6Turnover – Definition of Key Terms The process in which employees leave the organization and have to be replacedTurnover RateInvoluntary turnoverTurnover initiated by the organisation (often among people who would prefer to stay).Voluntary turnoverTurnover initiated by employeesNumber of Employees leaving the Company in a Year 100%Number of Employees at Midyear
7Performance Turnover Relation High mobility, opportunities due to high labor market valuePoor Evaluation; small pay raises; poor satisfactionAverage turnover underestimates critical leaves20%Turnover10%AverageLowMiddleHighPerformanceAccording to: William and Livingstone (1994). Another look at the relationship between performacne and voluntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 37,
8Turnover Costs Visible („Direct“) Costs Hidden („Indirect“) Costs TrainingOnboardingHiringVisible („Direct“) CostsSelectionMarketingVacancyLost Productivity of Other EmployeesSeparationLearning Curve of New HireHidden („Indirect“) CostsLost Productivity of Other EmployeesLost Productivity of Vacant PositionLost Productivity of Other EmployeesLost Productivity of IncumbantPre-DepartureVacancyIntroductionEmployee LeavesNew Employee HiredNew Employee Fully EffectiveSource: Corporate Leadership Council (1998). Employee Retention
10Retention FactorsWhich of the following factors are most likely to hinder your company’s ability to retain talented employees over the next three years? Select up to three (Answers in %)The Economist Intelligence Unit 2008 (Responses of executives around the globe)
11Major Retention Factors for High Potentials Challenging and strategic ProjectsBoard AwarenessFreedom to ActRetentionProfessional Networks WithinCompetitive SalaryExecutive Trust & Support
12New Generations require new Ways of Life 1020304050607080LearnWorkPrivate
13Flexible Working Structures fixedLocationmobilefixedTimeflexiblefixedStructureflexibleEmployees go to WorkEmployees take their Work with them
14The common Approach: Turnover Diagnosis Usage of scientific methods to systematically answer the question: Who leaves why?88% of all companies survey by Mercer in conduct exit surveys and/or exit interviews to capture reasons to leaveWhile results are always of general interest they hardly provide relevant insights for the business line (e.g. female employees leave the company for different reasons than male employees)Results taken from turnover diagnosis help companies to undertake strategic measures with regards to employer brandingTurnover diagnosis can be seen as a reactive rather than as a proactive measure
15Exit Interview (Example: Intel) What was the main reason that you decided to leave?Is your new position in a different line of work than the one you where in while at Intel?How would you characterize your new employer?Would you say your new employer is better than Intel, about the same as Intel, or not as good as Intel in terms of:How would you descibe your relationship with your manager while you where at Intel?How would you describe your experience with Intel?If a friend approached you and told you he/she was looking for a similar position at Intel, how likely would you be recommend Intel?Any other comments about Intel or you new position?PayBenefitsLocationWorking ConditionsJob SecurityAdvancement OpportunitiesProduct QualityCoworkersCompany LeadershipCompany Image
16A simple Framework to predict Turnover 1Employee Commitment24Capabilities to do a good JobIntention to leave/staySupervisor QualityTurnoverSocial embedded ness3Four strong questions to be asked regularly1 Would you recommend a friend to work at X1?2 Do you have everything you need to do your job well?3 Do you enjoy working with your peers and supervisor?4 Do you seriousely consider leaving X1 within the next 6 months?1 X = Name of the company in question
18Retention Target Groups HighLet GoRe- RecruitRisk of DepartureTurnover IntentionDon‘t CareTake CareLowLowEmployee ValueHighImpact of Departure
19Impact of „Cost of Changing Career“ Cost of Doing NothingBenefits of working at other employerCost of Changing CareerCost of Doing NothingCost of ChangeBenefits of staying with current employer
