2Focus:Why will some people turn to dictators instead of democracy?
3Failure of Treaty of Versailles Germans upset about losing landSoviets upset about losing landSome democracies did emerge, but with problems
4many expected to pay huge debts widespread hungerhomelessnessunemployment
5Many democracies collapsed and dictators took control Joseph StalinBenito MussoliniAdolf Hitler
6Stalin - Soviet Union Lenin dies in 1924 - Stalin takes over focuses on creating a model communist stateeliminate private enterprise, private farming (people work for government)
7By 1939 Soviet Union is 3rd largest industrial power (U. S By 1939 Soviet Union is 3rd largest industrial power (U.S. and Germany are 1st and 2nd)Anyone who spoke out against government was executedresponsible for 8-13 million deaths
8Totalitarian - maintains total control over citizens (no rights) Benito Mussolini - ItalyFascism - political movement of a strong, centralized government headed by a powerful dictator.Not communists
9Mussolini was allowed to form a new government by the King Called himself “Il Duce” or “The Chief”Crushed opposition and totalitarian state
10Adolf Hitler -Germany Wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) outlined beliefs of NazismDreamed of uniting all German speaking people under one empire
11Aryan Race - blue eyes/blond hair Jewish people were inferiorHitler wanted to expand
121933 - Hitler was voted into power. Established the Third Reich (Third German Empire)
13Militarists in Japan Military leaders invade Manchuria Militarists take control of Japan’s governmentLeague of Nations gave Japan a “slap on the wrist”. Japan quit League
14Hitler establishes a pact with Italy He sends troops to the Rhineland (a German region near France that was demilitarized)Italy planned to invade EthiopiaLeague of Nations did nothing
15Poland (Sept.1,1939) Germany launches the “Blitzkrieg” - lightning war take the enemy by surpriseBritain/France declare war on Germany on Sept. 3rd
16Discussion Questions 1. What were some of Hitler’s goals? 2. Why did the treaty of Versailles fail?
17FocusWhat is isolationism and when did the US turn to it?
18World War II begins No more Poland Stalin begins taking lands lost during WWI as well as FinlandApril 9, 1940
19Germany begins attacking Denmark, Norway, Neth.,Belgium and Luxembourg France builds the “Maginot Line” -fortifications on German border
20June 1940Germany and Italy gang up to take France. French General Charles de Gualle fled to England.
21Battle of BritainGermany launched an air war with the Luftwaffe -German airforce. Two months solid of air raids on London.British Royal Air Force - used radar to detect Germans
23Germany Goes to Czechoslovakia continued to expand by taking Czech.U.S.S.R./Germany sign Non-Aggression Pactagree not to fight each otheragreed to divide Poland up
24The Holocaustthe systematic murder of 11 million people. More than half were JewsHitler wanted racial purityAnti-Semitism-hatred of Jews. Hitler used them as his scapegoat.
25Jews wore the Star of David as identification Kristallnacht - “crystal night” - night of broken glass.Raids against Jewish homes, stores etc. 20,000 arrested and sent to concentration camps
26Jewish Refugees fled to other countries Albert Einstein etc. went to U.S.U.S. had limitations because of the depression
27Genocide - deliberate and systematic killing of an entire people Germany began to implement this plan using concentration camps.Jews, Poles, Disabled, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Soviets, Homosexuals
28Concentration Camps People were held there to work. Thousand killed daily.Shot, gassed, starvedAuschwitz was the largest. (Poland)
29Crematoriums - ovens to burn the dead Medical experiments were performed
30U.S. - Anti-WarNeutrality Acts - Outlawed arms sales or loans to nations at warAppeasement -giving up principles to pacify an aggressor.
31U.S.Cash and Carry - nations can buy arms from the U.S. as long as they paid cash and carried them home.
32U.S. begins sending weapons and destroyers Boosted defense spendingDraft - 16 million men between 21 and 35 registered
33FDR breaks tradition by running for a 3rd term. He wins.
34Discussion Questions 1.What areas did Hitler take over? 2.Why were many Jewish refugees not allowed into the US?
35FocusWhy wasn’t the United States attacked during WWI?
361941 Lend-Lease Plan - to any country whose defense is vital to U.S. Germany attacks Soviet UnionU.S. aids Soviet UnionMany didn’t want to aid Stalin
37Atlantic Charter - FDR and Great Britain outlined the guidelines for war. no expansion allowedprotect rights of peoplefree tradeinternational cooperationbuild peacedisarmament and security
38Allies - nations joined to fight Axis powers Germans began attacking merchant shipsno war from U.S.
39U.S. imposed trade restrictions on Japan because of their violent expansion efforts in the Pacific Japan couldn’t continue without oil and fuel from U.S.they tried to negotiate, not successful
40Pearl HarborDec. 7, Japan attacks Hawaiian navel base for an hour and a half.18 ships damaged350 planes destroyed or damaged.
412,400 people dead1,178 people injuredU.S. declares war on JapanGermany and Italy declare war on U.S.
42U.S. and Britain Decide Germany is top priority Soviet Union needs helpOnce Hitler is defeated then go to JapanAccept only the unconditional surrender of Axis powers
43Battle in the Atlantic U-boats attack U.S. ships U.S. responds with rapid ship buildingU.S. comes back to defeat Germans in Atlantic
44War in Pacific Japan worked hard to take control of much of the East U.S. goes to Philippines with 80,000 men and MacArthur fighting against 200,000 Japanese. U.S. had to retreat.
