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SCHOOLING & CURRICULUM Filipino American Education Institute

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Presentation on theme: "SCHOOLING & CURRICULUM Filipino American Education Institute"— Presentation transcript:

1 SCHOOLING & CURRICULUM Filipino American Education Institute
Dr. Doris Christopher –UH Manoa Sheri Livingston – Kalakaua Middle July 1, 2010

2 Part I. Schooling Background
Educational Needs of Filipino Immigrant Students - Chattergy & Ongteco article – 1991 (from homework). Group work

3 Part II Conceptual Background
BICS: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Social language used in everyday interactions; playground language CALP: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Language used in schooling Cummins 1979

4 How long? 2 years = Conversational English (BICS)
4 - 7 years = Academic English (CALP): for bilingually* schooled students achieving on grade level in L1 to reach on grade level* in L2 (English). 5 - 7 years = immigrants schooled all in the L2 but who have had years of schooling on grade level in the home country 7 – 10 years = With no L1 instruction, schooled all in L P. 35 – 37 Thomas & Collier Quality bilingual programs with with experienced bilingual teachers At the 50% percentile or NCE [normal curve equivalent] is what is typical for native English speakers 700,000 school records examined in 5 large school districts – Thomas and Collier, 1997

5 Impacts Bilingually* schooled students: But, ELLs schooled all in L2:
Can sustain their gains in L2 (English) as they move through secondary school. But, ELLs schooled all in L2: tend to go back down in achievement as they reach the upper grades (compared to native English speakers) P. 35 – 37 Thomas & Collier Quality bilingual programs with experienced bilingual teachers

6 Impacts At first, ELLs in grades K-3 (schooled all in L2) make dramatic gains! can mislead admin & teachers to assume that this will continue. P. 35 – 37 Thomas & Collier

7 How does this happen? True = ELLs in all program types achieve significant gains each year. But ELLs schooled all in L2 may gain 6-8 months (out of 10-month academic yr) as they reach middle and high school native English speakers gain 10 of the 10 months. The gap becomes wider each academic year. P. 35 – 37 Thomas & Collier 50% percentile or NCE (normal curve equivalent) is what is typical for native English speakers

8 WHY? (Does it take so long?)
Yes, language acquisition is a complex process that is also developmental But the main reason? Native English speakers are not standing still waiting for ELLs to catch up with them. Thomas & Collier, p. 41

9 Non -Predictors of academic achievement in L2
Generalized socioeconomic status (SES) is bound up with & not separable from others: family aspirations/hopes previous SES in home country amount of parents’ formal schooling Parents’ level of proficiency in English

10 Predictors of academic achievement in L2
Powerful predictors: The amount of formal schooling in L1 The most powerful predictor Parental education level [some data to support this] School program!

11 Type of L2 Instruction Teach the English language AND the full curriculum in the L2 Through ESL content, or Sheltered academic instruction In a socially supportive environment Challenge ELLs to work at age-appropriate level through L2 Make material meaningful for their level of proficiency in L2 Thomas & Collier, p. 51

12 Citation for Cummins 1984.

13 CALP: What is Academic Language Proficiency?
Knowledge of academic language: complex syntax academic vocabulary a complex discourse style Knowledge of specialized subject matter: the content of subjects such as algebra history literature, etc. Krashen and Brown 2007

14 Academic Language: Used in school and the professions
the language of story problems in math social studies science texts, and so on Outside of school: the language of business and finance science politics Krashen and Brown 2007

15 Some Factors that Influence Literacy
L1 literacy in ELLs transfers to L2 literacy If not literate in L1: then ELLs will take longer to achieve literacy in their L2 (English) Proficiency in academic language can then take 7-10 years

16 Homework Link Principle #2: Fluency in everyday conversation is not sufficient to ensure access to academic texts and tasks (NWREL 2008)

17 Homework Link Cont’d. - Academic English:
Is more complex Has specific vocabulary Has different syntactical forms use of passive voice & the conditional Is less dependent on context which gives fewer clues to meaning Relies on very precise references

18 Good Instruction - By Itself
Does not provide ELLs with the language development they need to build proficiency (NWREL, 2008, p. 7) Therefore: working successfully with ELLs is not ‘just good teaching’

19 ELLs Need Comprehensible input Modifications and supports
information conveyed in a manner so that ELLs can understand most of it even if not every word (Krashen 1981) Modifications and supports Which depend on: language proficiency literacy background prior level of education

20 Stages of Language Acquisition
Handout: ‘Chart of Stages and Strategies’ Silent/Receptive Early Production Speech Emergence Intermediate/Advanced Proficiency Handout: ‘CALLA: Academic Language Functions’

21 Part III: Scaffolded Reading Experiences [SRE] - Introduction
An SRE is a set of activities for prereading, during-reading, and postreading specifically designed to assist ELLs in successfully reading, understanding, and learning from a particular selection. (Fitzgerald & Graves, 2004, p. 15)

22 SRE Re-defined Analyzing, preparing, and implementing a successful reading experience for ELLs, no matter what the content area, by creating prereading, during reading, and post reading activities.

