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National Federation of State High School Associations

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1 National Federation of State High School Associations
Basketball PreGame Amended by Christopher J. Smith, M.Ed., for Compliance with Pennsylvania’s Mercer County Chapter THREE & TWO OFFICIALS’ MECHANICS

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3 Pre-Game Positions U1 observes home team U2 observes visiting team
Count number of players, check for jewelry, braces, t-shirts, dunking, etc. R goes to table at 12:00 R will… Identify official book Check for legal #s, count players in book, more is OK, less is not Sign books Speak with clock/arrow operator Arrow not switched until thrown in and touched Always 2 horns on TOs, 15/30, 45/60, and disqualified/injured player subs 15/20 Subs on “X”, hold for 2/3 shot fouls For correctable error/mistakes hold horn until the first dead ball Chop of the hand starts the clock Alert at 7th and 10th team fouls At halftime switch arrow and get jackets, alert officials at 3 minute mark Check Ball At 3:00 U1 & U2 will - Get Captains and Coaches R will read recite/adlib the Sportsmanship Rule, ask coaches re: uniforms R, Ui, U2 go opposite tableside for anthem/intros, U1 takes jackets and gets ball for R U1/U2 report to the block, R takes ball to division line opposite table, at horn assume positions for jump ball

4 Jump Ball U1 chops clock with left arm, watches jumpers, calls back poor toss U2 watches eight non-jumpers Jumpers must have both feet in each ½ center circle Prior to toss, non jumpers shall not move onto center circle/change position around center circle Neither jumper shall: touch the ball before reaching highest point; leave the circle prior to being touched; catch the jump ball; touch it more than twice These restrictions end when the touched ball contact one of the 8 non jumpers,; the floor; a basket or backboard R checks arrow for proper setting U1 & U2 mindful of quick 3-pt attempt and over/back

5 Jump Ball Ball goes right Ball goes left R always goes into T position

6 Primary Coverage Areas
Both C and T should close down on shots. A. The Trail official has primary responsibility for the area above the free-throw line extended to the far lane line extended and outside the three-point arc to the end line. B. The Center official has primary responsibility for the area from the near lane line extended to the near sideline and the near half of the key area. C. The Lead official has primary responsibility for the near half of the key area and a diagonal from the free-throw line to the intersection of the arc and the end line. D. Dual area for the Trail and Lead exists inside the near arc. E. Both C and T should close down on shots.

7 Line Coverage Lead has entire end line C has closest sideline
T has closest sideline, division line, and far end line Call only your line

8 Inbounds Coverage

9 Coverage on Transition
A. Trail becomes new Lead. B. Center remains Center. C. Lead becomes new Trail.

10 Shot & Rebound Coverage
Lead should not be positioned within lane lines Both C and T should close down on shots C is primarily responsible for weak side rebounding If shooter is in your area, you must referee the defense and bring the shooter to back to the floor.

11 Shot & Rebound Coverage

12 Three-Point Shot Coverage
If both C and T indicate the 3-pt attempt, T should referee the defense on the shooter and stay with the shot; C should release and cover rebounding C/T should mirror the other official’s “good” signal L does not have 3-pt attempt responsibilities in a front court offense, but may need to offer assistance on fast break.

13 Rotation Sequence A. Ball location keys the rotation. B. When the ball penetrates the free-throw lane line extended nearest to the Center, the Lead should close down and may move laterally to ball side. C. The Trail also closes down when the ball penetrates the free-throw lane line extended nearest to the Center. D. Center completes the rotation by backing out and becoming Trail, but is the last to rotate. E. The Lead can facilitate smooth rotations by moving along the end line and mirroring the location of the ball (outside the key area). F. During a rotation, there may temporarily be two Centers, but there should never be two Trails. L goes to ball-side, T closes down, C completes rotation (last to rotate)

14 Rotation Cues L dictates rotation (don’t stay in lane)
Better to have two C’s than two T’s (this is why C is last to rotate) L must officiate play in the post, even while moving across the lane If the L begins to rotate and the ball is quickly reversed or a quick shot is taken, the L does not have to complete the rotation

15 Transition Coverage After Rotation
A. All officials must recognize that a rotation has occurred. B. If the Lead has rotated late and a transition occurs, it is the old Lead’s (new Trail’s) responsibility to look up the court to make sure his/her partners picked up the rotation. If not, the new Trail should be prepared to adjust his/her location on the floor.

16 Throw-In Cues L may administer throw-ins on either side of player when staying in frontcourt T handles all throw-ins in the backcourt, regardless of location (“bump and run,” if necessary) T may bounce any sideline or end line throw-in (may depend on defensive pressure)

17 End Line Throw-Ins in the Frontcourt
A. The Lead administers all throw-ins on the end line in the frontcourt. B. The Lead may administer throw-ins on either side of player when staying in frontcourt. The position chosen should give the Lead the best possible angle to officiate the play. L may administer throw-ins on either side of player when staying in frontcourt

18 Sideline Throw-Ins in the Backcourt
A. Trail handles all throw-ins in the backcourt, regardless of location (“bump and run,” if necessary) B. Trail may bounce any sideline or end line throw-in (may depend on defensive pressure) C. If no pressure, Center and Lead may go to “home” positions. T handles all throw-ins in the backcourt, regardless of location (“bump and run,” if necessary)

19 End Line Throw-Ins in the Backcourt
A. Trail handles all throw-ins in the backcourt, regardless of location (“bump and run,” if necessary) B. Trail may bounce any sideline or end line throw-in (may depend on defensive pressure) C. If no pressure, Center and Lead may go to “home” positions. If no pressure, C and L may go to home locations.

