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The Roaring Twenties.

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Presentation on theme: "The Roaring Twenties."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Roaring Twenties

2 Focus: How does communism differ from American capitalism and democracy

3 I. Red Scare and Nativism
Russian Revolution A. Bolsheviks take over Russia Change its name the Soviet Union Communism - a system with one party and gov’t ownership of everything.

4 2. Red Scare Some in U.S. were joining Communist groups. People were afraid Communism would spread.

5 Raids Mitchell Palmer (Congressman) led communist raids tried to find people who were a threat to America

6 Sacco and Vanzetti Two Italian radicals who avoided the draft. Accused of murder did not get a fair trial sentenced to death (Aug 23, 1927)

7 KKK (Ku Klux Klan) million members Harassment of people unlike themselves

8 II. Management - Labor Conflicts
Strikes Following WWI there many strikes in an attempt to raise wages that had been adjusted for post war inflation a. Inflation – the rise in the general level of prices of goods and services.

9 Boston Police Strike Boston police went on strike because working conditions were poor and wages were low

10 Steel Mill Strike An attempt by steel workers to strike because many of their jobs had been lost to technological advancements.

11 Discussion Questions How were Sacco and Vanzetti victims of Nativism?
How would better technology lead to strikes?

12 Focus: How have consumer products changed compared to 20 years ago

13 III. Christian Fundamentalism
Fundamentalism - movement based on literal interpretation of the bible Creationism – The belief that the creation of the earth is scientifically described in the Bible.

14 Scopes Trial In 1925 in Tennessee it is a crime to teach evolution John Scopes - biology teacher Clarence Darrow - his lawyer Scopes loses and is fined $100 by the jury




18 IV. Changing Lifestyles
Urban Sprawl - cities spread in all directions Changes: Garages Gas stations Traffic lights. Route 66


20 Electricity Most households (except farms) had it. New items: irons, refrigerators, ranges, etc.

21 Buying on Credit Installment Plan - buy over an extended period of time. Low interest. Many thought economic prosperity would last forever!!!

22 Lifestyles Millions Moving to cities Fast pace Movies, museums, plays, sporting events

23 Birth rate drops Better consumer products Sliced bread canned foods More kids go to school instead of work By million students enrolled in High School

24 Heroes and other Important Figures
Sports become wildly popular Babe Ruth - N.Y. Yankees Slugger Satchel Paige, Jackie Robinson Negro Leagues - Founded in 1920


26 Famous Firsts Gertrude Ederle First woman to swim the English Channel Charles Lindbergh - first not stop solo flight across the Atlantic


28 Celebrities Charlie Chaplin - movie star Mickey Mouse George Gershwin – musician F. Scott Fitzgerald - novelist (Great Gatsby) Ernest Hemingway Tabloids, Magazines and Radio become popular


30 Discussion Questions Why would the Scopes Trial be known as the “Trial of the Century.” What evidence shows that people were better off in the 20’s than before WWI?

31 Focus: What is corruption?

32 V. Republican Presidency
1920 – “A Return to Normalcy” Warren G. Harding becomes president Calvin Coolidge becomes V.P. Goal is to return to normal after the war.

33 B. America was tired of war and eight years of Democrat Wilson
The nation welcomed the non-controversial Harding who was a small time self-made businessman

34 America-first foreign policy Rejection of the League of Nations
Harding is the classic Republican Tax Cuts Help for big business America-first foreign policy Rejection of the League of Nations Stiff tariffs to protect American industry

35 Kellogg-Briand Pact 64 Nations signed it Renounced war as an instrument of national policy U.S. becomes isolationists opposition to political or social entanglements

36 Dawes Plan to avoid another war, U.S. banks loan Germany 2.5 billion dollars to pay their debts. Germany then pays the U.S.


38 Quota System There was a maximum number of immigrants allowed to come to the U.S. (exceptions for the W. Hemisphere) No Japanese allowed at all


40 Ohio Gang Cabinet members that were Harding’s friends Scandals Scandals rocked Harding's administration Millions were taken from the Veterans Admin. Hospitals Harding’s Attorney Gen. was implicated for fraud

41 Teapot Dome Most famous scandal involved Teapot Dome Two oil reserves Elk Hills, CA Teapot Dome, WY

42 The areas were marked for future use of the US Navy
Sec. of Interior got a hold of the lands Sold off drilling leases to private developers Received thousands in bribes


44 Presidential Tragedy As the Teapot Dome Scandal was being investigated, Pres. Harding suffered a fatal heart attack. Sec. of Interior was convicted of bribery

45 New President Coolidge was untainted by the scandals and took Harding’s place and easily won reelection in 1924. Known as “Silent Cal” because of his hands-off approach to the office

46 3. Herbert Hoover “A vote for Smith is a vote for the Pope,” proclaimed banners in 1928 Smith also favored the repeal of Prohibition Hoovers slogan was “Rum, Romanism and Ruin.” Hoover announced an abolition of poverty

47 Discussion Questions What evidence shows that Americans had become isolationists? What scandals plagued the Harding Presidency?

48 Focus: How is the United States culturally diverse?

49 VI. The Jazz Age Great Migration - African Americans move from South to North Tensions escalate in the North NAACP Led by W.E.B. Du Bois Worked on anti-lynching legislation

50 Marcus Garvey (Jamaican)
Universal Negro Improvement Association Believed African-Americans should form separate society (move to Africa) Arrested for mail fraud and deported back to Jamaica

51 Harlem - “Capital of Black America”
Harlem Renaissance - literary and artistic movement. Langston Hughes – poet from Missouri Countee Cullen - poet Claude McKay - poet Zora Neale Hurston -folklorist





56 Musicians of the Jazz Age
Louis Armstrong Duke Ellington Bessie Smith

57 VII. Prohibition 18th Amendment
Prohibition - prohibits manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages. Rural south and west support Alcohol is a part of immigrant culture Speakeasies - underground saloons and nightclubs Bootleggers - liquor smugglers


59 Organized Crime People had to turn to gangsters to get access to alcohol. Al Capone – bootlegger netted over $60 million a year. Killed off competition

60 VIII. Status of Women More women in the work force
million women working a. Earned less than men, rarely promoted to management. Wanted equal status as men.

61 Flappers - young women who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes of the day.
Hats Waist-less short dresses beads and bracelets Bob haircuts Smoking, drinking, dancing.


63 Discussion Questions What factors led to the rise of organized crime?
How did the role of women change during the 20’s? The End!

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