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Advances in Welding for Sanitary Designs Richard E. Avery Consultant to the Nickel Institute May 17, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "Advances in Welding for Sanitary Designs Richard E. Avery Consultant to the Nickel Institute May 17, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Advances in Welding for Sanitary Designs Richard E. Avery Consultant to the Nickel Institute May 17, 2004

2 Possible Materials Possible Materials 304L& 316L – used for vast majority of applications304L& 316L – used for vast majority of applications 6% Mo or super-austenitic SS6% Mo or super-austenitic SS Duplex stainless steelsDuplex stainless steels Ni-Cr-Mo nickel alloysNi-Cr-Mo nickel alloys Commercially pure titaniumCommercially pure titanium

3 Service Considerations 304L vs 316L – Mo (2-3%) in 316L improves pitting & crevice cor. resist.304L vs 316L – Mo (2-3%) in 316L improves pitting & crevice cor. resist. Both sensitive to stress cor. cracking over about 150 o FBoth sensitive to stress cor. cracking over about 150 o F Duplex SS good resist. to SCCDuplex SS good resist. to SCC Higher chlorides, low pH may require 6% Mo SS or Ni-Cr-Mo or titaniumHigher chlorides, low pH may require 6% Mo SS or Ni-Cr-Mo or titanium

4 Welding Processes Used GTAW or TIG - manual - orbital tube welding or automatic sheetGTAW or TIG - manual - orbital tube welding or automatic sheet GMAW – MIG, pulsed arc modeGMAW – MIG, pulsed arc mode SMAW or covered electrodeSMAW or covered electrode Laser welding for manu. of welded tubingLaser welding for manu. of welded tubing

5 Typical Sanitary Piping Systems Welded by gas tungsten arc welding (TIG)Welded by gas tungsten arc welding (TIG) Lines designed for CIPLines designed for CIP Inside of tube welds often not accessible for grinding or inspectionInside of tube welds often not accessible for grinding or inspection

6 Manual vs Automatic Orbital Tube Welding Short projects may favor manual weldingShort projects may favor manual welding Manual welders better able to accommodate poorer fit-up conditionsManual welders better able to accommodate poorer fit-up conditions Orbital welds have more consistent root weld beads and practically free from heat tintOrbital welds have more consistent root weld beads and practically free from heat tint

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8 In response to 3-A Request AWS D18.1 Specification for Welding Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing Systems in Sanitary (Hygienic) ApplicationsAWS D18.1 Specification for Welding Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing Systems in Sanitary (Hygienic) Applications AWS D18.2 Guide to Weld Discoloration Levels on Inside of Austenitic Stainless Steel TubeAWS D18.2 Guide to Weld Discoloration Levels on Inside of Austenitic Stainless Steel Tube

9 Goals of D18.1 & D18.2 Guidance of judging root welds of tubes from OD appearanceGuidance of judging root welds of tubes from OD appearance Guides for Procedure & Performance Qualification, Preconstruction Weld SamplesGuides for Procedure & Performance Qualification, Preconstruction Weld Samples Weld visual acceptance criteriaWeld visual acceptance criteria Illustration of weld discoloration levelsIllustration of weld discoloration levels

10 AWS D18 Committee Work Members – equipment producers, users & general interest groupsMembers – equipment producers, users & general interest groups 36 weld samples, many with ID defects – examined on OD & ID by 3-A inspectors36 weld samples, many with ID defects – examined on OD & ID by 3-A inspectors Tube with varying levels of weld discolorationTube with varying levels of weld discoloration Tube with varying discoloration levelsTube with varying discoloration levels

11 Welding Qualifications Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) - for each type of weldWelding Procedure Specification (WPS) - for each type of weld Performance Qualification - to test welders abilityPerformance Qualification - to test welders ability Preconstruction Weld Samples (PWS) - 3 welds made by each welder to aid in evaluating production weldsPreconstruction Weld Samples (PWS) - 3 welds made by each welder to aid in evaluating production welds