20Turnover Decision Styles High Involvement Decision MakingSystematically and carefully taking into consideration current employment, alternative employement opportunities, own strength and weaknesses, long-term expectations and private situationOpportunity Driven Decision MakingUnderestimation of appealing elements of current employment and consistent overestimation of other employment offers even in times of limited pressureFleeing from current SituationFeeling that everything is better compared to the status quo. Negatively perceived elements of actual job are main drivers for changing careerExternally Driven Decision MakingEmployment alternatives including the current one are evaluated according to friends‘ and family‘s attitudes and expectations
21Job Motivation and Satisfaction Prof. Dr. Armin Trost
22Types of Theorie Content Theory Process Theory These theories attempt to explain those specific things which actually motivate the individual at workMaslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsJob Characterstics Model of Hackman & OldhamHerzberg’s TheorieProcess TheoryThese theories attempt to identify the relationship among the dynamic variables which make up motivation
23Job Characterstics Model by Hackman & Oldham Job CharacteristicsPsychological StatesDesired OutcomesSkill VarietyExperienced MeaningfulnessTask IdentityTask SignificanceMotivationPerformanceSatisfactionExperienced ResponsibilityAutonomyKnowledge of ResultsFeedbackThe relationship is moderated by the strength of an employee‘s need for growth
24Two Factor-Model by Herzberg Relative Frequencies of reported eventsIn „bad“ Situationsin „good“ SituationsAchievementRecognitionThe work itselfResponsibilityAdvancement/GrowthSelf ActualizationCompensationSubordinateStatusSupervisorColleaguesLeadershipCompany PoliciesWorking ConditionPrivateSecurityMotivation Factor Satisfaction/No SatisfactionHygiene Factor Dissatisfaction/No Dissatisfaction
25Expectancy Theory by Vroom Force – the motivation or the force to show a specific actionExpectancy – the possibility of achieving a certain outcome through certain actionsValency – the preference an individual has for a particular outcome, the worth placed on a particular resultF = (E V)
26Types of Job Satisfactioin By Bruggemann Vergleich Soll - IstStabilisierende ZufriedenheitDiffuse UnzufriedenheitErhöhung des Anspruchs-niveausBeibehaltung des Anspruchs- niveausSenkung des Anspruchs-niveausBeibehaltung des Anspruchs- niveausVerfälschung der Situations-wahrnehmungOhne neue Problem-lösungs-versucheNeue Problem-lösungs-versucheProgessive ZufriedenheitStabilisierte ZufriedenheitResignative ZufriedenheitPseudo- ZufriedenheitFixierte UnzufriedenheitKonstruktive Unzufriedenheit
27McGregor’s Theory X and Y The average person is lazy and has an inherent dislike of workMost people must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment if the organization is to achieve its objectivesThe average person avoids responsibility, prefers to be directed, lacks ambition and values security most of allTheory YFor most people work is as natural as play or restPeople will exercise self- direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committedCommitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievementGiven the right conditions the average worker can learn to accept and to seek responsibility
29Employee Survey – Overview Purpose and approachesEmployee survey operationCommonly used contentResult interpretationLimitations of traditional employee surveysStrategic employee survey
30Employee Survey Objectives Insights into naturally hidden subjectsEmployee SatisfactionCorporate climate, culture, valuesCommitment and capabilities related to strategic challenges…IIIdentification fo strengths and weaknessesEvaluation of former actionsInduction of discussion and initiativesIIIImprovementsWorking conditionsProductivityEmployee retentionCultureMeeting strategic goals…
31Employee Surveys can adress the Needs of different Clients Top-ManagementMiddle ManagementEmployeesInternal Service Provider
32Survey-Feedback Improvement Activitiy Survey Problem Identification and Action SetupAnalysis and ReportingFeedback Results to all Employees
35During the past year, have you been bothered by pain in your abdomen?
