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0 ULAANBAATAR CITYS AIR POLLUTION – SOURCE APORTIONMENT - MANAGEMENT S.Lodoysamba, National University of Mongolia.

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Presentation on theme: "0 ULAANBAATAR CITYS AIR POLLUTION – SOURCE APORTIONMENT - MANAGEMENT S.Lodoysamba, National University of Mongolia."— Presentation transcript:

1 0 ULAANBAATAR CITYS AIR POLLUTION – SOURCE APORTIONMENT - MANAGEMENT S.Lodoysamba, National University of Mongolia

2 Contents Air pollution of Ulaanbaatar City, What is main sources of pollution, Management of mitigation of UB air pollution 1

3 Management of air pollution mitigation 2 Ends with measurement. Starts from measurements, Air pollution concentration, Identification and apportionment of pollution sources, Modeling, Health impact study, Air pollution mitigation scenarios, Health benefit calculation Planning a target, Activity Monitoring

4 - Carbon Monoxide (CO) - Ozone (03) Main Air Quality Indicators - Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) - Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) - PM (Particulate Matter) PM10 - PM 2.5

5 Particulate Matter Distribution

6 Health Effect of PM

7 Position of sampler: UB City- Nuclear Research Center Zuun Ail 3 Horoolol Duration: – Flow rate of sampler: 16 l/мin (18-14) Height of sampling: 1.6м, 6m, 4m Sampling frequency: Twice a week Sampler: GENT Sampler with Polycarbonate filters Type of analysis: PIXE ВС measurement: Reflectometer Number of samples: 400 ( ) Data interpretation was made using software EPA PMF1.1(USA) PIXE analysis were done in the New Zealand Institute of Geosciences and Nuclear Sciences, 30 elements are analysed Methodology

8 Sampling site number CharacteristicsSite position PM size fraction Height of sampling head from the ground (m) Remarks 1 Kosa Monitor (Japanese make), Measures PM10 and PM2.5. Beta absorption.. Continuous monitoring. Gives hourly values. 106 o 54, o 55,220 PM10 and PM , 3 GENT Sampler, Schulberger Model 250, Measures PM and PM2.5. Polycarbonate (nuclepore) filters. 106 o 58, o 54,811 PM and PM ;6 Elemental analysis, Black carbon determination 4, 7, 8 Dust Trak-8520, measures PM2.5 or PM10. Laser light scattering. Continuous monitoring; Gives hourly values. 106 o 54, o 54,719 PM2.5 3;2;3 5 Rotary Bebicon, Type 35RC- 28SD5 (Japanese make). Measures PM10, 15 l/min, filter. 106 o 52, o 53,64 PM10 3 Replaced by EcoTech monitor (beta absorption) from Nov Partisol FRM-Model 2000, Measures PM10, 16.7 l/min, filter (nuclepore). 106 o 52, o 55,582 PM10 4 Elemental analysis, Black carbon determination Used samplers

9 ESTABLISHMENT OF AN AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND HEALTH IMPACT BASELINE (AMHIB) FROM AIR POLLUTION IN ULAANBAATAR (UB) CITY, MONGOLIA. World Bank Contract , Projects АГААРЫН ЧАНАР БА БОХИРДОЛЫН ЗӨӨГДЛИЙГ СУДЛАХ Шинжлэх ухаан, технологийн сэдэв, АГААРЫН БОХИРДЛЫН ҮҮСГҮҮР, ТЭДНИЙ БОХИРДОЛД ОРУУЛЖ БУЙ ХУВИЙГ РМ2,5, РМ10 АРГААР ТОДОРХОЙЛОХ СУДАЛГАА Шинжлэх ухаан, технологийн сэдэв, RCA/ IAEA PROJECT IMPROVED INFORMATION ABOUT URBAN AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT, RAS/7/013, CHARACTERIZATION AND SOURCE IDENTIFICATION OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION IN THE ASIA REGION RAS/7/015, TA (MON) : ULAANBAATAR CLEAN AIR EVALUATION OF AIR POLLUTION MITIGATION IN ULAANBAATAR CITY AND ITS HEALTH IMPACT MEASURING AND SHARING PM2.5 THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA

10 Sampling Sites

11 Months NAMHEM (1) NRC (2) Zuun ail (3) CLEM (5) 3 khoroolol (6) Average Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Annual average Months NAMHEM (1) NRC (2) Zuun ail (3) 6 buudal (4) Bayan hoshuu (7) Airport (8) Avera ge Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Annual average PM10, PM2.5 Concentrations PM10 PM2.5

