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Signs of the Times The Calling and Beginning of Vatican II Rev. John Mayo.

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Presentation on theme: "Signs of the Times The Calling and Beginning of Vatican II Rev. John Mayo."— Presentation transcript:

1 Signs of the Times The Calling and Beginning of Vatican II Rev. John Mayo

2 End of World War II Yalta Conference Establishment of UN Polish Question Future of Eastern Europe Division of Germany Potsdam Conference Nothing solved Nations begin to pick sides Yalta Conference Establishment of UN Polish Question Future of Eastern Europe Division of Germany Potsdam Conference Nothing solved Nations begin to pick sides

3 Rebuilding of Europe Germany Divide Germany into four zones (British Plan) Denatzification Policy Churchill- Wants a strong united Germany Stalin- Weak Germany so USSR can project power Germany Divide Germany into four zones (British Plan) Denatzification Policy Churchill- Wants a strong united Germany Stalin- Weak Germany so USSR can project power

4 Rebuilding of Europe Germany- New atmosphere takes hold Paris Agreement- Federal Republic of Germany established German recovery: Wirtsschaftwunder Berlin Wall Germany- New atmosphere takes hold Paris Agreement- Federal Republic of Germany established German recovery: Wirtsschaftwunder Berlin Wall

5 Rebuilding of Europe France 2 separate nations Centralization of Power (Communists) Tradition and History (Vichy Government, Church) Communists elected (1944), declare 4th Republic Toppled due to unsuccessful reclaiming of empire De Gaul enters in France 2 separate nations Centralization of Power (Communists) Tradition and History (Vichy Government, Church) Communists elected (1944), declare 4th Republic Toppled due to unsuccessful reclaiming of empire De Gaul enters in

6 Establishment of European Cooperation 1951- European Coal and Steel Community 1958- European Economic Community 1951- European Coal and Steel Community 1958- European Economic Community

7 Eastern Europe Westminster College, Fulton, MO: From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere. Westminster College, Fulton, MO: From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.

8 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Stalin Tries a command economy 5 year plans Rebuilds industry as far east as possible Large Red Army Make all minorities live like Russians Rewrite history 1953- Dies Stalin Tries a command economy 5 year plans Rebuilds industry as far east as possible Large Red Army Make all minorities live like Russians Rewrite history 1953- Dies

9 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1953- Kruschev, Ministry of Agriculture Comes to power with promise that he will not be another Stalin With Eisenhower, enters into detente with the West Fails Berlin Wall U-2 Incident and Gary Powers Bay of Pigs 1953- Kruschev, Ministry of Agriculture Comes to power with promise that he will not be another Stalin With Eisenhower, enters into detente with the West Fails Berlin Wall U-2 Incident and Gary Powers Bay of Pigs

10 Political State- Bi Polar World United States vs. USSR (Cold War) Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) US- Strategic Bombers, Rockets, Submarine-Based Missiles USSR- Similar United States vs. USSR (Cold War) Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) US- Strategic Bombers, Rockets, Submarine-Based Missiles USSR- Similar

11 Vatican I Called by Pius IX in 1869 700 bishops arrive, but no one can guarantee that they will be safe 2 Documents Dei Filius Pastor Aeternus Council ends with Rome falling Called by Pius IX in 1869 700 bishops arrive, but no one can guarantee that they will be safe 2 Documents Dei Filius Pastor Aeternus Council ends with Rome falling

12 State of the Church Pope Pius XII Along with Churchill- understood the stakes At same time- new teachings Mystici Corporis (1943) Divino Flentes Espiritu (1944) Mediator Dei (1947) Humani Generis (1950) 1958- Dies (Pope for 19 years, 7 months) Pope Pius XII Along with Churchill- understood the stakes At same time- new teachings Mystici Corporis (1943) Divino Flentes Espiritu (1944) Mediator Dei (1947) Humani Generis (1950) 1958- Dies (Pope for 19 years, 7 months)

13 State of Theology 3 Main Movements Neo-Scholasticism East of the Rhine West of the Rhine 3 Main Movements Neo-Scholasticism East of the Rhine West of the Rhine

14 1958 Conclave Angelo Roncalli is elected (John XXIII) on October 28 Was a professor of Church History Made secretary to his bishop Diplomatic Corps Turkey France Angelo Roncalli is elected (John XXIII) on October 28 Was a professor of Church History Made secretary to his bishop Diplomatic Corps Turkey France

15 1958 Conclave John XXIII was seen to be a transition pope after the long pontificate of Pius XII Similar to what we are living through now with John Paul II-Benedict XVI John XXIII was seen to be a transition pope after the long pontificate of Pius XII Similar to what we are living through now with John Paul II-Benedict XVI

16 John XXIII: A Different Kind of Pope

17 January 25, 1959 Standing before you I tremble somewhat with emotion but am humbly resolute in my purpose to proclaim a twofold celebration: a diocesan synod for the city of Rome, and a general Council for the universal Church. (John XXIII)

18 Immediate Response Unexpected and Wide-ranging Yet one thing was defiantly clear Catholicism was going to be going through a change Unexpected and Wide-ranging Yet one thing was defiantly clear Catholicism was going to be going through a change