12 Visual Examination Requirements OD of welds examined by welder & inspector, to be consistent with WPSOD of welds examined by welder & inspector, to be consistent with WPS Welds not meeting OD standards examined by borescope or other suitable meansWelds not meeting OD standards examined by borescope or other suitable means

13 Visual Acceptance Criteria - ID & OD Welds full penetrationWelds full penetration No cracks, undercut, crevices, or embedded or protruding materialNo cracks, undercut, crevices, or embedded or protruding material Offset not to exceed 10 %Offset not to exceed 10 %

14 Visual Acceptance Criteria for External, Non-Product Contact Surface These criteria give confidence that the inside weld surface is acceptable without an internal examination

15 Non-product contact surface - Maximum concavity

16 Non-product contact surface- Maximum convexity

17 Visual Acceptance Criteria for Internal, Product Contact Surface Max. concavity 0.012 in.Max. concavity 0.012 in. Max. convexity 0.012 in.Max. convexity 0.012 in. Oxide islands (slag spots), not greater that 1/16 in. in diameter & 4 per weldOxide islands (slag spots), not greater that 1/16 in. in diameter & 4 per weld No excessive heat-tint oxideNo excessive heat-tint oxide

18 The Sample Numbers refer to the amount of oxygen in the purging gas: No.1- 10ppmNo.2 - 25ppm No.3 - 50ppm No.4 - 100ppm No.5 - 200ppm No.6 - 500ppm No. 7 - 1000ppm No.8 - 5000ppm No.9 -12500ppm No.10 -. 25000ppm Note: welds on type 304L SS showed no significant difference in heat tint colour from type 316L. AWS D18.2 (1999): Heat Tint Levels on the Inside of Welded 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel Tube

19 Heat Tint - Acceptance Limits Acceptable limits could vary with end application service, D18.1 or D18.2Acceptable limits could vary with end application service, D18.1 or D18.2 Typically 5 and greater is unacceptableTypically 5 and greater is unacceptable An acceptance level should be identified by number rather than ppm of oxygen or by workmanship standards for particular contractAn acceptance level should be identified by number rather than ppm of oxygen or by workmanship standards for particular contract

20 Factors Influencing Heat Tint Oxygen in backing gas increases HTOxygen in backing gas increases HT Moisture in backing gas increases HTMoisture in backing gas increases HT Contaminants such as hydrocarbons increase discolorationContaminants such as hydrocarbons increase discoloration Hydrogen in backing gas decreases HTHydrogen in backing gas decreases HT Metal surface finish can affect appearanceMetal surface finish can affect appearance

21 AWS D18.3 (Pending) Specification for Welding Tanks, Vessels, and Other Equipment in Sanitary (Hygienic) Applications Welding Procedure & Performance Qual.Welding Procedure & Performance Qual. Visual Examination Acceptance Criteria: - reject defects; cracks, lack of penetration etc - acceptable & unacceptable weld profiles prior to weld finishing - annex – Weld & Adjacent Zone Finishes – WF-1 (as-welded) ~ WF-8 (ground flush & electropolished)Visual Examination Acceptance Criteria: - reject defects; cracks, lack of penetration etc - acceptable & unacceptable weld profiles prior to weld finishing - annex – Weld & Adjacent Zone Finishes – WF-1 (as-welded) ~ WF-8 (ground flush & electropolished)

22 6% Mo or Superaustenitic SS Typically: 21 Cr, 24 Ni, 6 Mo, 0.2 NTypically: 21 Cr, 24 Ni, 6 Mo, 0.2 N Areas for 6% Mo not handled by 316 - high chlorides ~ over 1000 ppm - low pH environments - where better pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking resistance is requiredAreas for 6% Mo not handled by 316 - high chlorides ~ over 1000 ppm - low pH environments - where better pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking resistance is required

