3Competing European Claims In the middle of the 18th century, France and England had competing claims for land in North America.The French held trapping and trade routes in the Ohio Valley.The English colonies were encroaching on French territory are the population grew.They also competed over trade issues with the Native Americans in the disputed region.
61754 The First Clash The Ohio Valley British French Fort Necessity Fort Duquesne * George Washington * Delaware & Shawnee Indians
7The Battle of Fort Necessity The French set up forts along to protect their fur trading interests.Some of these forts conflicted with English claims.Virginia Governor Dinwiddie dispatched a young George Washington in 1753 to deliver a protest to the French. This protest was ignored.The British sent a party to construct a fort on the site of modern Pittsburg.Young George Washington
8The Battle of Fort Necessity A recreation of Ft. Necessity.The force was driven off by the French who, in turn, constructed Fort Duquesne on the site.The next year, Dinwiddie turned to Washington to expel the French from the site. Washington was quickly overwhelmed by superior French and Native American numbers.Washington had to retreat to the hastily constructed Fort Necessity, which he had to surrender shortly there after. This incident was a prelude to the French and Indian War.
9The Albany Congress In 1754, war was inevitable. The colonies sent delegates to Albany to discuss strategy for common defense.They approved a document written by Benjamin Franklin promoting a substructure of government below British authority to govern the colonies.The council would be comprised of elected representatives from each colony and headed by a President-General appointed by the crown.The colonies were not ready for political union and it is unlikely that the British government would have supported the plan."Join or Die" (1754) published by Franklin is considered the first political cartoon of the colonies.
10From the Albany Plan of Union (1754) From the Constitution (1787) “[the President]…he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed…”“[the President]…shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur…”“[Congress will] regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes…”“[Congress will] raise and support Armies…To provide and maintain a Navy…”“The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises…”9. That the assent of the President-General be requisite to all acts of the Grand Council, and that it be his office and duty to cause them to be carried into execution.10. That the President-General, with the advice of the Grand Council, hold or direct all Indian treaties… and make peace or declare war with Indian nations.11. That they make such laws as they judge necessary for regulating all Indian trade. …15. That they raise and pay soldiers and build forts for the defence of any of the Colonies…16. That for these purposes they have power to make laws, and lay and levy such general duties, imposts, or taxes…
111755 Br. Decides to Eliminate Fr. Presence in No. Amer. Gen. Edward Braddock evict the French from the OH Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia)Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, & Acadia.Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces.Only Br. Success expelled France from Louisiana.CAJUNS
12Braddock’s DefeatIn July 1755, the British sent a force from Virginia to attack Fort Duquesne.The heavy force was defeated by the smaller French force and their Native American allies.Both the British commander, Braddock, and the French commander Beaujeu, were killed.23 year old George Washington won accolades for rallying the defeated British and preventing the battle from turning into a rout.The first two years of fighting were characterized by humiliating defeats for the British.
131756 War Is Formally Declared! Lord LoudouinMarquis de MontcalmNative American tribes exploited both sides!
14The Seven Years War in Europe The French and Indian War was essentially the North American theatre of a larger conflict, the Seven Years War, in Europe.Britain, Prussia, and Hanover fought against an alliance of France, Austria, Saxony, Russia, Sweden and Spain.Prime Minister Pitt of England provided subsidies to Prussia to fight in Europe and committed British troops and resources to winning the war against the French in North America.The European phase of the war lasted from 1757 to 1763.
15British-American Colonial Tensions ColonialsBritishMethods of Fighting:Indian-style guerilla tactics.March in formation or bayonet charge.Military Organization:Col. militias served under own captains.Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials.Military Discipline:No mil. deference or protocols observed.Drills & tough discipline.Finances:Resistance to rising taxes.Colonists should pay for their own defense.Demeanor:Casual, non-professionals.Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings.
16Fortunes ReverseIn 1757, expansion advocate William Pitt became the British Prime Minister and vowed to lead country to victory.Pitt concentrated on:expelling the French from North Americabuying the cooperation by the colonists by stimulating the North American economy with a massive infusion of British currencybuying the support of the Native Americans with promises of fixed territorial boundaries.