20 Press Coverage C stays in backct.
L should have deepest player in front and boxed-in

21 Foul Reporting

22 Fouls & Basic Switching
Non-calling officials should observe all players Calling official goes tableside after reporting Table side official replaces the calling official Third official maintains their position If the calling official was the tableside official (center or trail) all officials maintain their positions On shooting fouls, the official who called the foul will always be the table side trail official

23 Shooting Foul in the Frontcourt
Shooting Foul in the Frontcourt (To be used in conjunction with magnetic boards during pre game) L calls foul OTS, goes to TS and becomes new T, C on TS becomes new L, T OTS becomes C T calls foul OTS, goes to TS and becomes T, C switches OTS and becomes C, L slides over and remains L C OTS call foul becomes new T, C TS becomes new C OTS, L slides over an remains L L TS calls foul, stays TS as new T, T TS becomes new L, C OTS remains C T TS calls foul, everyone remains in positions

24 Shooting Fouls in the Backcourt (To be used in conjunction with magnetic boards during pre game)
L OTS calls foul, goes TS becomes new T, C TS becomes new C OTS, T becomes new L T OTS calls foul, goes TS and becomes new T, TS C becomes new L, L becomes new C C OTS calls foul, goes TS an becomes new T, T TS becomes new L, L becomes new C L TS calls foul, stays TS becomes T, T becomes C OTS, C OTS becomes TS L T TS calls foul, stays TS T, C OTS slides to L TS, L becomes new C OTS

25 Non-Shooting Fouls in Front Court (To be used in conjunction with magnetic boards during pre game)
L OTS calls foul, becomes new C, C becomes L, T remains T T calls foul OTS, becomes new C, C becomes T, L remains L C calls foul OTS, goes TS and becomes C, T TS becomes T OTS, L remains L OTS L TS calls foul, goes TS and becomes T, T TS becomes new L TS, C remains C C on TS calls foul, stays TS and becomes T, L OTS remains L on TS, T becomes new C

26 Non-Shooting Fouls, Goes Backcourt (To be used in conjunction with magnetic boards during pre game)
L calls foul OTS, becomes C, C TS becomes T OTS, T becomes L OTS T calls foul OTS, becomes C, C TS becomes L OTS, L becomes T OTS C calls foul OTS, becomes C TS, T TS becomes L OTS, L becomes T OTS L TS calls foul, becomes new L, T TS becomes new T, C OTS remains T TS calls foul, becomes L, C remains C, L TS becomes T C TS calls foul, becomes L TS, T OTS becomes C, L OTS becomes T TS

27 Free Throws Calling official always becomes T
L administers all free throws C and T should close down on last shot attempt A. Calling official always becomes Center. Center has responsibility for shooter, flight of ball, and top three lane spaces on opposite line. B.     Lead administers all free throws and has responsibility for the near bottom lane space and all four spaces on the opposite line. C. Trail observes all action and assists with violations, rebounding action and fouls. D. Center and Trail should close down on last shot attempt. NEW RULE in 08-09!! All players move up one marked lane space, leaving the two spaces closest to the end line vacant. A new mark (2 inches by 8 inches) must be reapplied to the lane near the free-throw line to designate the last 3-foot marked lane space.

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29 Time – Outs (TO) Closest official to the ball stays with the ball
Full TO - Other two officials position themselves on the blocks of the respective lanes OTS, facing the table 30 Second TO - Other two officials position themselves at the top of the respective keys, facing the table During the intermission after the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th periods if an overtime exists, the referee will take the ball to the division line OTS. The other two officials will position themselves on the respective blocks of the respective lanes OTS facing the table

30 Time-Outs A. Administering official stays with the ball at the resumption of play location. B. The two free officials take a position at the nearest block (60-second time-out or intermission) or at the top of the three-point arc (30-second time-out). C. Officials should observe bench and table activity.

