Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

DNA & Protein Synthesis

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "DNA & Protein Synthesis"— Presentation transcript:

1 DNA & Protein Synthesis
SOL: BIO 6 f - i

2 SOL: BIO 6 f - i The student will investigate and understand common mechanisms of inheritance and protein synthesis. Key concepts include: f) the structure, function, and replication of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA); and g) events involved in the construction of proteins.

3 SOL: BIO 6 f - i The student will investigate and understand common mechanisms of inheritance and protein synthesis. Key concepts include: h) use, limitations, and misuse of genetic information; and i) exploration of the impact of DNA technologies.

4 History Before the 1940’s scientists didn’t know what material caused inheritance. They suspected it was either DNA or proteins.

5 History A series of experiments proved that DNA was the genetic material responsible for inheritance.

6 History In 1952, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase did an experiment using a virus that infects E. coli bacteria. The experiment proved that DNA and not protein is the factor that influences inheritance.


8 History Erwin Chargaff discovered the base pairing rules and ratios for different species. Adenine pairs with Thymine Cytosine pairs with Guanine.

9 History Rosalind Franklin & Maurice Wilkins had taken the 1st pictures of DNA using X-ray crystallization

10 This proved that DNA had a helical shape.

11 The Nobel Prize in Medicine 1962
History The Nobel Prize in Medicine 1962 Francis Harry Compton Crick James Dewey Watson Rosalind Franklin (Died of cancer 1958) Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins

12 Double Helix Watson Crick Wilkins has become a historical footnote and Watson & Crick are remembered as the Fathers of DNA



15 DNA O O=P-O N CH2 O C1 C4 C3 C2 Phosphate Group Nitrogenous base
(A, T, G, C) CH2 O C1 C4 C3 C2 5 Sugar (deoxyribose)

16 Nitrogen Bases PGA CUT PY 2 types of Nitrogen Bases Purines
Double ring G & A Pyrimidines Single ring C & U & T PGA CUT PY

17 DNA - double helix T A P O 1 2 3 4 5 P O 1 2 3 4 5 G C T A

18 DNA The genetic code is a sequence of DNA nucleotides in the nucleus of cells.

19 DNA DNA is a double-stranded molecule.
The strands are connected by complementary nucleotide pairs (A-T & C-G) like rungs on a ladder. The ladder twists to form a double helix.

20 DNA During S stage in interphase, DNA replicates itself.
DNA replication is a semi-conservative process.

21 DNA Semi-conservative means that you conserve part of the original structure in the new one. You end up with 2 identical strands of DNA.

22 DNA Gene - a segment of DNA that codes for a protein, which in turn codes for a trait (skin tone, eye color, etc.) A gene is a stretch of DNA.

23 DNA A mistake in DNA replication is called a mutation.
Many enzymes are involved in finding and repairing mistakes.

24 Mutations What causes mutations?
Can occur spontaneously Can be caused by a mutagen Mutagen: An agent, such as a chemical, ultraviolet light, or a radioactive element, that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in an organism.

25 Mutations Some mutations can: Have little to no effect
Be beneficial (produce organisms that are better suited to their environments) Be deleterious (harmful)

26 Mutations Types of mutations
Point Mutations or Substitutions: causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide Missense- code for a different amino acid Nonsense- code for a stop, which can shorten the protein Silent- code for the same amino acid (AA)



29 Mutations Example: Sickle Cell Anemia

30 Mutations Types of mutations
Frame Shift Mutations: the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, so that every codon beyond the point of insertion or deletion is read incorrectly during translation. Ex.: Crohn’s disease

31 Insertion Deletion

32 Mutations Types of mutations
Chromosomal Inversions: an entire section of DNA is reversed. Ex.: hemophilia, a bleeding disorder


34 DNA Repair A complex system of enzymes, active in the G2 stage of interphase, serves as a back up to repair damaged DNA before it is dispersed into new cells during mitosis.


36 RNA O O=P-O N CH2 O C1 C4 C3 C2 Phosphate Group Nitrogenous base
(A, U , G, C ) CH2 O C1 C4 C3 C2 5 Sugar (ribose)

37 RNA Function: obtain information from DNA & synthesizes proteins

38 3 differences from DNA Single strand instead of double strand
Ribose instead of deoxyribose Uracil instead of thymine

39 3 types of RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA)- copies information from DNA for protein synthesis Codon- 3 base pairs that code for a single amino acid. codon

40 3 types of RNA 2. Transfer RNA (tRNA)- collects amino acids for protein synthesis Anticodon-a sequence of 3 bases that are complementary base pairs to a codon in the mRNA

41 3 types of RNA 3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- combines with proteins to form ribosomes

42 Amino Acids Amino acids- the building blocks of protein
At least one kind of tRNA is present for each of the 20 amino acids used in protein synthesis.

43 Transcription - mRNA is made from DNA & goes to the ribosome
Translation - Proteins are made from the message on the mRNA           

44 Transcription In order for cells to make proteins, the DNA code must be transcribed (copied) to mRNA. The mRNA carries the code from the nucleus to the ribosomes.


46 Translation At the ribosome, amino acids (AA) are linked together to form specific proteins. The amino acid sequence is directed by the mRNA molecule. Amino acids ribosome


48 Make A Protein DNA sequence ATG AAA AAC AAG GTA TAG mRNA sequence

49 Make mRNA mRNA sequence UAC UUU UUG UUC CAU AUC tRNA sequence


51 Make mRNA mRNA sequence UAC UUU UUG UUC CAU AUC Amino Acid sequence
Tyr Phe Leu Phe His lle

52 Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project is a collaborative effort of scientists around the world to map the entire gene sequence of organisms. This information will be useful in detection, prevention, and treatment of many genetic diseases.

53 DNA Technologies DNA technologies allow scientists to identify, study, and modify genes. Forensic identification is an example of the application of DNA technology.

54 Gene Therapy Gene therapy is a technique for correcting defective genes responsible for disease development. Possible cures for: diabetes cardiovascular disease cystic fibrosis Alzheimer's Parkinson’s and many other diseases is possible.

55 Genetic Engineering The human manipulation of the genetic material of a cell. Recombinant DNA- Genetically engineered DNA prepared by splicing genes from one species into the cells of a different species. Such DNA becomes part of the host's genetic makeup and is replicated.

56 Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering techniques are used in a variety of industries, in agriculture, in basic research, and in medicine. This genetically engineered cow resists infections of the udders and can help to increase dairy production.

57 Genetic Engineering There is great potential for the development of useful products through genetic engineering EX., human growth hormone, insulin, and pest- and disease-resistant fruits and vegetables Seedless watermelons are genetically engineered

58 Genetic Engineering We can now grow new body parts and soon donating blood will be a thing of the past, but will we go too far? Photo of a mouse growing a "human ear"

Download ppt "DNA & Protein Synthesis"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google