Presentation on theme: "DNA & Protein Synthesis SOL: BIO 6 f - i. The student will investigate and understand common mechanisms of inheritance and protein synthesis. Key concepts."— Presentation transcript:
DNA & Protein Synthesis SOL: BIO 6 f - i
The student will investigate and understand common mechanisms of inheritance and protein synthesis. Key concepts include: –f) the structure, function, and replication of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA); and –g) events involved in the construction of proteins.
SOL: BIO 6 f - i The student will investigate and understand common mechanisms of inheritance and protein synthesis. Key concepts include: –h) use, limitations, and misuse of genetic information; and –i) exploration of the impact of DNA technologies.
History Before the 1940s scientists didnt know what material caused inheritance. They suspected it was either DNA or proteins.
History A series of experiments proved that DNA was the genetic material responsible for inheritance.
History In 1952, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase did an experiment using a virus that infects E. coli bacteria. The experiment proved that DNA and not protein is the factor that influences inheritance.
History Erwin Chargaff discovered the base pairing rules and ratios for different species. Adenine pairs with Thymine Cytosine pairs with Guanine.
History Rosalind Franklin & Maurice Wilkins had taken the 1 st pictures of DNA using X-ray crystallization
This proved that DNA had a helical shape.
History The Nobel Prize in Medicine 1962 Francis Harry Compton Crick James Dewey Watson Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins Rosalind Franklin (Died of cancer 1958)
Wilkins has become a historical footnote and Watson & Crick are remembered as the Fathers of DNA WatsonCrick
DNA O O=P-O OPhosphate Group Group N Nitrogenous base (A, T, G, C) (A, T, G, C) CH2 O C1C1 C4C4 C3C3 C2C2 5 Sugar Sugar(deoxyribose)
Nitrogen Bases 2 types of Nitrogen Bases –Purines Double ring –G & A –Pyrimidines Single ring –C & U & T PGA CUT PY
DNA - double helix P P P O O O P P P O O O G C TATA
DNA The genetic code is a sequence of DNA nucleotides in the nucleus of cells.
DNA DNA is a double- stranded molecule. The strands are connected by complementary nucleotide pairs (A-T & C-G) like rungs on a ladder. The ladder twists to form a double helix.
DNA During S stage in interphase, DNA replicates itself. DNA replication is a semi- conservative process.
DNA Semi-conservative means that you conserve part of the original structure in the new one. You end up with 2 identical strands of DNA.
DNA Gene - a segment of DNA that codes for a protein, which in turn codes for a trait (skin tone, eye color, etc.) A gene is a stretch of DNA.
DNA A mistake in DNA replication is called a mutation. Many enzymes are involved in finding and repairing mistakes.
Mutations What causes mutations? –Can occur spontaneously –Can be caused by a mutagen Mutagen: An agent, such as a chemical, ultraviolet light, or a radioactive element, that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in an organism.
Mutations Some mutations can: Have little to no effect Be beneficial (produce organisms that are better suited to their environments) Be deleterious (harmful)
Mutations Types of mutations –Point Mutations or Substitutions: causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide Missense- code for a different amino acid Nonsense- code for a stop, which can shorten the protein Silent- code for the same amino acid (AA)
Mutations Example: Sickle Cell Anemia
Mutations Types of mutations –Frame Shift Mutations: the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, so that every codon beyond the point of insertion or deletion is read incorrectly during translation. Ex.: Crohns disease
Mutations Types of mutations –Chromosomal Inversions: an entire section of DNA is reversed. –Ex.: hemophilia, a bleeding disorder
DNA Repair A complex system of enzymes, active in the G 2 stage of interphase, serves as a back up to repair damaged DNA before it is dispersed into new cells during mitosis.
RNA O O=P-O OPhosphate Group Group N Nitrogenous base (A, U, G, C ) (A, U, G, C ) CH2 O C1C1 C4C4 C3C3 C2C2 5 Sugar Sugar (ribose) (ribose)
RNA Function: obtain information from DNA & synthesizes proteins
3 differences from DNA 1.Single strand instead of double strand 2.Ribose instead of deoxyribose 3.Uracil instead of thymine
3 types of RNA 1.Messenger RNA (mRNA)- copies information from DNA for protein synthesis Codon- 3 base pairs that code for a single amino acid. codon
3 types of RNA 2. Transfer RNA (tRNA)- collects amino acids for protein synthesis Anticodon-a sequence of 3 bases that are complementary base pairs to a codon in the mRNA
3 types of RNA 3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- combines with proteins to form ribosomes
Amino Acids Amino acids- the building blocks of protein At least one kind of tRNA is present for each of the 20 amino acids used in protein synthesis.
Transcription - mRNA is made from DNA & goes to the ribosome Translation - Proteins are made from the message on the mRNA
Transcription In order for cells to make proteins, the DNA code must be transcribed (copied) to mRNA. The mRNA carries the code from the nucleus to the ribosomes.
Translation At the ribosome, amino acids (AA) are linked together to form specific proteins. The amino acid sequence is directed by the mRNA molecule. ribosome Amino acids
Make A Protein DNA sequence ATG AAA AAC AAG GTA TAG mRNA sequence UAC UUU UUG UUC CAU AUC
Make mRNA mRNA sequence UAC UUU UUG UUC CAU AUC tRNA sequence AUG AAA AAC AAG GUA UAG
Make mRNA mRNA sequence UAC UUU UUG UUC CAU AUC Amino Acid sequence Tyr Phe Leu Phe His lle
Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project is a collaborative effort of scientists around the world to map the entire gene sequence of organisms. This information will be useful in detection, prevention, and treatment of many genetic diseases.
DNA Technologies DNA technologies allow scientists to identify, study, and modify genes. Forensic identification is an example of the application of DNA technology.
Gene Therapy Gene therapy is a technique for correcting defective genes responsible for disease development. Possible cures for: –diabetes –cardiovascular disease –cystic fibrosis –Alzheimer's –Parkinsons –and many other diseases is possible.
Genetic Engineering The human manipulation of the genetic material of a cell. Recombinant DNA- Genetically engineered DNA prepared by splicing genes from one species into the cells of a different species. Such DNA becomes part of the host's genetic makeup and is replicated.
Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering techniques are used in a variety of industries, in agriculture, in basic research, and in medicine. This genetically engineered cow resists infections of the udders and can help to increase dairy production.
Genetic Engineering There is great potential for the development of useful products through genetic engineering EX., human growth hormone, insulin, and pest- and disease-resistant fruits and vegetables Seedless watermelons are genetically engineered
Genetic Engineering We can now grow new body parts and soon donating blood will be a thing of the past, but will we go too far? Photo of a mouse growing a "human ear"