Presentation on theme: "Signs of the Times The Calling and Beginning of Vatican II"— Presentation transcript:
1Signs of the Times The Calling and Beginning of Vatican II Rev. John Mayo
2End of World War II Yalta Conference Establishment of UN Polish QuestionFuture of Eastern EuropeDivision of GermanyPotsdam ConferenceNothing solvedNations begin to pick sidesYalta-2/45UN- given power to raise an army- problem of league of nationsPolish question- USSR wants Poland to be a buffer for future aggression. West wants to reconstitute it freely. Decision made to allow for free elections, secured by Red Army.USSR pretty much takes Eastern Europe- America cedes powerGermany- USSR wants 3 permanent division; Britain 4 temporary.
3Rebuilding of Europe Germany Divide Germany into four zones (British Plan)Denatzification PolicyChurchill- Wants a strong united GermanyStalin- Weak Germany so USSR can project power
4Rebuilding of Europe Germany- New atmosphere takes hold Paris Agreement- Federal Republic of Germany establishedGerman recovery: WirtsschaftwunderBerlin WallAtmosphere of forgiveness and solidarity enters in. Americans, British, and French cooperate with one another and with German people to begin to rebuild the infrastructure of Germany. Takes about 2 years in Germany for things to stabilize.Wirtsschaftwunder- The economic miracleActually, get to a point of over employment.
5Rebuilding of Europe France 2 separate nations Centralization of Power (Communists)Tradition and History (Vichy Government, Church)Communists elected (1944), declare 4th RepublicToppled due to unsuccessful reclaiming of empireDe Gaul enters inUnsuccessful reclaiming- Algeria, VietnamDe Gaul- Does not want to run for things- handed to him.
6Establishment of European Cooperation 1951- European Coal and Steel Community1958- European Economic CommunitySchumann- establishes European Economic Community- understanding between France and Germany with Italy, Belgium, Luxemburg, and the NetherlandsEvolves into the European Coal and Steel Community and eventually the Common Market (Monet)
7Eastern Europe Westminster College, Fulton, MO: From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.
8Union of Soviet Socialist Republics StalinTries a command economy5 year plansRebuilds industry as far east as possibleLarge Red ArmyMake all minorities live like RussiansRewrite history1953- DiesBelieves that he should rebuild industry as far east as he canRebuilds industry east of the Urals-> this is far enough east where it will not be touched.In order to do this- strips eastern Europe and western Russia of anything valuableMaintain a large army- turns to women power to rebuild.Reestablishes Russian Orthodox Church to keep Russian spirit alive. Attempts to Russify (make Russian in character) all of the minorities living in USSR- all are made to conform to Russian culture
9Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1953- Kruschev, Ministry of AgricultureComes to power with promise that he will not be another StalinWith Eisenhower, enters into detente with the WestFailsBerlin WallU-2 Incident and Gary PowersBay of PigsIn 1957 post Stalin- 20 million people were killed and another 25 million homeless and .5 million square miles devastated.No way to really solve this problem.On top of 11 million dead under Lenin“The New Soft-Line”Consumer goodsPrivate farms, sell what they grow.Increase in food supplyEncourage tourism.Censorship somewhat relaxedSuccess in space- Sputnik, first man in spaceSuccess in foreign affairsPerfection of H-BombArmistice with Koreas (between N & S).Friendly talks between him, Eisenhower, and Churchill (returns to post as PM).Kruschev tries to enter into a détente with the westCamp David formula- agreement with EisenhowerInstead of war- enter into peace conferences and try to solve.U-2 incident with Gary Powers.Ruined relations, along with the Berlin Wall and the Bay of Pigs.