23 How?? consider your students the text they are reading
what you want them to gain from their reading Create a range of options that you prepare (for pre-, during, & post) To help them read To help them reach your objectives

24 Components for SREs See component list – (handout)

25 Part IV: SRE Concept #1 Activating background knowledge differs from
Building background knowledge. [Principle #4, 2008 NWREL p. 22]

26 SRE Concept #1 - Example Please read silently: “An ontological viewpoint does not negate the influence of otherness in the conception of self.”

27 SRE Concept #1 Was that sentence easy or difficult to understand?
Why? [Discuss with a partner] Reasons: complex structure (use of negatives) unknown or difficult topic unknown vocabulary Hence, ontology is inquiry into a being in so much as it is a being, or into beings insofar as they exist, and not insofar as, for instance, particular facts obtained about them or particular properties relating to them.

28 Activate, or Build? Activating background knowledge:
If a word is already known in the L1, then translating it, or giving the meaning, is putting a new label on an already-understood concept. [Vocabulary work]

29 Activate, or, Build Building background knowledge:
If the concept or idea is new, then giving a new label [vocabulary work] is not enough. You have to teach the concept AND provide the label.

30 SRE Concept #2: Length of SREs
Not all SREs must be long or extensive. Structure of SREs – handouts ‘Waves’ example ‘The Girl Who Struck Out Babe Ruth’ example

31 SRE Concept #3: Literacy Skills
SREs do not teach emergent literacy skills They do support, or scaffold, the reading experience for ELLs to help them access understanding via activities that include: Prereading During reading Post-reading

32 SRE Concept #4: Make Your Instructional Delivery Comprehensible
Handout: ‘Top Ten Things Teachers Can Do’ Add non-verbal cues to convey meaning through: dramatization gesture pictures graphic organizers concrete objects (Peregoy & Boyle, p. 126)

33 Make Your Instructional Delivery Comprehensible – Cont’d.
Verbal strategies: paraphrase repeat key vocabulary in context summarize main points repeat information review frequently avoid idioms and slang enunciate clearly without raising your voice. (Peregoy & Boyle, p. 126; Reed & Railsback, 2003, pg )

34 SRE Concept #5: Use all 4 language skills
Incorporate listening, speaking, reading, and writing into an SRE as much as possible These language skills interact and support each other. Oral and written language are intertwined in our day-to-day lives. (Peregoy & Boyle, p. 119)

35 SRE Concept #5 Four Skills Cont’d. Listening and Reading
Are receptive* skills, but not passive Listeners and readers actively take the speakers’ words and recreate the message to comprehend it. Thus, when you assist students with listening comprehension -- you are assisting them with reading comprehension. (Peregoy & Boyle, p. 119) Receptive: messages are received by ear or by eye and meaning is reconstructed based partly on prior knowledge

36 SRE Concept #5 Four Skills Cont’d. Speaking and Writing
are productive uses of language The speaker (or writer) must create the message for an audience. Thus, when you assist students with spoken composition -- you are assisting them with written composition. (Peregoy & Boyle, p. 119)

37 SRE Concept #6: Pre-reading
(Presenters will model this shortly)

38 SRE Concept #7: During Reading
(See list of Components handout)

39 SRE Concept #8: Post-Reading
Involves ELLs in processing the material in some way. Not all reading selections are meant to be ‘digested’, but some sort of postreading experience is often appropriate. Trip analogy: Do you take a trip and promptly forget about it? Or, do you keep the memory alive and scrapbook it, organize slides, a video, or photos to share? (Fitzgerald & Graves, p. 207)

40 Post-Reading Postreading activities allow students to re-live the reading experience: discover new insights to take explore ways to act on those discoveries extend ideas explore new ways of thinking, doing, seeing to invent and create build bridges to other experiences, whether those take place in their lives or in other texts (Fitzgerald & Graves, p. 207)