36Q12 (Gallup) I know what is expected of me at work I have the materials and equipment I need to do my work rightAt work, I have the opportunity to do what I do best every dayIn the last seven days, I have received recognition and praise for doing good workMy supervisor, or someone at work, seems to care about me as a personThere is someone at work who encourages my developmentAt work, my opinions seem to countThe mission/purpose of my company makes me feel my job is importantMy associates (fellow employees) are committed to doing quality workI have a best friend at workIn the last six months, someone at work has talked to me about my progressThis last year, I have had opportunities at work to learn and grow
38Survey Results (Example) Tasks and DutiesWork EnvironmentEmpowermentColleaguesDirect SupervisorCommunicationWork FlexibilityWork-Life-BalanceCompensationBenefitsCommitmentCareer DevelopmentRegion South-West (32 Employees) is part of Germany (186 Employees)1 = Best possible result; 5 = worst possible result
39Ways to interpret results AbsoluteMeans and frequencies of answers related to different items are absolutely compared. The more negative the results by absolut means the bigger the issueRelativeResults are compared to internal and/or external standards or benchmarks. In most cases results of superior unit are usedLongitudinalCurrent results are compared to results of previous surveysObjectivesResults are compared with predefined expectations (objectives)
40Rules in Follow-up Processes All employees get all results of the surveyFeedback of results follows a top-downn approach from to top-management to every single teamAll teams get their own results compared to the results of the superior organisational unitsIssue, which lay beyond an organizational unit‘s respnsibility will be escalated to the unit on the next level
41Shortcomings of Traditional Employee Survey Approaches Surveys are isolated events not integrated into regular leadership processesNot every topic is relevant for everybody on every hierarchy levelObjectives are defined after the survey has been conducted based on survey results. But, surveys can‘t change prioritiesRequired budgets for improvement activities are not defined. Therefore planned actions lead to minimal impactFocus on satisfaction – missing linkage to business drivers and resultsTremendous efforts through intense reporting and follow-up processesComparison with benchmarks means taking the mediocre as standard
42Satisfaction versus Strategy Pulse SurveyTraditional ApproachTopicsFactors driving competititivenessBusiness IndicatorsFactors driving employees‘ satisfaction and performance based on a scientific modelStakeholder(Customer)Top-ManagementEmployees, Managers, Internal Service UnitsFollow-upResults are natural part of top-management agenda and decision makingObjectives are set in advance to the surveyUnits on all levels are encouraged to work with results and draw conclusionsObjectives are set after the surveyCycleUp to every monthEvery 1 to 5 yearsParticipantsRandom samples, panels, high-potentialsEvery employee
46OverviewLarge-Scale transformations and related human reactions and challengesChange Management – definition and frameworkSponsorship and commitmentProgram organizationEmployee communication and involvement
47Types of large-scale Transformations ReengineeringChanging the way people workRestructuringChanging roles and responsibilities of peopleMergers & acquisitionsChanging entire groups of peopleStrategic changeChanging the direction of people‘s workCultural changeChanging people‘s attitutes, values and beliefs
48Response to Disruptive Changes Emotional ResponseAngerAcceptanceActiveBargainingStabilityDenialTestingImmobilizationDepressionPassiveTimeAccording to Kübler-Ross: On Death and Dying (1967)
49Resistance to ChangeResistance is a natural human reaction on disruptive events (fear of loosing control)Change is seen by different people differently according to their individual frames of referenceResistant employees are often seen as not rationally thinking troublemakersResistance of informal thought leaders are of greater power than those of formal leadersThere is always a mixture of overt and hidden resistance. Overt resistance should be a valuable aspect of any change processActive involvement is propably the best way to deal with resistance
50Response to Positive Change Pessimism(Perceived Complexity)Level of ToleranceInformed PessimismChecking Out (?)Hopeful RealismInformed OptimismUninformed Optimism (Naivité)CompletionTimeAccording to: Conner: Managing at the Speed of Change
51Why Transformation fail (Kotter, 1995) Not establishing a great enough sense of urgencyNot creating a powerful enough guiding coalitionLacking a visionUndercommunicating the visionNot removing obstacles to the new visionNot systematically planning for and creating short- term winsDeclaring victory too soonNot anchoring changes in the corporate culture
52Sources of Complacency Too much happy talk from senior managementHuman nature, with its capacity for denial, especially if people are already busy or stressedA kill-the-messenger-of-bad-news, low-confrontation cultureComplacencyToo many visible resourcesThe absence of a major and visible crisisOrganizational structures that focus employees on narrow functional goalsLow overall performance standardsInfernal measurement systems that focus on the wrong performance indexesA lack of sufficient performance feedback from external sourcesSource: John Kotter (1996): Leading Change
53People-related Challenges a any Transformation Do the people …understand what the change is about?agree, that the change is necessary?see the impact on their daily work?have required capabilities for the new situation?get support to make the change happen?benefit from newly expected behaviours?