19 Synod of Rome First in Modern Era Held January 24-31, 1960 at the Lateran Failed Lacked the structure to effect change Diocese too fragmented Yet, holding it is a victory First in Modern Era Held January 24-31, 1960 at the Lateran Failed Lacked the structure to effect change Diocese too fragmented Yet, holding it is a victory

20 Purpose of the Council Every council prior to Vatican II in the Church had been called in response to a crisis Vatican II was called not for a crisis response, but to Increase commitment to the faith To make greater room for charity Every council prior to Vatican II in the Church had been called in response to a crisis Vatican II was called not for a crisis response, but to Increase commitment to the faith To make greater room for charity

21 Beginning of Preparations Clearly, these goals are not clear cut, so a commission was established to define what to speak about 10 members of the commission; almost all of the Curia President: Cardinal Tardini, Secretary of State Curia determined to monopolize Clearly, these goals are not clear cut, so a commission was established to define what to speak about 10 members of the commission; almost all of the Curia President: Cardinal Tardini, Secretary of State Curia determined to monopolize

22 A Different Council Needs Different Preparation John XXIII did not want the council to be prepared for in the ordinary matter Idea of questioners- vetoed Ask for suggestions- 2,000 responses with 8,972 vota received July 1960- work completed John XXIII did not want the council to be prepared for in the ordinary matter Idea of questioners- vetoed Ask for suggestions- 2,000 responses with 8,972 vota received July 1960- work completed

23 Official Preparations June 5, 1960- Superno Dei Nutu establishes central commission with ten commissions New- Apostolate on the laity and Activity of ordinary Christians in spreading the gospel Broke the monopoly of the Curia somewhat, yet Roman network still vital June 5, 1960- Superno Dei Nutu establishes central commission with ten commissions New- Apostolate on the laity and Activity of ordinary Christians in spreading the gospel Broke the monopoly of the Curia somewhat, yet Roman network still vital

24 Their Work They consolidated the responses into 70 worthy projects over the course of two years February 2, 1962- work concluded by John XXIII Concilium of John XXIII set the date of the council to open October 11, 1962 They consolidated the responses into 70 worthy projects over the course of two years February 2, 1962- work concluded by John XXIII Concilium of John XXIII set the date of the council to open October 11, 1962

25 Features of the Council As people looked ahead, three characteristics emerged: 1. Not be expressly dedicated to unity among Christians 2. Pastoral approach 3. Bishops would be main players Not a completion of Vatican I As people looked ahead, three characteristics emerged: 1. Not be expressly dedicated to unity among Christians 2. Pastoral approach 3. Bishops would be main players Not a completion of Vatican I

26 Summer of 62 The Vatican finally took the lid off of preparations and sent the bishops 7 proposed schemata, or outlines: Sources of Revelation Deposit of Faith Moral Order Liturgy Family Social Communications Church unity Many bishops dislike, except liturgy The Vatican finally took the lid off of preparations and sent the bishops 7 proposed schemata, or outlines: Sources of Revelation Deposit of Faith Moral Order Liturgy Family Social Communications Church unity Many bishops dislike, except liturgy

27 How Would the Council Work Two levels of activity Plenary assembly- Discussed and approved documents Held in morning Working Groups- Actually drafted the documents Worked in afternoons Two levels of activity Plenary assembly- Discussed and approved documents Held in morning Working Groups- Actually drafted the documents Worked in afternoons

28 How Would the Council Work IBM Computers would be used to tally votes Speeches would be given in Latin, with no simultaneous translation Problem- no one really knows Latin and pronunciation different IBM Computers would be used to tally votes Speeches would be given in Latin, with no simultaneous translation Problem- no one really knows Latin and pronunciation different

29 The Bishops Arrive Around 2,700 bishops descended upon Rome for the opening of the Council on October 11th Bishops can be divided into four main groups: Contented Catholic Countries (Italy, Spain, Ireland) Change Catholic Countries (Germany, France, England, Canada, Australia, United States) African and Asian countries Latin American Catholic Countries Around 2,700 bishops descended upon Rome for the opening of the Council on October 11th Bishops can be divided into four main groups: Contented Catholic Countries (Italy, Spain, Ireland) Change Catholic Countries (Germany, France, England, Canada, Australia, United States) African and Asian countries Latin American Catholic Countries

30 The Opening of Vatican II

31 First General Council Held Saturday, October 13th Cardinal Tisserant, president Proposal to vote on members of the commissions by Archbishop Felici, Secretary- General of the Council Cardinal Achille Lienart of Lille then rises and says... Held Saturday, October 13th Cardinal Tisserant, president Proposal to vote on members of the commissions by Archbishop Felici, Secretary- General of the Council Cardinal Achille Lienart of Lille then rises and says...

32 We are not disposed to accept the list of candidates proposed to us until the Council meets again. We have had too little time to choose our own candidates, since the Council Fathers do not know one another well enough yet. We therefore ask for a further delay in order to get our bearings.

33 Joseph Cardinal Frings, Archbishop of Cologne then rises to agree Applause erupts Cardinal Tiserant consults with others and then announces that the council was adjourned until the 16th. First session lasted 15 minutes Joseph Cardinal Frings, Archbishop of Cologne then rises to agree Applause erupts Cardinal Tiserant consults with others and then announces that the council was adjourned until the 16th. First session lasted 15 minutes

34 One Thing Now Clear... Vatican II will not go as expected


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