23 Welding 6% Mo SS Use over-alloyed filler metal – minimum of 9% Mo Ni-Cr-Mo alloyUse over-alloyed filler metal – minimum of 9% Mo Ni-Cr-Mo alloy GTAW welding procedures similar to that for 304/316 except: - preferably avoid autogenous welds to avoid lower corrosion resistance - somewhat lower heat input and interpass temperatureGTAW welding procedures similar to that for 304/316 except: - preferably avoid autogenous welds to avoid lower corrosion resistance - somewhat lower heat input and interpass temperature

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25 What are Duplex Stainless Steel? Low-carbon stainless steels containing approx. equal parts of ferrite and austenite from a balance of ferrite formers (Cr,Mo) with austenite formers (Ni,N) and heat treatment

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27 Duplex Stainless Steel Base Metal Upper Right, Weld Metal Bottom Left Source: The ESAB Group

28 Duplex SS – alloy 2205 Typically: 22 Cr, 5 Ni, 3 Mo, O.15 NTypically: 22 Cr, 5 Ni, 3 Mo, O.15 N Structure is austenite islands in ferritic matrix ~ 50/50 is idealStructure is austenite islands in ferritic matrix ~ 50/50 is ideal Higher strength – YS 2 to 3 times 316 - forming requires greater power - more spring-back during formingHigher strength – YS 2 to 3 times 316 - forming requires greater power - more spring-back during forming

29 Duplex SS – (cont.) Stress corrosion cracking resistance substantially better than 304/316Stress corrosion cracking resistance substantially better than 304/316 Pitting & crevice cor. Resistance equal or better than 316 in many mediaPitting & crevice cor. Resistance equal or better than 316 in many media Good resistance to erosion & abrasionGood resistance to erosion & abrasion

30 DSS Welding - General Requirements No preheat – 300F interpass typicalNo preheat – 300F interpass typical Heat input 15 to 65 kJ/in.Heat input 15 to 65 kJ/in. To avoid high ferrite in welds, filler metals with higher nickel used ~ 2209 with 9% nickelTo avoid high ferrite in welds, filler metals with higher nickel used ~ 2209 with 9% nickel Avoidance of arc strikes, oxidation, grinding out of cratersAvoidance of arc strikes, oxidation, grinding out of craters

31 GTAW Process - DSS Used for root passes and orbital weldsUsed for root passes and orbital welds Filler essential for ferrite-austenite balanceFiller essential for ferrite-austenite balance Ar + 20-40% He + up to 2.5% N 2 to counter N loss from weld - no hydrogenAr + 20-40% He + up to 2.5% N 2 to counter N loss from weld - no hydrogen Backing gas to maintain weld N contentBacking gas to maintain weld N content

32 Duplex SS - Welding To avoid high ferrite in welds, filler metals with higher nickel used ~ 2209 with 9% NiTo avoid high ferrite in welds, filler metals with higher nickel used ~ 2209 with 9% Ni Avoid loosing N in weld – N backing commonAvoid loosing N in weld – N backing common Heat input 15 to 65 kJ/inHeat input 15 to 65 kJ/in Interpass temperature 300F typicalInterpass temperature 300F typical

33 Nickel Alloys & Titanium Selectively used for their high corrosion resistant propertiesSelectively used for their high corrosion resistant properties Ni-Cr-Mo alloys – weldability comparable to austenitic SSNi-Cr-Mo alloys – weldability comparable to austenitic SS Commercially pure titanium – readily welded - extra care to prevent contamination from atmosphere (oxygen, nitrogen)Commercially pure titanium – readily welded - extra care to prevent contamination from atmosphere (oxygen, nitrogen)

34 Summary – Welding for Food Industry Technology well established for making structurally sound weldsTechnology well established for making structurally sound welds Greatest challenge is hygienic surface considerations, i.e. - welds free from surface defects - surface finishes comparable to base metal - control weld discoloration to levels acceptable for end applicationGreatest challenge is hygienic surface considerations, i.e. - welds free from surface defects - surface finishes comparable to base metal - control weld discoloration to levels acceptable for end application


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