55Sponsorship/ Commitment Levels of SupportSponsorshipLongterm supportInvestment personally, financially, timelySponsorship/ CommitmentCommitment visible, rationale und emotionalChange SupportAcceptanceAcceptanceUnderstandingPreparationAttentionTimeNo IdeaAccording to: Daryl Conner: Managing at the Speed of Change (1992)
56Roles in a Change Program 1/2 SponsorsHave the power to sanction and legitimize change and to make decisions about changeCreate an environment that inables change to be made on time and within budgetThe sponsors make up the steering groupChange AgentsResponsible for making the change happen on an operational local levelThey directly deal with employees and managers, which are impacted by the change (targets)TargetThe group who must actually change attitudes and behaviour
57Roles in a Change Program 2/2 Project TeamOperationally drives the entire change programThe project team is led by the project lead, who is responsible for the overall success of the programThe project team reports to the steering groupSounding BoardKey-players with a good sense of the company‘s culture and the actual mindset of the employeesProvide feedback to the project team about acceptance and resistance on side of the targetExternal AdvisorsGive advice to the project team from a neutral standpoint
59Relationships between different Roles SponsorSponsorSponsorSponsorAgentAgentAgentTargetTargetTargetLinear StructureTriangular StructureSquare StructureSource: Daryl Conner: Managing at the Speed of Change (1992)
60Positioning What do you do for whom why? What‘s the problem (in terms of figures)?Who has the problem?What does the problem cost if not solved?What‘s the solution?What will be the difference after the solution has been implemented successfully?What are the costs of the solution?
61Communication Measures efficientAvailable MediaEmployee NewspaperNewsletter (Meassage from the CEO)Intranet (with F&Qs)Town Hall MeetingIntranet, Social Media (with forums and chatrooms)DepartmentmeetingsIndividual employee meetingsOne-directionInteractiveOpen Space Events„Ask-the-CEO“-MeetingsWorkshops, ConferencesHotlineBroschuresPostersVideos, webcastsPPT-PresentationsNew Mediaeffective
62Communication Strategy When?Who informs – CEO, HR ..?How – Media usage?What is the message?Why – What to achieve with communication?Whom?
63The Communication Dilemma Early Communikation?Late CommunikationHighUnsecurity/ Need for InformationClarityLowTime, Progress
64Employee Involvement Open Space Focus Groups Sounding Boards Involvement of many people in a one to two days event, where no content is predefined. The event is srongly facilitatedFocus GroupsGroups of selected employees (capable, ambitious, highly accepted) work on solutions regarding clearly defined issuesSounding BoardsMembers of the target group provide regular feedback to programm plans and directions and how people reactEmployee SurveysEmployees are asked for their opinions individually or in groups by using quantitative or qualitative data collections methodsNominating thought leaders into the program organization
65Open Space (Bar Camp) Up to 1000 participants Participants determine content to be discussedMajor objectives are:Involvement of many people in a short period of timeCollective motivation and commitmentIdentification and prioritization of issuesIntense and strong facilitation though facilitator and techniquesWork in groups with rotating constitutionsPublic presentations of resultsDuration is between 2 to 3 days
66Stakeholder Analysis Power Impact strong Resistance Support weak low high
70ChallengesEmployees‘ knowledge as key factor for competitiveness and corporate success (knowledge economy)Complex tasks require combination of the knowledge of multiple playersNew and relevant knowledge appears in increasingly shorter time periodsKnowledge is located in people‘s mind and hard to be retained to the company (knowledge worker)Growing need to collect and transfer knowledge across the globe
71People versus Technology People who own their knowledgeSubjectivity and creativitySignificant corporate valueHard to be retainedWisdomKnowledgeTechnology (e.g. data bases)Objektivity through documentationLimited corporate valueInformation and data are owned by the companyInformationData
72From Signs to Competitiveness Knowledge LeadershipKnowledge OrganizationCompetitive-ness+ Unique/ DifferentSolutionsCompetence+ Doing the right thingsAction+ CommitmentCapabilityIT+ Task relatedKnowledge+ CombinationInformation+ MeaningData+ SyntaxSignsSource: Klaus North: Wissensorientierte Unternehmensführung, Gabler Verlag (own translation)
74Classic #1: Central Knowledge Database Employees are encouraged to document their knowledge on a central databaseA facilitator takes care for quality of all documentsThere are general standards for creating knowledge materialDownsideEmployees neither are motivated enough to document their knowledge nor find enough time to do soWithin a short period of time masses of never used documents emerge
