2SOL: BIO 6 f - iThe student will investigate and understand common mechanisms of inheritance and protein synthesis.Key concepts include:f) the structure, function, and replication of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA); andg) events involved in the construction of proteins.
3SOL: BIO 6 f - iThe student will investigate and understand common mechanisms of inheritance and protein synthesis.Key concepts include:h) use, limitations, and misuse of genetic information; andi) exploration of the impact of DNA technologies.
4HistoryBefore the 1940’s scientists didn’t know what material caused inheritance.They suspected it was either DNA or proteins.
5HistoryA series of experiments proved that DNA was the genetic material responsible for inheritance.
6HistoryIn 1952, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase did an experiment using a virus that infects E. coli bacteria.The experiment proved that DNA and not protein is the factor that influences inheritance.
18DNAThe genetic code is a sequence of DNA nucleotides in the nucleus of cells.
19DNA DNA is a double-stranded molecule. The strands are connected by complementary nucleotide pairs (A-T & C-G) like rungs on a ladder.The ladder twists to form a double helix.
20DNA During S stage in interphase, DNA replicates itself. DNA replication is a semi-conservative process.
21DNASemi-conservative means that you conserve part of the original structure in the new one.You end up with 2 identical strands of DNA.
22DNAGene - a segment of DNA that codes for a protein, which in turn codes for a trait (skin tone, eye color, etc.)A gene is a stretch of DNA.
23DNA A mistake in DNA replication is called a mutation. Many enzymes are involved in finding and repairing mistakes.
24Mutations What causes mutations? Can occur spontaneouslyCan be caused by a mutagenMutagen: An agent, such as a chemical, ultraviolet light, or a radioactive element, that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in an organism.
25Mutations Some mutations can: Have little to no effect Be beneficial (produce organisms that are better suited to their environments)Be deleterious (harmful)
26Mutations Types of mutations Point Mutations or Substitutions: causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotideMissense- code for a different amino acidNonsense- code for a stop, which can shorten the proteinSilent- code for the same amino acid (AA)
30Mutations Types of mutations Frame Shift Mutations: the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, so that every codon beyond the point of insertion or deletion is read incorrectly during translation.Ex.: Crohn’s disease
51Make mRNA mRNA sequence UAC UUU UUG UUC CAU AUC Amino Acid sequence Tyr Phe Leu Phe His lle
52Human Genome ProjectThe Human Genome Project is a collaborative effort of scientists around the world to map the entire gene sequence of organisms.This information will be useful in detection, prevention, and treatment of many genetic diseases.
53DNA TechnologiesDNA technologies allow scientists to identify, study, and modify genes.Forensic identification is an example of the application of DNA technology.
54Gene TherapyGene therapy is a technique for correcting defective genes responsible for disease development.Possible cures for:diabetescardiovascular diseasecystic fibrosisAlzheimer'sParkinson’sand many other diseases is possible.
55Genetic EngineeringThe human manipulation of the genetic material of a cell.Recombinant DNA- Genetically engineered DNA prepared by splicing genes from one species into the cells of a different species. Such DNA becomes part of the host's genetic makeup and is replicated.
56Genetic EngineeringGenetic engineering techniques are used in a variety of industries, in agriculture, in basic research, and in medicine.This genetically engineered cow resists infections of the udders and can help to increase dairy production.
57Genetic EngineeringThere is great potential for the development of useful products through genetic engineeringEX., human growth hormone, insulin, and pest- and disease-resistant fruits and vegetablesSeedless watermelons are genetically engineered
58Genetic EngineeringWe can now grow new body parts and soon donating blood will be a thing of the past, but will we go too far?Photo of a mouse growing a "human ear"