10Political State- Bi Polar World United States vs. USSR (Cold War)Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD)US- Strategic Bombers, Rockets, Submarine-Based MissilesUSSR- Similar
11Vatican I Called by Pius IX in 1869 700 bishops arrive, but no one can guarantee that they will be safe2 DocumentsDei FiliusPastor AeternusCouncil ends with Rome fallingDei Filius- Relationship between Faith and ReasonPastor Aeternus- Papal InfallibilityHas been developing since Trent
12State of the Church Pope Pius XII Along with Churchill- understood the stakesAt same time- new teachingsMystici Corporis (1943)Divino Flentes Espiritu (1944)Mediator Dei (1947)Humani Generis (1950)1958- Dies (Pope for 19 years, 7 months)Mystici Corporis- Body of ChristDivino Felntes Espiritu- ScriptureMediator Dei- LiturgyHumani Generis- Concerning false opinionsPius XII as a person
13State of Theology 3 Main Movements Neo-Scholasticism East of the Rhine West of the RhineNeo-Scholasticism New interest in Thomas and republishing of the Summa. Favored in the seminaries, Catholic universities, and the VaticanModernismOnly way to know God is through personal experienceCannot say there is anything objective about the Trinity, etc.Dogmatic formulas were undergoing flux E. of Rhine- Move to use Heigel to describe nature of the Church. Not shifting, but using new terminology. W. of Rhine- move to get comfortable with modern thought- modernists. Progressive elements in the Church join up with the Protestants.
141958 Conclave Angelo Roncalli is elected (John XXIII) on October 28 Was a professor of Church HistoryMade secretary to his bishopDiplomatic CorpsTurkeyFranceWas a professor of Church History-> became secretary to his bishop.Ends up then in diplomatic corps and sent to Istanbul. He is not well liked in the diplomatic corps.When assigned to Paris, he was very effective, because he would roam about. Pius XII calls him to Rome and dresses him down pretty good. Does nothing to change him, however. This, however, really mends the fence in France.20 Bishops identified as being collaborators with the Vichy government-> Some of this had to be done, though, to keep the Church up and going. Roncalli (John XXIII)- gets 7 to resign- brings some peace back to the situation. POW Camps still enforced in France of Germans. 500 German seminarians-> sends in French theology professors- lead to healing
151958 ConclaveJohn XXIII was seen to be a transition pope after the long pontificate of Pius XIISimilar to what we are living through now with John Paul II-Benedict XVIHe was chosen as the compromise candidate and in a couple of years he will die and then we can get serious.
16John XXIII: A Different Kind of Pope ConclaveKennedy IncidentGarden incident
17January 25, 1959“Standing before you I tremble somewhat with emotion but am humbly resolute in my purpose to proclaim a twofold celebration: a diocesan synod for the city of Rome, and a general Council for the universal Church.” (John XXIII)Rynne- First PageFirst renovate center of Church- plan of TrentAfter speech- 18 Cardinals present were mute- stunned
18Immediate Response Unexpected and Wide-ranging Yet one thing was defiantly clearCatholicism was going to be going through a changeThose around John seriously doubted the idea of a council10-20 years of preparationBishops of GermanyResponse in America
19Synod of Rome First in Modern Era Held January 24-31, 1960 at the LateranFailedLacked the structure to effect changeDiocese too fragmentedYet, holding it is a victoryJohn wanted a discussion by parish priests and theologiansConvinced instead to simply give four days, commenting on acts of the synodActs- Way of life for ChristiansHow to respond to attacksObeying traffic lawsAnnual visits to cemeteriesMinimal penalties highlightWearing of Cassock and tonsureGod’s mercy emphasized
20Purpose of the CouncilEvery council prior to Vatican II in the Church had been called in response to a crisisVatican II was called not for a crisis response, but toIncrease commitment to the faithTo make greater room for charityIncrease commitment to the faith- Happy days of the 50s maybe were not as happyGreater room for charity- Trent and post Trent
21Beginning of Preparations Clearly, these goals are not clear cut, so a commission was established to define what to speak about10 members of the commission; almost all of the CuriaPresident: Cardinal Tardini, Secretary of StateCuria determined to monopolizeSec. of State- huge- not traditional theological preparation (Inquisition used to be head)Pope tried not to- wanted input from bishops from throughout the world
22A Different Council Needs Different Preparation John XXIII did not want the council to be prepared for in the ordinary matterIdea of questioners- vetoedAsk for suggestions- 2,000 responses with 8,972 “vota” receivedJuly work completedSurprised even asking for suggestions and not orderingHundreds called for the reform of the curia- nothing was in the votaAlso ignored: mandatory retirement ages for bishops and Cardinals, review of the Index, greater simplicity of lifestyle for bishops, questions about a restored diaconate.Material was 1,500 pages long and divided into 18 parts.
