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Barley and the Malting Process

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Presentation on theme: "Barley and the Malting Process"— Presentation transcript:

1 Barley and the Malting Process

2 Overview The purpose of the malting process is to convert insoluble starch chains within grains into water soluble starches that can be used in the brewing process Barley malt is the most commonly used source of fermentable sugars in beer Other malted grains used in brewing include wheat, rye, oats and sorghum

3 Overview (cont.) Adjuncts are defined as any unmalted source of fermentables in brewing Beer color is determined by the type of malts and adjuncts used in the brewing process

4 Barley Two types of barley commonly used in brewing Two-row barley
Six-row barley

5 Barley (cont.) Two-row barley Bigger kernels Higher yield
Lower nitrogen and protein content Lower husk content

6 Barley (cont.) Six-row barley Smaller kernels Higher diastatic
power (more enzymes) Higher husk content

7 Barley (cont.) Key components of a barley kernel Husk Endosperm Germ

8 Producing Malt for Beer
Definition: Malting is the controlled germination (sprouting of roots) of cereal grains, followed by a termination of this natural process by the application of heat. This will convert the large, insoluble starch chains of the endosperm to water-soluble starches and activate both the proteolytic and diastatic enzymes The amount of enzymatic starch conversion potential that a malt has is referred to as its "diastatic power".

9 Malting The process of malting is performed to:
Convert the large, insoluble starch chains of the endosperm to water soluble starches Activate both the proteolytic and diastatic enzymes that will reduce the proteins and starches into desirable components in the mash

10 Malting (cont.) The process consists of
Steeping barley in 50-65F water for 2-3 days Allowing the barley to germinate at 50-70F for 6-10 days Gradually raising the temperature to 90F and holding for 24 hours Gradually raising the temperature to 120F and holding for 12 hours

11 Producing Malt for Beer
Modification Visual indicator: the length of the acrospire (the plant shoot or germ) which grows underneath the husk. The length of the acrospire in a fully modified malt will typically be 100% of the seed length (ratio of 1:1) If germination continued, a plant would grow, and all of the starches would be used by the plant. It’s desired to have a proper balance between resources converted by the acrospire and resources consumed by the acrospire and rootlets. Undermodified malts have more enzymes and starches available, but also more proteins (mashing issues) Fully modified malts will have less enzymes and starches, and proteins are degraded.

12 Producing Malt for Beer
Drying, Kilning, and Roasting Process At the end of germination, the malt is gradually raised in temperature to 90 °F, and held there for 24 hours to permit enzyme action Then gradually raised to 120 °F and held at this temperature for 12 hours to dry the malt, as it is essential that the malt be bone-dry before being heated to kilning temperatures to prevent the destruction of the enzymes (unless desired). The grain is then kilned to caramelize some of the sugars (eg crystal malt) or blacken it (eg a black patent malt). They are then cooled to below 100 °F. The grain is then tumbled to knock the beginnings of roots off. Malts should be allowed to rest for a month or so before being mashed.

13 Color Beer color is determined by the types of malts and adjuncts used
Two scales are used Lovibond Scale (L) still associated with malt color (0-600, light to dark) USA: Standard Reference Method (SRM) Europe: European Brewing Convention (EBC) Both scales go from low to high, with low referring to lighter colors

14 Recipe Formulation

15 Dave Miller’s: Homebrewing Guide
Basic Parameters for a Recipe Gravity- reflects total amount of grain Bitterness – reflects the hopping rate Color – reflects the amount and type of specialty grains

16 Gravity Gravity is affected by three factors
The amount of grain (malt and adjuncts) The types of grains used Efficiency of the process The first two factors are strait forward and can be accounted for mathematically Efficiency is a highly variable and has to be determined by experience.

17 Extract figures attainable from HB equipment
Barley Flakes Black Malt Cane Sugar Cara Pils Corn or Rice Corn Sugar Crystal malts Honey DME LME Mild Ale Malt Munich Pale Malt Roasted Barley Six-Row Two- Row Vienna Wheat Malt See Chart from BeerSmith for better numbers

18 Example : Kolsch 2-row malt 6# Vienna Malt 8oz Caramel 10 malt 8oz
Total =238/5 = 47.5 i.e. OG of for a five gallon batch* *Does not factor in Efficiency 47.5 x .75 = 35.62 So at 75% efficiency, you should expect OG of

19 IBU = AAU x 74.4 / wort volume (gals) x U (utilization %)
Bitterness Much more difficult to measure than gravity Requires a laboratory Beyond the scope of most homebrewers A number of formulas have been published to predict the bitterness in beer Simplest formula for attempting to predict IBU is use a sliding scale IBU = AAU x 74.4 / wort volume (gals) x U (utilization %)

20 Example If we use 5 AAU of hops in 5 gallons of wort and we assume 25% utilization IBU = 5 x 74.4 / 5 x 0.25 = 18.6 IBU Note of getting an accurate estimate with in 1 IBU with this formula

21 Hops The factors that determine how much of bitterness get into the beer can be taking into account in your calculations Boil Time – longer better utilization Wort gravity – above .030 lower utilization Quantity – More is more up to 100 IBU Pellets vs. Whole – pellets will yield about 25% more IBU’s than whole.

22 Hops Other factors can affect
Ph levels Boil Vigor Wort Protein Cold Break Yeast type If you use a hop bag up your quantity by 25%

23 Hops Flavor/Aroma Low alpha acid content Low cohumulone AA content Low mycerne oil content Brewers have three options in adding aroma/flavor hops Boiling generally for a short period of time 30 minutes or less Steeping, kettle additions or through a hop back Dry hopping

24 Color In some ways even harder to deal with than bitterness
The color of malt is measured by making a standard mash Color Unit (CU) 1 CU = 1 lb of malt with color rating of 1 degree Lovibond

25 Calculate color To calculate color
Multiply the weight in lbs of each malt in your recipe by the malts color rating Add up the figures and divide by number of gallons

26 Example – Pale Ale 6 lbs pale Malt (3L) 18CU (6x3)
0.5 lbs British Crystal (55L) CU (.5X55) Total CU CU/Gal (45.5/5)

27 Color Other factors that affect color Mash efficiency
Batch-to-batch variation of malt Kettle carmelization Aging of extract Finings and filtration

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