the best available crushed glass
44Dear Sir/Madam TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN I wish to confirm that Scottish Water has used AFM solutions and is in the process of developing a much closer working relationship with Dryden Aqua. Scottish Water tested AFM on-line for approximately 1 year in The results demonstrated significant performance advantage over sand in relation to suspended solids/iron removal and process efficiencies. I can also confirm that Scottish Water has been using AFM for targeted effluent treatment for some 14 years with considerable success in the removal of solids and BOD reduction.Scottish Water's newly formed Research and Innovation team will, during 2012, commence a strategic research program into filter media and the wider water treatment process in order to demonstrate the performance of the media across Scotland - ensuring that the results are captured and communicated across our asset base. We fully expect the results to be repeated - leading to a wider programme of engagement and adoption with of AFM. Yours faithfullyMark Haffey R&D Technical Leader, Technology & InnovationScottish Water - Always Serving ScotlandScottish Water