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Signs of the Times The Calling and Beginning of Vatican II

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1 Signs of the Times The Calling and Beginning of Vatican II
Rev. John Mayo

2 End of World War II Yalta Conference Establishment of UN
Polish Question Future of Eastern Europe Division of Germany Potsdam Conference Nothing solved Nations begin to pick sides Yalta-2/45 UN- given power to raise an army- problem of league of nations Polish question- USSR wants Poland to be a buffer for future aggression. West wants to reconstitute it freely. Decision made to allow for free elections, secured by Red Army. USSR pretty much takes Eastern Europe- America cedes power Germany- USSR wants 3 permanent division; Britain 4 temporary.

3 Rebuilding of Europe Germany
Divide Germany into four zones (British Plan) Denatzification Policy Churchill- Wants a strong united Germany Stalin- Weak Germany so USSR can project power

4 Rebuilding of Europe Germany- New atmosphere takes hold
Paris Agreement- Federal Republic of Germany established German recovery: Wirtsschaftwunder Berlin Wall Atmosphere of forgiveness and solidarity enters in. Americans, British, and French cooperate with one another and with German people to begin to rebuild the infrastructure of Germany. Takes about 2 years in Germany for things to stabilize. Wirtsschaftwunder- The economic miracle Actually, get to a point of over employment.

5 Rebuilding of Europe France 2 separate nations
Centralization of Power (Communists) Tradition and History (Vichy Government, Church) Communists elected (1944), declare 4th Republic Toppled due to unsuccessful reclaiming of empire De Gaul enters in Unsuccessful reclaiming- Algeria, Vietnam De Gaul- Does not want to run for things- handed to him.

6 Establishment of European Cooperation
1951- European Coal and Steel Community 1958- European Economic Community Schumann- establishes European Economic Community- understanding between France and Germany with Italy, Belgium, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands Evolves into the European Coal and Steel Community and eventually the Common Market (Monet)

7 Eastern Europe Westminster College, Fulton, MO:
From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.

8 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Stalin Tries a command economy 5 year plans Rebuilds industry as far east as possible Large Red Army Make all minorities live like Russians Rewrite history 1953- Dies Believes that he should rebuild industry as far east as he canRebuilds industry east of the Urals-> this is far enough east where it will not be touched.In order to do this- strips eastern Europe and western Russia of anything valuableMaintain a large army- turns to women power to rebuild. Reestablishes Russian Orthodox Church to keep Russian spirit alive. Attempts to Russify (make Russian in character) all of the minorities living in USSR- all are made to conform to Russian culture

9 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
1953- Kruschev, Ministry of Agriculture Comes to power with promise that he will not be another Stalin With Eisenhower, enters into detente with the West Fails Berlin Wall U-2 Incident and Gary Powers Bay of Pigs In 1957 post Stalin- 20 million people were killed and another 25 million homeless and .5 million square miles devastated. No way to really solve this problem. On top of 11 million dead under Lenin “The New Soft-Line” Consumer goods Private farms, sell what they grow. Increase in food supply Encourage tourism. Censorship somewhat relaxed Success in space- Sputnik, first man in space Success in foreign affairs Perfection of H-Bomb Armistice with Koreas (between N & S). Friendly talks between him, Eisenhower, and Churchill (returns to post as PM). Kruschev tries to enter into a détente with the west Camp David formula- agreement with Eisenhower Instead of war- enter into peace conferences and try to solve. U-2 incident with Gary Powers. Ruined relations, along with the Berlin Wall and the Bay of Pigs.

