Presentation on theme: "World War II. Focus: Why will some people turn to dictators instead of democracy?"— Presentation transcript:
World War II
Focus: Why will some people turn to dictators instead of democracy?
Failure of Treaty of Versailles Germans upset about losing land Soviets upset about losing land Some democracies did emerge, but with problems
many expected to pay huge debts widespread hunger homelessness unemployment
Many democracies collapsed and dictators took control –Joseph Stalin –Benito Mussolini –Adolf Hitler
Stalin - Soviet Union Lenin dies in Stalin takes over –focuses on creating a model communist state –eliminate private enterprise, private farming (people work for government)
By 1939 Soviet Union is 3rd largest industrial power (U.S. and Germany are 1st and 2nd) Anyone who spoke out against government was executed responsible for 8-13 million deaths
Totalitarian - maintains total control over citizens (no rights) Benito Mussolini - Italy Fascism - political movement of a strong, centralized government headed by a powerful dictator. –Not communists
Mussolini was allowed to form a new government by the King Called himself Il Duce or The Chief Crushed opposition and totalitarian state
Adolf Hitler -Germany Wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) –outlined beliefs of Nazism Dreamed of uniting all German speaking people under one empire
Aryan Race - blue eyes/blond hair Jewish people were inferior Hitler wanted to expand
Hitler was voted into power. Established the Third Reich (Third German Empire)
Militarists in Japan Military leaders invade Manchuria Militarists take control of Japans government League of Nations gave Japan a slap on the wrist. Japan quit League
Hitler establishes a pact with Italy He sends troops to the Rhineland (a German region near France that was demilitarized) Italy planned to invade Ethiopia –League of Nations did nothing
Poland (Sept.1,1939) Germany launches the Blitzkrieg - lightning war –take the enemy by surprise Britain/France declare war on Germany on Sept. 3rd
Discussion Questions 1. What were some of Hitlers goals? 2. Why did the treaty of Versailles fail?
Focus What is isolationism and when did the US turn to it?
World War II begins No more Poland Stalin begins taking lands lost during WWI as well as Finland April 9, 1940
Germany begins attacking Denmark, Norway, Neth.,Belgium and Luxembourg France builds the Maginot Line - fortifications on German border
June 1940 Germany and Italy gang up to take France. French General Charles de Gualle fled to England.
Battle of Britain Germany launched an air war with the Luftwaffe -German airforce. Two months solid of air raids on London. British Royal Air Force - used radar to detect Germans
Germany eventually called off the raids
Germany Goes to Czechoslovakia continued to expand by taking Czech. U.S.S.R./Germany sign Non-Aggression Pact –agree not to fight each other –agreed to divide Poland up
The Holocaust the systematic murder of 11 million people. More than half were Jews –Hitler wanted racial purity Anti-Semitism-hatred of Jews. Hitler used them as his scapegoat.
Jews wore the Star of David as identification Kristallnacht - crystal night - night of broken glass. –Raids against Jewish homes, stores etc. 20,000 arrested and sent to concentration camps
Jewish Refugees fled to other countries Albert Einstein etc. went to U.S. U.S. had limitations because of the depression
Genocide - deliberate and systematic killing of an entire people Germany began to implement this plan using concentration camps. Jews, Poles, Disabled, Gypsies, Jehovahs Witnesses, Soviets, Homosexuals
Concentration Camps People were held there to work. Thousand killed daily. Shot, gassed, starved Auschwitz was the largest. (Poland)
Crematoriums - ovens to burn the dead Medical experiments were performed
U.S. - Anti-War Neutrality Acts - Outlawed arms sales or loans to nations at war Appeasement -giving up principles to pacify an aggressor.
U.S. Cash and Carry - nations can buy arms from the U.S. as long as they paid cash and carried them home.
U.S. begins sending weapons and destroyers Boosted defense spending Draft - 16 million men between 21 and 35 registered
FDR breaks tradition by running for a 3rd term. He wins.
Discussion Questions 1.What areas did Hitler take over? 2.Why were many Jewish refugees not allowed into the US?
Focus Why wasnt the United States attacked during WWI?
1941 Lend-Lease Plan - to any country whose defense is vital to U.S. Germany attacks Soviet Union –U.S. aids Soviet Union –Many didnt want to aid Stalin
Atlantic Charter - FDR and Great Britain outlined the guidelines for war. no expansion allowed protect rights of people free trade international cooperation build peace disarmament and security
Allies - nations joined to fight Axis powers Germans began attacking merchant ships –no war from U.S.
U.S. imposed trade restrictions on Japan because of their violent expansion efforts in the Pacific Japan couldnt continue without oil and fuel from U.S. they tried to negotiate, not successful
Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, Japan attacks Hawaiian navel base for an hour and a half. –18 ships damaged –350 planes destroyed or damaged.
2,400 people dead 1,178 people injured U.S. declares war on Japan Germany and Italy declare war on U.S.
U.S. and Britain Decide Germany is top priority –Soviet Union needs help –Once Hitler is defeated then go to Japan –Accept only the unconditional surrender of Axis powers
Battle in the Atlantic U-boats attack U.S. ships U.S. responds with rapid ship building U.S. comes back to defeat Germans in Atlantic
War in Pacific Japan worked hard to take control of much of the East U.S. goes to Philippines with 80,000 men and MacArthur fighting against 200,000 Japanese. U.S. had to retreat.