75Classic #2: Yellow Pages Employee maintain and commend their major fields of expertise in a few wordsAll employees find peers with certain expertise using simple search optionsExpertise is documented on databases with web- access or on printed bookletsOverall goal is to bring people with certain expertise and demand for expertise togetherDownsideDetailed meaning of expertise remains unclearLimited opportunity to immediately learn from what is documented
76Knowledge Generation Model by Nonaka Tacit TacitSocialisationTacit ExplicitExternalisationExplicit TacitInternalisationExplicit ExplicitCombinationSource: Nonaka & Takeuchi (1995), The Knowledge-Creating Company
77Implicit Knowledge – Example Source: Gerd Gigerenzer (2007). Bauchentscheidungen
78McKinsey ApproachEmployees publish specific knowledge through webbased documents not longer than three pagesKnowledge must have been proven in practiseAccess to documents is tracked and reported. Reader evaluate the value of documentsEmployees are encouraged to commend on documents and to get in direct touch with experts (authors)Rankings are published and constantly updated about the success of all documents
79Knowledge Transfer Process 3. Contacting1. Knowledge Documentation2. Search for ExpertiseProject Lead/ ManagerEmployeeKnowledge4. Cooperation/SupportProject5. Knowledge development/ Enhanced Network
80T-Concept Focus on one field of expertise General KnowledgeFocus on one field of expertisePersonal commitment to enhance knowledge within that field and to proactively support colleagues where requiredCommitment to publish new insightsDoing presentations on internal knowledge transfer conferences and training eventsExperts are communicated internallyExpert- Knowledge
81HR Organization & Information Systems Prof. Dr. Armin Trost
82HR Organization and Information Systems – Overview Global Human Resource ManagementHR as Strategic Business PartnerRoles in a global HR OrganizationShared Service CenterHR OutsourcingHR Information SystemsFocus: e-Recruiting
84Types of Organizations GlobalViews the world as a single market; operations are controlled centrally from the corporate office.TransnationalSpecialized facilities permit local responsiveness; complex coordination mechanisms provide global integration.HighGlobal EfficiencyInternationalUses existing capabilities to expand into foreign markets.MultinationalSeveral subsidiaries operating as stand-alone business units in multiple countries.LowLowHighLocal Responsiveness
85Perceived Strength and Interests from two Perspectives Locally operating HR employeeGlobally acting HR employee“We are more familiar with operational requirements and practices”“We know our customers better”“We need our freedom to decide what’s good for our local customers”“We expect responsibilities to design our own processes and tools”“It’s all different in our country”“We are closer to senior management”“We know better what’s good for the company as a whole”“We are more familiar with the differences across countries”“We have the power to decide about strategic directions”
86Trends in Human Resource Management Responsibilities ?StrategyConsultingSupportAdministration
87Administrative Expert HR Roles by Dave UlrichStrategyStrategic PartnerDefining and executing strategyChange AgentCreating a renewed organizationProcessesPeopleAdministrative ExpertBuilding an efficient infrastructureEmployee ChampionIncreasing employee commitment and capabilityOperationSource: Dave Ulrich: Human Resource Champions 1997
88Filtering Queries SERVER 75 20 5 Internet 100 Queries HR Manager Service Center/ Call CenterSERVERSelfServiceWEB100QueriesHR GeneralistHR Manager75205DatabaseIntranetSource: Accenture
91Shared Service Center internal external Board HR Corporate Functions External PartnerHR-Shared- ServiceHRHRHRDivisional Units
92Economies of Scale and Scope through Shared Service Organization Economies of Scopedecentralconsolidatedt0t0S1C2t1t1UtilizationS2C1t0Costs/nitCosts/UnitSharedt1Q2Q1SharedVolumeTimeVolumeCombination of similar ProcessesJoint Usage of ResourcesEconomies of Scale throughDecreasing redundanciesStandardization of IT/HR processesLearningEconomies of Scope throughCombination of resources and infrastructuresLeveling utilization and capacities
93Decentralized Recruiting Organization HR MarketingApplication managementBranch ADefinition of Target ProfileApplication Data BasePreselectionIntroductionAssessmentJob Offer PreparationJob Offer NegotiationApplicantHR MarketingApplication managementBranch BDefinition of Target ProfileApplication Data BasePreselectionIntroductionAssessmentJob Offer PreparationJob Offer Negotiation
94Identifying Duties to be Transferred into a Shared Recruiting Center closeConducting InterviewsFeeding back to CandidateNegotiating Work ContractArranging InterviewsRelationship to CandidateWriting Job OffersPre-Selecting Cand.Searching in the Talent PoolPublishing Job-Postings onlineMaintaining Candidate InformationdistantRecording unsolicited Applications in the SystemhighlowAbility to Standardize