10 Political State- Bi Polar World
United States vs. USSR (Cold War) Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) US- Strategic Bombers, Rockets, Submarine-Based Missiles USSR- Similar

11 Vatican I Called by Pius IX in 1869
700 bishops arrive, but no one can guarantee that they will be safe 2 Documents Dei Filius Pastor Aeternus Council ends with Rome falling Dei Filius- Relationship between Faith and Reason Pastor Aeternus- Papal Infallibility Has been developing since Trent

12 State of the Church Pope Pius XII
Along with Churchill- understood the stakes At same time- new teachings Mystici Corporis (1943) Divino Flentes Espiritu (1944) Mediator Dei (1947) Humani Generis (1950) 1958- Dies (Pope for 19 years, 7 months) Mystici Corporis- Body of Christ Divino Felntes Espiritu- Scripture Mediator Dei- Liturgy Humani Generis- Concerning false opinions Pius XII as a person

13 State of Theology 3 Main Movements Neo-Scholasticism East of the Rhine
West of the Rhine Neo-Scholasticism New interest in Thomas and republishing of the Summa. Favored in the seminaries, Catholic universities, and the Vatican Modernism Only way to know God is through personal experience Cannot say there is anything objective about the Trinity, etc. Dogmatic formulas were undergoing flux E. of Rhine- Move to use Heigel to describe nature of the Church. Not shifting, but using new terminology. W. of Rhine- move to get comfortable with modern thought- modernists. Progressive elements in the Church join up with the Protestants.

14 1958 Conclave Angelo Roncalli is elected (John XXIII) on October 28
Was a professor of Church History Made secretary to his bishop Diplomatic Corps Turkey France Was a professor of Church History-> became secretary to his bishop. Ends up then in diplomatic corps and sent to Istanbul. He is not well liked in the diplomatic corps. When assigned to Paris, he was very effective, because he would roam about. Pius XII calls him to Rome and dresses him down pretty good. Does nothing to change him, however. This, however, really mends the fence in France. 20 Bishops identified as being collaborators with the Vichy government-> Some of this had to be done, though, to keep the Church up and going. Roncalli (John XXIII)- gets 7 to resign- brings some peace back to the situation. POW Camps still enforced in France of Germans. 500 German seminarians-> sends in French theology professors- lead to healing

15 1958 Conclave John XXIII was seen to be a transition pope after the long pontificate of Pius XII Similar to what we are living through now with John Paul II-Benedict XVI He was chosen as the compromise candidate and in a couple of years he will die and then we can get serious.

16 John XXIII: A Different Kind of Pope
Conclave Kennedy Incident Garden incident

17 January 25, 1959 “Standing before you I tremble somewhat with emotion but am humbly resolute in my purpose to proclaim a twofold celebration: a diocesan synod for the city of Rome, and a general Council for the universal Church.” (John XXIII) Rynne- First Page First renovate center of Church- plan of Trent After speech- 18 Cardinals present were mute- stunned

18 Immediate Response Unexpected and Wide-ranging
Yet one thing was defiantly clear Catholicism was going to be going through a change Those around John seriously doubted the idea of a council 10-20 years of preparation Bishops of Germany Response in America

19 Synod of Rome First in Modern Era
Held January 24-31, 1960 at the Lateran Failed Lacked the structure to effect change Diocese too fragmented Yet, holding it is a victory John wanted a discussion by parish priests and theologians Convinced instead to simply give four days, commenting on acts of the synod Acts- Way of life for Christians How to respond to attacks Obeying traffic laws Annual visits to cemeteries Minimal penalties highlight Wearing of Cassock and tonsure God’s mercy emphasized

20 Purpose of the Council Every council prior to Vatican II in the Church had been called in response to a crisis Vatican II was called not for a crisis response, but to Increase commitment to the faith To make greater room for charity Increase commitment to the faith- Happy days of the 50s maybe were not as happy Greater room for charity- Trent and post Trent

21 Beginning of Preparations
Clearly, these goals are not clear cut, so a commission was established to define what to speak about 10 members of the commission; almost all of the Curia President: Cardinal Tardini, Secretary of State Curia determined to monopolize Sec. of State- huge- not traditional theological preparation (Inquisition used to be head) Pope tried not to- wanted input from bishops from throughout the world

22 A Different Council Needs Different Preparation
John XXIII did not want the council to be prepared for in the ordinary matter Idea of questioners- vetoed Ask for suggestions- 2,000 responses with 8,972 “vota” received July work completed Surprised even asking for suggestions and not ordering Hundreds called for the reform of the curia- nothing was in the vota Also ignored: mandatory retirement ages for bishops and Cardinals, review of the Index, greater simplicity of lifestyle for bishops, questions about a restored diaconate. Material was 1,500 pages long and divided into 18 parts.