45U.S. attacks Japan in a Pearl Harbor style air raid Battle of Midway IslandU.S. met Japanese there with Admiral Chester Nimitz.U.S. defeats Japanese
46Island HoppingU.S. began hopping to weak islands to gain control eventually began defeating Japan.Iwo Jima200 Japanese survived of 20,700
48Homefront More soldiers needed - more volunteer and more are drafted Soldiers are known as G.I.s - government issuedescribes clothes, weapons, supplies and now soldiers
49Women were now joining the military 250,000 women served in WWIIMany minority groups were represented as well
50Native Americans - 25,000Japanese Am - 33,000Chinese Am - 13,000African Americans - 1,000,000+Latinos - 500,000+
51Many new factories producing war materials millions of women went to work
52Sacrifices“We are now at war. We are now in it—all the way. Every single man, woman, and child is a partner in the most tremendous undertaking of our American history.”Franklin Roosevelt December 9, 1941
53Rationing Food: meat, sugar, butter Tires, gasoline. Collect fabric, scrap metal, old tires for recycling.Meatless Tuesdays.Men’s suits became cuff less and vest less.
54Propaganda“Kick ‘em in the Axis” became a popular slogan.
55Discussion Questions1.Why would the US and Britain develop the Atlantic Charter (think about how WWI ended)?2.What is Island Hopping?
56FocusWhy does the US military have an advantage in the world today?
57FDR created OSRD - Office of Scientific Research and Development Scientists improved radar and sonar (underwater)Use of pesticides kept soldiers free from liceDeveloped penicillin
58Manhattan Project development of the Atomic Bomb Germans split uranium atomsEinstein encouraged FDR to look at itA-bomb in the works
59Japanese Internment Camps Hundreds of thousands were rounded up and confined2/3 were Nisei - born in U.S. (citizens)
60Federal Control(OPA) Office of Price Administration - freeze prices to avoid inflation(WPB) War Productions Board - decided which factories would start wartime production. Drives to collect iron, cans etc.
63The Big ThreeLeaders of the Allies (Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin) met at Yalta in February of 1945 to discuss Europe’s postwar strategy.
64Battle of Leyte Gulf The largest naval battle of WWII First battle where the Japanese organized kamikaze attacksLed to the US gaining the Philippines
65Battle of Bulge Allies form a 80 mile long front. The Germans pushed through and created a “Bulge” in the line
66“Bulge” lasted a monthGermans were eventually pushed back120,000 troops, 600 tank/guns, 1,600 planes lost for the Germans
67Battle of Stalingrad Bitter winter in Russia Major turning point in the war on the Eastern frontGermany fights to take Stalingradhad 9/10 of city when Stalin launched a counter attack to force Germans to surrender
6891,000 Germans surrendered1,250,000 Soviets died (more than all the Americans in the whole war)
69Americans and Dwight D. Eisenhower go to Africa to control Axis aggression. By they had all surrendered
70U.S. and Allies enter Italy who wanted to get rid of Mussolini but couldn’t after Germans took control.Fighting in Italy lasted 18 months.
71Allies drove the Germans out with help from Italians who resisted Mussolini. April 28th, 1945 Italian resisters found Mussolini.They shot him and hung him
72Fighting in EuropeAllies plan an invasion into France. (Normandy Peninsula)In preparation they bomb supply routes.
73D-Day - June 6, 1944156,000 troops, 4,000 landing craft, 600 warships, 11,000 planes invaded France. German retaliation was fierce!By Sept, 1944 the Allies freed France, Belgium, Lux. And most of the Netherlands
74Discussion Questions1.Why did the United States develop internment camps?2.What is rationing?
75FocusWhy would some be for atomic bomb to end WWII, and some be against?
76FDR is elected AGAIN! Truman is his Vice President Harry S Truman - from Independence, Missouri
77Surrender Americans moved in from east Soviets moved in from west Began to liberate concentration campsSoviets stormed Berlin
78Hitler marries Eva Braun The next day they committed suicidehe shot himself, she drank poison
79May 8, 1945V-E dayThe Third Reich accepted unconditional surrender
80FDR dies - April 12,1945 Truman takes over Truman learns of Manhattan Projectheaded by J. Robert Oppenheimer in N. Mexico
81A-bomb was ready and tested July 16, 1945 the flash could be seen 180 miles away
82Okinawa - last defensive outpost 7,600 Americans die110,000 Japanese die
83Many scientists were opposed to using the bomb Options:drop without warningdrop in remote location as a warning
84August 6,1945Enola Gay - B-29 bomber released “Little Boy” over HiroshimaJapan did not surrender3 Days later “Fat Man” was dropped on Nagasaki
85200,000 people died as a result of the A-bomb September 2nd, Japan surrenders on the U.S.S. Missouri
86Peace Yalta Conference (Feb, 1945) Churchill, FDR, Stalin agreed on United Nations5 permanent seats - U.S., Great Britain, Soviet Union, France, China
87Germany was divided into 4 sectors. U.S., G.B., Soviet Union, and France each occupied one.
88Nuremberg Trials Nazi leaders tried for their crimes 22 tried - 12 sentenced to death200 more later found guilty
89Japanese OccupationMacArthur reformed Japan’s economy and called for a new constitutionwomen’s suffrageguarantee basic freedomsfree elections
90World War II is overU.S. now has to deal with the threat of Communism in the Cold War
91Discussion Questions 1.How was Berlin split up following the war? 2.What impact has the US had on Japan?