95Shared Recruiting Center Integrated Recruiting Organization with centralized e-Recruiting TechnologyBranch ADefinition of Target ProfileIntroductionAssessmentJob Offer NegotiationHR marketingApplication managementShared Recruiting CenterPre- Selectione-RecruitingApplicantJob Offer PreparationBranch BDefinition of Target ProfileIntroductionAssessmentJob Offer Negotiation
96Modernd HR-Organization Central CoordinationPartner-/Supplier ManagementEmployeesApplicantsCustomersManagersHR Business Partner near to businessIndividual support of managers on HR-related topicsCenter of Expertise company wideDealing with complex HR-related IssuesShared Service Center company wideDelivery of standardized and regularly demanded services to all employees with high volume (e.g. payroll)ITHotlineESSMSS
98Scope of Serices outsourced in the United States Relative Frequency (in %)Health CarePension Benefits AdminPayrollRecruitment (/wo Mgr)RelocationHR DevelopmentManagement DevelopmentCompensation AdminHR TechnologyMobility/ExpatriatesPerformance Management…partially…completelySource: SHRM 2004 Human Resource Outsourcing Survey Report
99Top Factors in Considering HR Outsourcing Vendors A proven track recordCost of vendor servicesGuaranteed service levelsFlexible contract optionsRecommendations from other comp.A compatible corporate cultureNiche in a specific area(n=168 HR Professionals in Companies that currently outsource)Source: SHRM 2004 Human Resource Outsourcing Survey Report
100Non-critical Functions Internal versus external Recruiting-Expertise depend on Positions to be filledInternalExternalExternalInternalExpertiseExternalInternalNon-critical FunctionsKey FunctionsExecutives
104Services can be classified according to the Type of Users and Tasks AdministrationStandardized processingAutomatizationReliable resultsValue CreationCreative usagePersonal judgementsFuzzy outputTaskUserMaster data managementLeave requestOnline-ApplicationTraining bookingEmployee-/Self- AssessmentKnowledge ManagementPerformance ManagementEmployeesRare usageEvent-triggeredNo training effortsPayrollAccountingApplication screeningTraining administrationTalent Relationship ManagementSuccession planningHR ControllingExpertsFrequent usageLimited to intense training efforts* Inclusing applicants, managers etc.
105User and Expert Systems Usage HRExpert SystemsUserUser SystemsEmployeesCentralization DecentralizationDecentralCentral
107Typical e-Recruiting functionalities Search request creation, approval and maintenanceJob-posting on copmany career website and on public job boardsApplicant portal supporting job search, registration and online-applicationApplication screening and filtering based on selection criteriaAutomatic communication with candidates viaCreation and approval of short-lists through line managersInterview administration and invitation
110Social Media – Overview Social Media User and UsageRecruiting und Employer BrandingLearning and DevelopmentSocial Media PlatformsInternal Social Media Policies
111Forrester Ladders Creators Critics Collectors Joiners Spectators Write blogs, upload videos, generate content used by othersCriticsReact on others‘ content, edit wikis, engage in forumsCollectorsCollect and sort internet content actively, use tags and RSS, evaluate contentJoinersMaintain relations to othersSpectatorsPasively use web contentInactivesDon‘t use content generated by othersWas macht die Personalabteilung?Was macht einen Mitarbeiter aus?
112Social Media ActivitySource: ( )US: Forrester Research's North American Technographics® Online Benchmark Survey, Q (US), 26,913 respondentsEurope: Forrester Research's European Technographics® Benchmark Survey, Q2 2010, 25,535
113Social Media User Types in Employer Branding NetworkerBrand BuilderCommunicatorActively build networks into relevant target groupsReach target groupMe tooTransfer a clear employee value propositionClear employer profileIntensively share career-related information in any situationBe presentSpontaneousely share career-related information and contentBe thereMaturity
115Social Media Roadmap Way to a Social Media Strategy for Recruiting and Employer Branding ObjectivesListenDo itCheck and DevelopDefinition of Key and Bottleneck FunctionsTarget Group IdentificationSetting Social Media ObjectivesInvolve and understand target groupConsider internal conditionsDefinition & action on Social Media ActivitiesEmployer BrandingSourcingTalent Relationship ManagementClarify rules and responsibilitiesConstantly check effects of Social Media ActivitiesSet priorities and develop selected Social Media Activities
116Twitter Incident Journalist Editor Medium Witness Interview Text ArticleReaderTimeIncidentWitnessTweetFollowerFollower‘Time
117Elements of a Twitter Strategy How will the twitter account be positioned and what will be the relevant contentWho are the target groups?Who are relevant multiplicators (Follower)?How will the twitter account be marketed/sold?What are measurable objectives?Who/which person will represent the twitter account?Who decide upon the shared content?