23Official Preparations June 5, Superno Dei Nutu establishes central commission with ten commissionsNew- Apostolate on the laity and Activity of ordinary Christians in spreading the gospelBroke the monopoly of the Curia somewhat, yet Roman network still vitalSome nominations broke Roman network, but not too much
24Their WorkThey consolidated the responses into 70 worthy projects over the course of two yearsFebruary 2, work concluded by John XXIIIConcilium of John XXIII set the date of the council to open October 11, 1962
25Features of the Council As people looked ahead, three characteristics emerged:1. Not be expressly dedicated to unity among Christians2. Pastoral approach3. Bishops would be main playersNot a completion of Vatican I1. Many thought council was solely to bring about Christian Unity. Pope did not see this- it would, however, signal a fundamental shift in the Church toward fostering Christian Unity.2. Rather than concentrating on doctrine, more on practice.3. Leaving behind of passivity in the episcopacy.
26Summer of ‘62The Vatican finally took the lid off of preparations and sent the bishops 7 proposed schemata, or outlines:Sources of RevelationDeposit of FaithMoral OrderLiturgyFamilySocial CommunicationsChurch unityMany bishops dislike, except liturgyI. Sources of Revelation Certainly, scripture and tradition, but what role does scripture and tradition play? If trying to work on agreements with Protestants, then you need to watch how much you use tradition Focus of new theology. II. Moral Order Take on subjectivism- like B-XVI working to take on the dictatorship of relativism. III. Deposit of Faith Take on… pantheism, existentialism, atheism, modernism, evolutionism. IV. Family and Chastity V. The Liturgy Work of 13 committees. Goal- increase participation of the laity in the Mass, to extend the use of the vernacular. VI. Means of Distributing InformationVIII. The Unity of the Church (de Ecclesia) Particularly, German speaking bishops were interested in it. Primacy of truth vs. religious liberty.
27How Would the Council Work Two levels of activityPlenary assembly- Discussed and approved documentsHeld in morningWorking Groups- Actually drafted the documentsWorked in afternoonsJohn XXIII believes going to be controversial-> appoints a committee to mediate disputes- Secretariat for Extraordinary Affairs More often than not- John XXIII would step in.
28How Would the Council Work IBM Computers would be used to tally votesSpeeches would be given in Latin, with no simultaneous translationProblem- no one really knows Latin and pronunciation different
29The Bishops ArriveAround 2,700 bishops descended upon Rome for the opening of the Council on October 11thBishops can be divided into four main groups:Contented Catholic Countries (Italy, Spain, Ireland)“Change” Catholic Countries (Germany, France, England, Canada, Australia, United States)African and Asian countriesLatin American Catholic CountriesContented- 205Italy- 117Spain 28Ireland 32Portugal 28Change- 642Germany 54 (+ Austria 17, Swiss 12, Belgium 26)France- 131England 35Canada-90Australia- 49US- 216Netherlands- 12African (FACE)- 124Asia- 211CELAM- 470
30The Opening of Vatican II John XXIII- Opening AddressSpoke against “prophets of gloom- forecasting end of world”Spoke against those who lacked broadmindedness, discretion, and balanceSpoke of need for religious liberty, but not toleranceChurch of today prefers medicine of mercy than condemnationsThe Opening of Vatican II
31First General Council Held Saturday, October 13th Cardinal Tisserant, presidentProposal to vote on members of the commissions by Archbishop Felici, Secretary- General of the CouncilCardinal Achille Lienart of Lille then rises and says...
32“We are not disposed to accept the list of candidates proposed to us until the Council meets again. We have had too little time to choose our own candidates, since the Council Fathers do not know one another well enough yet. We therefore ask for a further delay in order to get our bearings.”
33Joseph Cardinal Frings, Archbishop of Cologne then rises to agree Applause eruptsCardinal Tiserant consults with others and then announces that the council was adjourned until the 16th.First session lasted 15 minutes
34One Thing Now Clear... Vatican II will not go as expected