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Feeding Back On Students Writing? Try talking to them! by Wayne Trotman Izmir Katip Çelebi UniversityTurkey.

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Presentation on theme: "Feeding Back On Students Writing? Try talking to them! by Wayne Trotman Izmir Katip Çelebi UniversityTurkey."— Presentation transcript:

1 Feeding Back On Students Writing? Try talking to them! by Wayne Trotman Izmir Katip Çelebi UniversityTurkey

2 Options Available Self-evaluation Self-evaluation Peer correction (PC) Peer correction (PC) Teacher error correction (EC) Teacher error correction (EC) Teacher written comments (TWC) Teacher written comments (TWC) Computer mediated feedback Computer mediated feedback Teacher-student conferencing (TSC) Teacher-student conferencing (TSC)

3 Self evaluation Its important not to overlook writers as critical readers of their own work Its important not to overlook writers as critical readers of their own work Feedback may be more effective when it is combined with that of self and others Feedback may be more effective when it is combined with that of self and others..the ultimate aim of any form of feedback should be to move students to a more independent role where they can critically evaluate their own writing… (Hyland &Hyland 2006a)..the ultimate aim of any form of feedback should be to move students to a more independent role where they can critically evaluate their own writing… (Hyland &Hyland 2006a)

4 Peer correction Research claims many positive effects for PC Research claims many positive effects for PC Involves students actively; more authentic audience Involves students actively; more authentic audience Recent research questions effectiveness of PC Recent research questions effectiveness of PC Students are more likely to rely on teacher feedback Students are more likely to rely on teacher feedback Questions about the quality of peer feedback Questions about the quality of peer feedback Careful preparation and training for PC are essential Careful preparation and training for PC are essential

5 Teacher response: two types Teacher error correction / written feedback Teacher error correction / written feedback Research in 1980s & 1990s began to question the effectiveness of fbk on student improvement, because it was too often: Research in 1980s & 1990s began to question the effectiveness of fbk on student improvement, because it was too often: poor quality poor quality vague vague inconsistent inconsistent misunderstood misunderstood

6 Teacher error correction (EC) Truscott (1996) saw little benefit in EC Truscott (1996) saw little benefit in EC Felt EC was harmful, as it was time consuming Felt EC was harmful, as it was time consuming Students expect to see teacher response to error Students expect to see teacher response to error Difficult to draw conclusions and generalisations Difficult to draw conclusions and generalisations from the literature, although.. from the literature, although.. Overall students appear to attend to EC and use it to make accurate changes in their texts Overall students appear to attend to EC and use it to make accurate changes in their texts

7 Teacher written feedback L2 students are positive about this, although.. L2 students are positive about this, although.. Contribution to immediate and long term writing development is still unclear Contribution to immediate and long term writing development is still unclear Studies suggest students… Studies suggest students… ignore or misuse comments when revising drafts ignore or misuse comments when revising drafts understand the problem but cannot respond understand the problem but cannot respond delete the problem to avoid issues raised delete the problem to avoid issues raised

8 Computer-mediated feedback Increasingly common in distance learning and online supervision Increasingly common in distance learning and online supervision Conferencing: synchronous and asynchronous Conferencing: synchronous and asynchronous Synchronous – real time chat Synchronous – real time chat Asynchronous – Asynchronous – Claimed to make writing more collaborative Claimed to make writing more collaborative

9 Teacher student conferencing Advantages: In TSC students receive more focused and usable feedback (Zamel 1985) In TSC students receive more focused and usable feedback (Zamel 1985) TSC supplements the limitations of the usual one way feedback TSC supplements the limitations of the usual one way feedback TSC saves teacher-time on marking papers later TSC saves teacher-time on marking papers later TSC allows students to ask questions about feedback TSC allows students to ask questions about feedback

10 The use of teacher-student conferencing is therefore intuitively attractive and supported by the positive experiences of many teachers, but empirical research on this area is rather limited. (Ken Hyland, 2003)