41 Post-Reading Students do more than recall what they have read and demonstrate understanding. They also: “apply, analyze, synthesize, evaluate, and elaborate the information and ideas created through reading the text, and, connect the information and ideas to their prior knowledge, to other things they’ve read, to information and ideas they already have, and to the world in which they live.” (Fitzgerald & Graves, p. 206)

42 Part V. Modeling an SRE: Prereading
Using a content lesson Materials to use: Guidesheet for analysis of content lesson: assumed prior knowledge language components CALLA for strategies & content areas NWREL 2008 for content areas Knowledge taxonomy verb list and sentence stems

43 Vocabulary Some types: Content-specific General academic vocabulary
Idioms Compound words

44 Common Words, but Content-Specific Meanings
Math Set Table Times Plot Science Medium

45 Math Vocabulary: Variety for same operation
The ‘+’ symbol can be referred to orally or in writing as: plus added to and combine sum increased by Subtraction can be signaled by: subtract from decreased by less minus differ less than (Peregoy & Boyle, p. 135)

46 Other: Content-Specific vs General Academic Language
Math content specific: hypotenuse parabola numerator denominator addend sum Math academic: combine describe Science example: (show vocab for on the human nervous system Hiebert, best practices for ELLs, page 5, slide 6

47 Other: Compound Words & Idioms
[show E. H. Hiebert, “1c_Hiebert.pdf” on the 5 vocabularies of school page 3, slide 3

48 Other: Phrasal Verbs Examples Look at Look into Look around Look up
Look through Look over Look after Meanings See Investigate Search Find (as in the dictionary) Scan Examine; study To take care of; care for

49 Part VI: SREs & Curriculum analysis by participants
Small group work on lessons Participants analyze - using the same materials we modeled Participant reports

50 Reference List Chamot, A. U. and O’Malley, J. M. (1994). The CALLA handbook: Implementing the cognitive academic language learning approach. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Chattergy, Virgie and Ongteco, Belen C. (1991). Educational needs of Filipino immigrant students. In J. Y. Okamura, A. R. Agbayani, and M. T. Kerkvliet (Eds.), The Filipino American Experience in Hawaii: In commemoration of the 85th anniversary of Filipino Immigration to Hawaii, pp. 142 – 152. Social Process in Hawaii, vol 33. Department of Sociology: University of Hawaii at Manoa. Cummins, J. (1984). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In California State Department of Education, Sacramento Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework, pp 16 – 62. Washington, D.C.: Office of Bilingual Bicultural Education, Department of Education. ED Cummins, J. (1979) Cognitive/academic language proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the optimum age question and some other matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 19, ED Deussen, Theresa; Autio, Elizabeth; Miller, Bruce; Lockwood, Anne Turnbaugh; Stewart, Victoria. (2008). What teachers should know about instruction for English language learners: A report to Washington State. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.

51 Reference List Cont’d. Fitzgerald, J., & Graves, M. F. (2004). Scaffolding reading experiences for English language learners. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon. Hiebert, Elfrieda H. (June 5, 2008). Increasing the comprehension of English language learners: The fluency/vocabulary connection. Conference presentation. Conference title: Best Practices for ELLs: Building Academic Success. Hosted by New York Department of Education, the Office of English Language Learners. Retrieved "hiebert-best-practices-for-ell.pdf" on from Hiebert, Elfrieda H. (October 6, 2008). Reading content-area texts: What's involved for English language learners. Conference presentation. Center for Research on the Educational Achievement and Teaching of English Language Learners (CREATE) conference title: ‘Math, Science, & Social Studies: A Focus on English Language Learners in Middle School’. Minneapolis, MN. Retrieved “1c_Hiebert.pdf” on from Krashen, S. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Krashen, Stephen D., & Brown, Clara Lee. (2007). What is academic language proficiency? Research Papers - Singapore Tertiary English Teachers Society (STETS), Review 6, 1-4. Retrieved April 13, 2010 from

52 Reference List Cont’d. Krashen, S. & Terrell, T. D. (1993). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. San Francisco, CA: The Alemany Press. Peregoy, S.F. & Boyle, O. (2008). Reading, writing and learning in ESL: A resource book for K-12 teachers (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education. Reed, B. & Railsback, J. (2003). Strategies and Resources for Mainstream Teachers of English Language Learners. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Thomas, W.P., & Collier, V. (1997). School effectiveness for language minority students. (NCBE Resource Collection Series No. 9). Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. Retrieved April 18, 2003, from

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