17Fortunes ReverseThe greatly fortified force devastated the Cherokee to the South and began capturing strategic French forts and cutting off their supply lines.The British conquered Quebec in 1759.In 1760, they captured Montreal.In the final years of the war, the British defeated the French Navy and took French colonies in the Caribbean.The French Empire in North America came to an end.
18French Defeat: Treaty of Easton The Treaty of Easton, signed in 1758, essentially sealed France’s fate.In the treaty, the British promised the Six Iroquois Nations to stop settlements west of the Alleghenies in exchange for their neutrality in the war.This caused the French to abandon Fort Duquesne and, by 1760, Detroit and Montreal, the last two French strongholds in North America, had fallen.This was the end of major fighting in North America.
19The Treaty of ParisThe 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War.The French transferred its claims west of the Mississippi to Spain and ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to the British.The Treaties of Easton and Paris limited colonization to the Eastern seaboard.
201763 Treaty of ParisFrance --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River.Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England.England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India.
21Pontiac's RebellionNative Americans quickly grew disenchanted with the British.The British exhibited little cultural sensitivity, traded unfairly, and failed to stop encroachments on Indian land.This unrest culminated in a rebellion by Pontiac, a Native American leader who united various tribes with the goal of expelling the British.The uprising lasted from 1763 to 1766.Massacres and atrocities occurred on both sides— most notably, British General Jeffrey Amherst gave the Native Americans blankets infested with smallpox.
22Chief Pontiac: Address to Ottawa, Huron, and Pottawatomie Indians (May 5, 1763) “It is important … that we exterminate from our lands this nation which seeks only to destroy us. You see as well as I do that we can no longer supply our needs, as we have done from our brothers, the French. The English sells us goods twice as dear as the French do, and their goods do not last. …When I go to see the English commander and say to him that some of our comrades are dead, instead of bewailing their death, as our French brothers do, he laughs at me and at you. If I ask for anything for our sick, he refuses with the reply that he has no use for us. …Are we not men like them? … What do we fear? It is time.”
23The Royal Proclamation of 1763 Violent incidents such as Pontiac's Rebellion prompted the English crown to attempt to mandate an end to encroachments on territory promised to the Indians.Settlers were not to establish themselves west of the “Proclamation Line.”The effort was unsuccessful and is viewed by many to be a leading cause of the Revolutionary War.
24Effects of the War on Britain? 1. It increased her colonial empire in the Americas.2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt.3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings.Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary!
25Effects of the War on the American Colonials 1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time.2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated.3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify.
26Rethinking Their Empire Br. Gvt. measures to prevent smuggling:1761 writs of assistanceJames Otis’ caseProtection of a citizen’s private property must be held in higher regard than a parliamentary statute.He lost parliamentary law and custom had equal weight.
28Theories of Representation Real WhigsQ-> What was the extent of Parliament’s authority over the colonies??Absolute?OR Limited?Q-> How could the colonies give or withhold consent for parliamentary legislation when they did not have representation in that body??
29Stamp Act Crisis Loyal Nine - 1765 Sons of Liberty – began in NYC: Samuel AdamsStamp Act Congress – * Stamp Act ResolvesDeclaratory Act – 1766
30Townshend Duties Crisis: 1767-1770 1767 William Pitt, P. M. & Charles Townshend, Secretary of the Exchequer.Shift from paying taxes for Br. war debts & quartering of troops paying col. govt. salaries.He diverted revenue collection from internal to external trade.Tax these imports paper, paint, lead, glass, tea.Increase custom officials at American ports established a Board of Customs in Boston.
31Colonial Response to the Townshend Duties 1. John Dickinson * Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania. 2nd non-importation movement: * “Daughters of Liberty” * spinning bees3. Riots against customs agents: * John Hancock’s ship, the Liberty * 4000 British troops sent to Boston.
32many colonists began calling people who joined the non-importation For the first time,many colonists began calling peoplewho joined the non-importationmovement,"patriots!"