U.S. attacks Japan in a Pearl Harbor style air raid Battle of Midway Island –U.S. met Japanese there with Admiral Chester Nimitz. –U.S. defeats Japanese
Island Hopping U.S. began hopping to weak islands to gain control eventually began defeating Japan. Iwo Jima –200 Japanese survived of 20,700
Homefront More soldiers needed - more volunteer and more are drafted Soldiers are known as G.I.s - government issue –describes clothes, weapons, supplies and now soldiers
Women were now joining the military –250,000 women served in WWII Many minority groups were represented as well
Native Americans - 25,000 Japanese Am - 33,000 Chinese Am - 13,000 African Americans - 1,000,000+ Latinos - 500,000+
Many new factories producing war materials –millions of women went to work
Sacrifices We are now at war. We are now in itall the way. Every single man, woman, and child is a partner in the most tremendous undertaking of our American history. Franklin Roosevelt December 9, 1941
Rationing Food: meat, sugar, butter Tires, gasoline. Collect fabric, scrap metal, old tires for recycling. Meatless Tuesdays. Mens suits became cuff less and vest less.
Propaganda Kick em in the Axis became a popular slogan.
Discussion Questions 1.Why would the US and Britain develop the Atlantic Charter (think about how WWI ended)? 2.What is Island Hopping?
Focus Why does the US military have an advantage in the world today?
FDR created OSRD - Office of Scientific Research and Development Scientists improved radar and sonar (underwater) Use of pesticides kept soldiers free from lice Developed penicillin
Manhattan Project development of the Atomic Bomb Germans split uranium atoms Einstein encouraged FDR to look at it A-bomb in the works
Japanese Internment Camps Hundreds of thousands were rounded up and confined 2/3 were Nisei - born in U.S. (citizens)
Federal Control (OPA) Office of Price Administration - freeze prices to avoid inflation (WPB) War Productions Board - decided which factories would start wartime production. Drives to collect iron, cans etc.
Rationing - fixed amounts of goods –meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, gas –carpool
The Big Three Leaders of the Allies (Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin) met at Yalta in February of 1945 to discuss Europes postwar strategy.
Battle of Leyte Gulf The largest naval battle of WWII First battle where the Japanese organized kamikaze attacks Led to the US gaining the Philippines
Battle of Bulge Allies form a 80 mile long front. The Germans pushed through and created a Bulge in the line
Bulge lasted a month Germans were eventually pushed back 120,000 troops, 600 tank/guns, 1,600 planes lost for the Germans
Battle of Stalingrad Bitter winter in Russia Major turning point in the war on the Eastern front Germany fights to take Stalingrad –had 9/10 of city when Stalin launched a counter attack to force Germans to surrender
–91,000 Germans surrendered –1,250,000 Soviets died (more than all the Americans in the whole war)
Americans and Dwight D. Eisenhower go to Africa to control Axis aggression. By they had all surrendered
U.S. and Allies enter Italy who wanted to get rid of Mussolini but couldnt after Germans took control. Fighting in Italy lasted 18 months.
Allies drove the Germans out with help from Italians who resisted Mussolini. April 28th, 1945 Italian resisters found Mussolini. They shot him and hung him
Fighting in Europe Allies plan an invasion into France. (Normandy Peninsula) In preparation they bomb supply routes.
D-Day - June 6, ,000 troops, 4,000 landing craft, 600 warships, 11,000 planes invaded France. German retaliation was fierce! By Sept, 1944 the Allies freed France, Belgium, Lux. And most of the Netherlands
Discussion Questions 1.Why did the United States develop internment camps? 2.What is rationing?
Focus Why would some be for atomic bomb to end WWII, and some be against?
FDR is elected AGAIN! Truman is his Vice President Harry S Truman - from Independence, Missouri
Surrender Americans moved in from east Soviets moved in from west Began to liberate concentration camps Soviets stormed Berlin
Hitler marries Eva Braun –The next day they committed suicide he shot himself, she drank poison
May 8, 1945 V-E day The Third Reich accepted unconditional surrender
FDR dies - April 12,1945 Truman takes over Truman learns of Manhattan Project –headed by J. Robert Oppenheimer in N. Mexico
A-bomb was ready and tested July 16, 1945 –the flash could be seen 180 miles away
Okinawa - last defensive outpost –7,600 Americans die –110,000 Japanese die
Many scientists were opposed to using the bomb –Options: drop without warning drop in remote location as a warning
August 6,1945 Enola Gay - B-29 bomber released Little Boy over Hiroshima Japan did not surrender 3 Days later Fat Man was dropped on Nagasaki
200,000 people died as a result of the A- bomb September 2nd, Japan surrenders on the U.S.S. Missouri
Peace Yalta Conference (Feb, 1945) –Churchill, FDR, Stalin agreed on United Nations 5 permanent seats - U.S., Great Britain, Soviet Union, France, China
Germany was divided into 4 sectors. U.S., G.B., Soviet Union, and France each occupied one.
Nuremberg Trials Nazi leaders tried for their crimes –22 tried - 12 sentenced to death –200 more later found guilty
Japanese Occupation MacArthur reformed Japans economy and called for a new constitution –womens suffrage –guarantee basic freedoms –free elections
World War II is over U.S. now has to deal with the threat of Communism in the Cold War
Discussion Questions 1.How was Berlin split up following the war? 2.What impact has the US had on Japan?