23 Official Preparations
June 5, Superno Dei Nutu establishes central commission with ten commissions New- Apostolate on the laity and Activity of ordinary Christians in spreading the gospel Broke the monopoly of the Curia somewhat, yet Roman network still vital Some nominations broke Roman network, but not too much

24 Their Work They consolidated the responses into 70 worthy projects over the course of two years February 2, work concluded by John XXIII Concilium of John XXIII set the date of the council to open October 11, 1962

25 Features of the Council
As people looked ahead, three characteristics emerged: 1. Not be expressly dedicated to unity among Christians 2. Pastoral approach 3. Bishops would be main players Not a completion of Vatican I 1. Many thought council was solely to bring about Christian Unity. Pope did not see this- it would, however, signal a fundamental shift in the Church toward fostering Christian Unity. 2. Rather than concentrating on doctrine, more on practice. 3. Leaving behind of passivity in the episcopacy.

26 Summer of ‘62 The Vatican finally took the lid off of preparations and sent the bishops 7 proposed schemata, or outlines: Sources of Revelation Deposit of Faith Moral Order Liturgy Family Social Communications Church unity Many bishops dislike, except liturgy I. Sources of Revelation Certainly, scripture and tradition, but what role does scripture and tradition play? If trying to work on agreements with Protestants, then you need to watch how much you use tradition Focus of new theology. II. Moral Order Take on subjectivism- like B-XVI working to take on the dictatorship of relativism. III. Deposit of Faith Take on… pantheism, existentialism, atheism, modernism, evolutionism. IV. Family and Chastity V. The Liturgy Work of 13 committees. Goal- increase participation of the laity in the Mass, to extend the use of the vernacular. VI. Means of Distributing InformationVIII. The Unity of the Church (de Ecclesia) Particularly, German speaking bishops were interested in it. Primacy of truth vs. religious liberty.

27 How Would the Council Work
Two levels of activity Plenary assembly- Discussed and approved documents Held in morning Working Groups- Actually drafted the documents Worked in afternoons John XXIII believes going to be controversial-> appoints a committee to mediate disputes- Secretariat for Extraordinary Affairs More often than not- John XXIII would step in.

28 How Would the Council Work
IBM Computers would be used to tally votes Speeches would be given in Latin, with no simultaneous translation Problem- no one really knows Latin and pronunciation different

29 The Bishops Arrive Around 2,700 bishops descended upon Rome for the opening of the Council on October 11th Bishops can be divided into four main groups: Contented Catholic Countries (Italy, Spain, Ireland) “Change” Catholic Countries (Germany, France, England, Canada, Australia, United States) African and Asian countries Latin American Catholic Countries Contented- 205 Italy- 117 Spain 28 Ireland 32 Portugal 28 Change- 642 Germany 54 (+ Austria 17, Swiss 12, Belgium 26) France- 131 England 35 Canada-90 Australia- 49 US- 216 Netherlands- 12 African (FACE)- 124 Asia- 211 CELAM- 470

30 The Opening of Vatican II
John XXIII- Opening Address Spoke against “prophets of gloom- forecasting end of world” Spoke against those who lacked broadmindedness, discretion, and balance Spoke of need for religious liberty, but not tolerance Church of today prefers medicine of mercy than condemnations The Opening of Vatican II

31 First General Council Held Saturday, October 13th
Cardinal Tisserant, president Proposal to vote on members of the commissions by Archbishop Felici, Secretary- General of the Council Cardinal Achille Lienart of Lille then rises and says...

32 “We are not disposed to accept the list of candidates proposed to us until the Council meets again. We have had too little time to choose our own candidates, since the Council Fathers do not know one another well enough yet. We therefore ask for a further delay in order to get our bearings.”

33 Joseph Cardinal Frings, Archbishop of Cologne then rises to agree
Applause erupts Cardinal Tiserant consults with others and then announces that the council was adjourned until the 16th. First session lasted 15 minutes

34 One Thing Now Clear... Vatican II will not go as expected


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