118Key Terms of Social Network Analysis Nodes, Relations, Density, Centrality, Cliques, Clusters, Stars
119Career Cluster versus Professional Cluster Purpose is to share career-related contentPurpose is to share professional contentHigh CentralityLittle CentralityActive CandidatesActive und passive CandidatesAccess through HRAccess through the linePassive approachActive approach
120Learning on Demand Wiki, Blogs Communities of Practice YouTube TutorialsCommunities of PracticeLiteraturePeersOff-the-Job TrainingiTunes UConferencesDirect ManagerSimulationsYellow PagesEducation OfferingsPodcastsMicro-BloggingYammerSocial Expert Communites
121Formal versus informal Learning 20%80%80%Formel LearningInformal Learning20%Cross, J. (2006). Informal Learning: Rediscovering the Natural Pathways That Inspire Innovation and Performance. San Francisco/CA: John Wiley.BudgetEffect
123Audio and Video Podcasts Easy to produce and share with othersFlexible usage anywhere at any timeShort durationDirect access through mobile InternetUsage of gadgets (Smartphones)
124Principals of informal Learning Learning content is easily produced, shared and found via Web 2.0 (e.g. YouTube)Flexible and problem-related usage of content („Learning-on-Demand“ instead of „Learning- just-in-case“)Learning from others (peers) through Social Media und Communities of PracticeRoom and infrastructures allow self-directed learning and knowledge exchangeWas macht die Personalabteilung?Was macht einen Mitarbeiter aus?
125Internal Talent Markets TalentsJobs & ProjekteRulesExperiencesProjectsExpectationsPreferencesReferencesRequirementsChallengesObjectivesWorking ConditionsReferencesInternal notice periodsRoles and viewsCompensation rulesHR ConsultantAccording to: Bryan, L., Joyce, C., & Weiss, L. (2006). Making a Market in Talent. McKinsey Quarterly.
126Social Media Policy at Yahoo! Personal Blog Guidelines Legal ParametersLegal Liability. When you choose to go public with your opinions via a blog, you are legally responsible for your commentary. (..)Company Privileged Information. Any confidential, proprietary, or trade secret information is obviously off-limits for your blog per the Proprietary Information Agreement you have signed with Yahoo!.Press Inquiries. (..) If a member of the media contacts you about a Yahoo!-related blog posting or requests Yahoo! information of any kind, contact PR.Best Practice GuidelineBe Respectful of Your ColleaguesGet Your Facts StraightPovide Context to Your Argument.Engage in Private Feedback.
128HR Controlling – Overview Purpose of HR ControllingImportant indicators in HRPerformance indicator positioning and implementationROI of HR investments
129Purposes of HR Controlling EvaluationDiagnosisPrognosisPast investmentCurrent SituationFuture Situation
130Indicators in HRM Employer Branding Recruiting Workforce Structure % Awareness# ApplicationsReasons to applyEmployer imageRecruitingTime-to-fillCost per HireOffer-Acceptance-RateInterviews per HireNew Hire SatisfactionHiring Manager SatisfactionNo-show-RateWorkforce StructureAgeGenderSpan of controllTenure% Freelancers% Female LeadersExpatriation# ExpatriatesReturn-Rate
131Indicators in HRM Training Development HR-related costs Productivity Training days/employeeTraining costs/employeeTraining qualityDevelopment# High PotentialsHiPos ready for promotionDuration on one levelHR-related costsSalary/Total costsSalary/employeeCompensation structureProductivityRevenue/employeeHuman Capital Value AddedVerbesserungs-vorschläge/MitarbeiterEmployee satisfactionCommitmentRetention/SafetyTurnover RateHiPo TurnoverBoomerang-RateBradford Factor (SxSxD)# Accidents/ 1000 Employees
132Classic #1: Cost-per-Hire Which components make up cost-per-hire and how is cost per hire divided through organizational units involved and new employees?Advertising costsCandidates‘ travel costsExecutive search retainer and contingency feeSelection tools and measuresSalary of employees involved in recruiting (HR, Line)Costs for facilities of the recruiting organizationMarket ResearchOpportunity costs related to involved line employeesCosts of recruiting infrastructure (e.g. e-Recruiting)Referral bonusesHR Marketing eventsSign-on-bonusesRelocation costsOnboarding costs
133Cost Elements – Case Exlusively Recruiting (special accounts) AdvertisingEventsExlusively Recruiting (special accounts)Job ads (e.g. in newspapers); Postings in job boards; Website/Homepage modifications;Marketing material; Image campaignsJob fairs; College recruiting; Direct mailings; Open days at SAP; Company visits; Inhouse eventsImage Reports; Labor Market Research etc.TravelAssessmentTravel costs of recruiters and/or candidatesAssessment centers; reference/background investigation;Assessment tools; testsRelated to Recruiting (e.g. cost centers)Search AgenciesOperating CostsExecutive search; Retained search; Contingency search; Direct source providers; ContractorsRelocationRecruiters payroll and trainings; Applicant tracking systems; Infrastructure costs; IT support; Office costs; Communication costsEstate agents; Removal firms;Visa / Work Permit Application; Relocation services; Tax service; Temporary housing; Rental car; Language trainingReferral BonusesEmployee Referrals; Candidate ReferralsSign on Bonuses
134Classic #2: Time-to-Fill When does it start? When does it end?Workforce DemandStart HR Marketing/ SearchSigned Job OfferEnd of OnboardingVacancySelectionFirst Day at WorkEnd of Probation Period??