12 PM 10 Concentration

13 PM 10 Concentration Time Series

14 PM 2.5 Concentration

15 PM 2.5 Concentration Time Series

16 PM10 PM2.5 Monthly Average Concentrations

17 Average Concentration Measured Average Concentration Calculated Area РМ10 ( g/m 3 ) РМ2.5 ( g/m 3 ) Exceedence Central part UB Ger area UB Site NoSite namePM2.5PM10 2 NRC Zuun ail Buudal khoroolol Bayanhoshuu Airport Average all stations Monthly Average Concentrations

18

19 Polluted Ulaanbaatar 18

20 19

21 Who is polluting the Ulaanbaatar air? 20

22 Chemical Analysis Set-up Experimental setup of the New Zealand Institute of Geosciences and Nuclear Sciences

23 PMF mass vs Gravimetric mass

24 Elements Arithmetic Mean StdDevMedianMaximumMinimum Samples > LOD a S/N PM BC Na Mg Al Si S Cl K Ca Ti Mn Fe Cu Zn Pb Elemental Concentrations (ng/m 3 )

25 PM 2.5 PROFILES

26 Source PM2.5 mass μg/ m3 Soil5.0 (0.3) a Coal combustion 112.2(1.6) Coal combustion 211.5(0.9) Motor vehicles1.9(0.2) Biomass burning1.1 (0.1) Road dust2.9 (0.2) Zinc0.6(0.1) Mass Contribution PM2.5 (Example NRC)

27 Pollution Source Apportionment

28 Pollution Source Apportionment PM10

29 Daily time Series of PM concentrations (Example TV site, GTZ station) Working days Weekend

30 29 Toxic Elements

31 Time Series of Toxic Elements

32 ConcentrationsAQI Ozone14.3 g/m3 Ozone6 PM g/m3 PM PM g/m3 PM10173 CO2214 g/m3 CO21 SO218.1 g/m3 SO210 NOx30.0 g/m3 NOx0 AQI Conditional pollutantPM Average of WORST two 187 Average of ALL 82 ConcentrationsAQI Ozone14.3 g/m3 Ozone6 PM g/m3 PM PM g/m3 PM10582 CO2214 g/m3 CO21 SO218.1 g/m3 SO210 NOx30.0 g/m3 NOx0 AQI Conditional pollutantPM10582 Average of WORST two 541 Average of ALL 224 Air Quality Index Center UB Ger Area UB

33 Main pollution sources are: PM10- Soil erosion, Combustion, Motor vehichle, Biomass burning, PM2.5- Coal combustion, Motor Vehicle+Road dust, Biomass burning, Soil Ulaanbaatar is most polluted capital city of the 50% of PM concentrations corresponds to ignition phase (cold start) and reloading of stoves; There is presence of toxic elements: Hg, Ni, V, F, Cl, Br, As in the air; Pb in the air is below the standard; AQI is 82 (Moderate) in the Central area and more than 200(Very unhealthy) in the Ger areas; Conclusion 1

34 What to do? 33

35 34 STOVE EMISSION AND EFFICIENCY TESTING LABORATORY

36 Testing stoves 35

37 Data acquisition system 36

38 SEET Lab. Diagram 37

39 Operator room

40 Gases 39

41 Temperature Measurements 40

42 Particle Measurement 41

43 MONGOL STOVE

44 BLUD Mode of Mongol Stove

45 MODIFIED MONGOL STOVE

46

47 GTZ-7.5 STOVE

48

49 PM Emission can be reduced more than 99% using raw coal, The PM emissions are so low that for much of the time the improved stove substantially cleans the ambient air that passes through it. The chimney gases are usually cleaner than the outdoor air. Conclusion 2

50 Management ?

51 Air Pollution Concentration reductions due to emission reduction scenarios. PM emissions needs to be reduced with about 94% to reach Mongolias own air quality standards for PM 10 :

52 Annual Health Benefits From Abatement Scenarios - benefits of different solutions accrue at different times.

53 The Cost of Delaying Short Term Measures: The decisive Argument for the project!

54 Some of the Lessons: -Paid off to make a full-scale AQM study. -Most critical argument for getting actual the projects through: -- Health Impacts (physical & economic). -- Cost effectiveness of abatement options, Cost of Inaction. -- Comparing concentration levels with other countries/cities.

55 Comparison of PM concentration at Zuun ail Good News

56

57 Good, but not very good (NRC )

58 Thank You for Your Attention!

59 XRF Spectrometer SPECTRO Xepos, GENT, GRIMM Samplers


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