11 Forms of TSC Usually one-to-one, outside the classroom, and may… Usually one-to-one, outside the classroom, and may…..focus on completed work, drafts in progress or student writing strategies..focus on completed work, drafts in progress or student writing strategies..be done on an ad hoc or planned basis during lessons..be done on an ad hoc or planned basis during lessons..be an optional extra or compulsory feature of the course...be an optional extra or compulsory feature of the course. TSC should always end with a possible course of action TSC should always end with a possible course of action

12 Planning decisions hold conferences in class or outside? hold conferences in class or outside? one-to-one or in small groups? one-to-one or in small groups? how frequently? how frequently? how much time for each student? how much time for each student? which topics to cover? which topics to cover? ask students to prepare for the conference? ask students to prepare for the conference? how to manage the conference? how to manage the conference? how to follow up the conference? how to follow up the conference?

13 Conducting conferences TSC should involve the teacher and writer, and address the most noticeable issues in the writing TSC should involve the teacher and writer, and address the most noticeable issues in the writing Research cautions against being over- directive Research cautions against being over- directive Teachers should support students work, rather than edit it Teachers should support students work, rather than edit it Students should be encouraged to initiate issues Students should be encouraged to initiate issues

14 Suggested procedures for TSC make the situation non-threatening make the situation non-threatening find something to praise find something to praise establish a collaborative relationship establish a collaborative relationship engage the student in the analysis engage the student in the analysis respond to writing as work in progress respond to writing as work in progress ask the student to sum up the conference ask the student to sum up the conference end with praise and encouragement end with praise and encouragement

15 Action Research?.. is a process through which teachers collaborate in evaluating their practice, try out new strategies, and record their work in a form that is understandable by other teachers... is a process through which teachers collaborate in evaluating their practice, try out new strategies, and record their work in a form that is understandable by other teachers. Elliot (1991)

16 Burns (2005) AR framework exploring – identifying planning – data collection analysing / reflecting hypothesising / speculating intervening – observing reporting – writing - presenting

17 Identifying Two out of five teachers engaged in TSC EM only conferenced in her office; planned, pastoral care MT conferenced ad hoc in the classroom in quiet moments.. and EM highly recommended conferencing after noting an increase in student interest

18 Data collection Three teachers; each with two students Analysed six transcripts, varying in length Collected and analysed first drafts and follow-up drafts; noted improvements

19 Comments by teachers I exercised my power on these students I didnt let them express themselves..maybe I killed their ability to create nw things. I could have let them do it their own way, instead of my own.

20 Analysing: noting desirable features Eliciting error correction Praise with mitigation (however..) Teacher-questioning Pausing

21 Intervening: a new team Stage two conferencing Teachers read, then implemented desirable features noted from stage one analysis Observed what happened...

22 Observing: Praise and mitigation Our study is on-going but.. One of the most dominant features appears to be related to how teachers preface their criticism in conferencing... how they soften the blow or sugar the pill. This sentence is fine, however there are some problems

23 Summary: Conferencing is a potentially useful method of providing feedback on students work Conferencing is a potentially useful method of providing feedback on students work On-going action research reveals desirable features exist, one of which appears to relate to praise with mitigation On-going action research reveals desirable features exist, one of which appears to relate to praise with mitigation

24 Contact details Dr. Wayne Trotman Izmir Katip Çelebi University School Foreign Languages Izmir-Turkey

25 References Hyland, K. Second Language Writing, Cambridge University Press : CUP Hyland, K. Second Language Writing, Cambridge University Press : CUP Hyland K & Hyland F. Feedback on second language students writing. In Language Teaching, 39.2, 2006: CUP Hyland K & Hyland F. Feedback on second language students writing. In Language Teaching, 39.2, 2006: CUP Hyland K & Hyland F. Feedback in Second Language Writing: contexts and issues. 2006: CUP Hyland K & Hyland F. Feedback in Second Language Writing: contexts and issues. 2006: CUP


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