2 OverviewThe purpose of the malting process is to convert insoluble starch chains within grains into water soluble starches that can be used in the brewing processBarley malt is the most commonly used source of fermentable sugars in beerOther malted grains used in brewing include wheat, rye, oats and sorghum
3 Overview (cont.)Adjuncts are defined as any unmalted source of fermentables in brewingBeer color is determined by the type of malts and adjuncts used in the brewing process
4 Barley Two types of barley commonly used in brewing Two-row barley Six-row barley
7 Barley (cont.) Key components of a barley kernel Husk Endosperm Germ Acrospire
8 Producing Malt for Beer Definition: Malting is the controlled germination (sprouting of roots) of cereal grains, followed by a termination of this natural process by the application of heat. This will convert the large, insoluble starch chains of the endosperm to water-soluble starches and activate both the proteolytic and diastatic enzymesThe amount of enzymatic starch conversion potential that a malt has is referred to as its "diastatic power".
9 Malting The process of malting is performed to: Convert the large, insoluble starch chains of the endosperm to water soluble starchesActivate both the proteolytic and diastatic enzymes that will reduce the proteins and starches into desirable components in the mash
10 Malting (cont.) The process consists of Steeping barley in 50-65F water for 2-3 daysAllowing the barley to germinate at 50-70F for 6-10 daysGradually raising the temperature to 90F and holding for 24 hoursGradually raising the temperature to 120F and holding for 12 hours
11 Producing Malt for Beer ModificationVisual indicator: the length of the acrospire (the plant shoot or germ) which grows underneath the husk.The length of the acrospire in a fully modified malt will typically be 100% of the seed length (ratio of 1:1)If germination continued, a plant would grow, and all of the starches would be used by the plant. It’s desired to have a proper balance between resources converted by the acrospire and resources consumed by the acrospire and rootlets.Undermodified malts have more enzymes and starches available, but also more proteins (mashing issues)Fully modified malts will have less enzymes and starches, and proteins are degraded.
12 Producing Malt for Beer Drying, Kilning, and Roasting ProcessAt the end of germination, the malt is gradually raised in temperature to 90 °F, and held there for 24 hours to permit enzyme actionThen gradually raised to 120 °F and held at this temperature for 12 hours to dry the malt, as it is essential that the malt be bone-dry before being heated to kilning temperatures to prevent the destruction of the enzymes (unless desired).The grain is then kilned to caramelize some of the sugars (eg crystal malt) or blacken it (eg a black patent malt).They are then cooled to below 100 °F.The grain is then tumbled to knock the beginnings of roots off.Malts should be allowed to rest for a month or so before being mashed.
13 Color Beer color is determined by the types of malts and adjuncts used Two scales are usedLovibond Scale (L)still associated with malt color (0-600, light to dark)USA: Standard Reference Method (SRM)Europe: European Brewing Convention (EBC)Both scales go from low to high, with low referring to lighter colors
15 Dave Miller’s: Homebrewing Guide Basic Parameters for a RecipeGravity- reflects total amount of grainBitterness – reflects the hopping rateColor – reflects the amount and type of specialty grains
16 Gravity Gravity is affected by three factors The amount of grain (malt and adjuncts)The types of grains usedEfficiency of the processThe first two factors are strait forward and can be accounted for mathematicallyEfficiency is a highly variable and has to be determined by experience.
17 Extract figures attainable from HB equipment Barley FlakesBlack MaltCane SugarCara PilsCorn or RiceCorn SugarCrystal maltsHoneyDMELMEMild Ale MaltMunichPale MaltRoasted BarleySix-RowTwo- RowViennaWheat MaltSee Chart from BeerSmith for better numbers
18 Example : Kolsch 2-row malt 6# Vienna Malt 8oz Caramel 10 malt 8oz Total =238/5 = 47.5i.e. OG of for a five gallon batch**Does not factor in Efficiency 47.5 x .75 = 35.62So at 75% efficiency, you should expect OG of
19 IBU = AAU x 74.4 / wort volume (gals) x U (utilization %) BitternessMuch more difficult to measure than gravityRequires a laboratoryBeyond the scope of most homebrewersA number of formulas have been published to predict the bitterness in beerSimplest formula for attempting to predict IBU is use a sliding scaleIBU = AAU x 74.4 / wort volume (gals) x U (utilization %)
20 ExampleIf we use 5 AAU of hops in 5 gallons of wort and we assume 25% utilizationIBU = 5 x 74.4 / 5 x 0.25 = 18.6 IBUNote of getting an accurate estimate with in 1 IBU with this formula
21 HopsThe factors that determine how much of bitterness get into the beer can be taking into account in your calculationsBoil Time – longer better utilizationWort gravity – above .030 lower utilizationQuantity – More is more up to 100 IBUPellets vs. Whole – pellets will yield about 25% more IBU’s than whole.
22 Hops Other factors can affect Ph levelsBoil VigorWort ProteinCold BreakYeast typeIf you use a hop bag up your quantity by 25%
23 HopsFlavor/AromaLow alpha acid contentLow cohumulone AA contentLow mycerne oil contentBrewers have three options in adding aroma/flavor hopsBoiling generally for a short period of time 30 minutes or lessSteeping, kettle additions or through a hop backDry hopping
24 Color In some ways even harder to deal with than bitterness The color of malt is measured by making a standard mashColor Unit (CU)1 CU = 1 lb of malt with color rating of 1 degree Lovibond
25 Calculate color To calculate color Multiply the weight in lbs of each malt in your recipe by the malts color ratingAdd up the figures and divide by number of gallons
26 Example – Pale Ale 6 lbs pale Malt (3L) 18CU (6x3) 0.5 lbs British Crystal (55L) CU (.5X55)Total CUCU/Gal (45.5/5)
27 Color Other factors that affect color Mash efficiency Batch-to-batch variation of maltKettle carmelizationAging of extractFinings and filtration