135Performance Indicator Positioning What? Which Indicator?For whom? Who benefits from the indicator?Why? To which objectives is the indicator related?How? Which sources and methods are used to collect the data when?
136Balanced Scorecard Financials Customer Processes Vision & Strategy ObjectiveKPICustomerProcessesObjectiveKPIObjectiveKPIVision & StrategyPeopleObjectiveKPISource: Robert Kaplan and David Norton, “Strategic Learning and the Balanced Scorecard, 1996
138Implementing an HR Controlling System Example: Turnover Early Warning Definition of Scope/ObjectivesAnalysisMethod DefinitionDefinition of client, objectives and functionSetting budgests, timeline and project structureApproach definitionSystematic analysis of turnover reasons and possible early indicatorsDevelpment of a model to explain and predict turnover behaviorDefinition of methods and tools to track/measure turnover drivers and predictorsDefining ways to analyse and report data and resultsMeeting with client/steering group and project leadInterviews with managers, former employees, expertsWorkshop with experts, clients and HR managersEvaluationOperationImplementationDetermination of validity and acceptanceDefining fields for improvementsTracking data and report to clientsData usage and related actionsDevelopment and installation of controlling system and related technical infrastructureIdentification and training of employees (clients) impactedValidation study interviews with client, user tracking
139Traditional ways to evaluate Investments in HRM CostsObjectivesSuccess IndicatorsManagement development program (200 participants)1.000 k€Improvement of customer and market orientationHigher customer satisfactionResponses to the training by the participantsCustomer satisfactionEmployee survey ( employees)Improvements of employee satisfaction, working conditions and processesResponse rateAmount of defined actions as result to the surveyImplementation of a performance management system (5.000 employees)Performance improvementsBetter linkage between operational work and strategic directionsRelative amount of performance management meetingsResponses of managers and employees
141From Problem to ROI Problem Cost of doing nothing Solution Cost of solutionImpact of solutionROI
142Value Added and ROI of Human Capital Döner ShopDesign OfficeFTE = 1FTE = 1P&B40P&B180P&B=Pay & BenefitsOEOther Expenses (Total expenses minus Pay & Benefits)RRevenueFTEFull-Time EquivalentR220R220OE160OE20Human Capital Value Added (HCVA)R – OE220 – 160220 – 20== 60= 200FTE11Human Capital Return on Investment (HCROI)R – OE220 – 160220 – 20== 1,50= 1,11P&B40180Source: Jac Fitz-Enz: The ROI of Human Capital.
143Measuring Employee Performance Company ExampleIndicatorsRevenuek€Revenue/FTE100 k€Employees2.000 FTEProfit/FTE€Total Expensesk€HCVA*k€Personnel Exp.k€HCVA/FTE80 k€Workdays/Year220HCROI**114 %*Human Capital Value Added=Revenue – (Total Exp. – Personnel Exp.)Human Capital Value Added**Human Capital ROI=× 100%Personnel Expenses*/** Source: Jac Fitz-Enz (2000). The ROI of Human Capital. Amacon.
144How much does a Top-Perfomer add more Value than an average Employee? Reponse by HR DirectorsSource: Corporate Leadership Council (2003)
145Added Value in Key Functions compared to Other Functions BA12311,50,5Performance