31 Last Second Shot C has the last shot
L may need to offer assistance or be responsible if on fast break Center official should communicate with partners that he/she has the last second shot “Lock 30 seconds unless a dead ball mandates a switch of positions, new C will have last shot L should assist with watching the feet of shooter if last second shot is in three point range

32 Other Important Points
Technical Fouls Other officials freeze to observe/prevent further unsportsmanlike conduct Take our time Inform partners with details Calling official goes away from table to mid-court for pending throw in throw in (arrow does not change) Intentional fouls are throw ins at the spot closest to the foul Play is resumed from point of interruption after a double technical foul If the technical foul is a direct or indirect to the coach he/she loses the coaching box privileges Special Situations Team control fouls are now a violation with no free throws Only shoot free throws when there are fouls during jump balls, rebounding, dead ball situations, or when the ball is in flight for a try for goal Double Fouls/Double Technical Fouls - play resumes at the point of interruption Review injured player procedures Review Screening Hand checking – advantage/disadvantage Hard fouls clean up early, talk to players to prevent

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34 2008-09 High School Basketball Rules Changes
3.5.3 Any item that goes around the entire head (elastic strips/bands, pre-wrap, headbands, etc.) shall meet the rule requirements regarding color, maximum size, logo restrictions and team uniformity. Black and beige have also been added to the colors a team is permitted to wear. 8.1.4 b, c, d During a free throw, all players will move up one marked lane space, leaving the two spaces nearest the end line vacant. A new mark (2 inches by 8 inches) must be reapplied to the lane line near the free-throw line to designate the last 3-foot marked lane space. (NEW) A maximum of one technical foul shall be charged directly to the head coach when a participant wears an illegal jersey, illegal pants/skirt or an illegal number. Editorial Changes 3.4 The uniform section will be reorganized to separate the topics by articles and adjust the language to reflect current industry standards/terminology. 4.27.2 A portion of the first sentence of the ‘incidental contact’ definition will be removed to clarify that a foul should be ruled when displacement occurs while opponents attempt to secure a loose ball. 4.42.5 The article will be reorganized into sub-articles for clarity. 10.5 This section will be reorganized for better understanding and clarity Points of Emphasis 1) Legal Uniforms 2) Rough Play 3) Time-outs 4) Slapping the Backboard 5) Officials’ Mechanics and Signals

35 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS Pre-Game Conference
R observes home team U observes visiting team Count number of players, check for jewelry, braces, t-shirts, dunking, etc. R goes to table at 12:00 R will… Identify official book Check for legal #s, count players in book, more is OK, less is not Sign books Speak with clock/arrow operator about … Arrow not switched until thrown in and touched Always 2 horns on TOs, 20/30, 45/60, and disqualified/injured player subs (20/30) Subs on “X”, hold for 2/3 shot fouls For correctable error/mistakes hold horn until the first dead ball Chop of the hand starts the clock Alert at 7th and 10th team fouls At halftime switch arrow and get jackets, alert officials at 3 minute mark At 3:00 R & U get Captains and Coaches and report tableside R will read recite/adlib the Sportsmanship Rule, ask coaches if players are properly equipped R & U will go opposite tableside for anthem/intros, U takes jackets and gets ball for R after anthem and intros U stays tableside/midcourt, R takes ball to division line opposite table, at horn assume positions for jump ball, U will chop

36 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
VISITOR TABLE HOME U R

37 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
END OF FIRST HALF: Assemble at mid-court, halfway between sideline and circle, opposite table Wait for players to leave Go to locker room Back on the court 3 minutes before second half (same positions as pre-game) END OF GAME: Same as at half time Approve final score by signing if appropriate Leave court promptly together

38 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
TABLE Throw-in spot

39 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
BASIC RESPONSIBILITIES Lead (L) Ahead of play Primarily responsible for play under the basket Play is spread: wider position (near the arc) Ball and majority of players on T-side, move to ball side Trail (T)): Cover back court and outer part of front court Work wide arc as play dictates Responsible for flight of ball on try Take at least one step in when shot is taken to cover: Goaltending Basket interference Rebounding

40 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
TABLE BASIC POSITIONS: Diagonal coverage Both diagonals used No rotation permitted while play is in progress T L L T

41 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
TABLE AREAS OF COVERAGE L: on-ball coverage S: off-ball, in lined area L B T

42 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
TABLE AREAS OF COVERAGE T: on-ball coverage L: off-ball in unlined area T B L

43 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
TABLE AREAS OF COVERAGE T: on-ball coverage L: off-ball in unlined area extending to opposite side of the key since ball is high T B L

44 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
TABLE AREAS OF COVERAGE T: off-ball in lined area M: move to cover 3-point arc Signal 3-point try T mirrors signal T signals successful try T L B

45 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
TABLE AREAS OF COVERAGE T: on-ball coverage L: works near key for good coverage off-ball T B L

46 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
TABLE AREAS OF COVERAGE T: on-ball outside arc L: ball side, looking through key off-ball, 45o angle B T L

47 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
TABLE AREAS OF COVERAGE T: off-ball, extending to opposite side of key L: on-ball in transition, go back to the other side of the court into diagonal coverage if ball swings back to opposite side or comes back high, L comes back B L T

48 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
Jump ball VISITOR TABLE HOME U U responsible for non-jumpers L L R responsible for jumpers R T T

49 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
Visitor TABLE Home Jump Ball: Ball controlled in back court with pressure, T always checks possession arrow T U B R L

50 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
VISITOR TABLE HOME Alternating possession: Beginning of period (R) Others: official responsible for line L T

51 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
Throw-in: principles Spot designated by administering official unless determined by rule Box-in on all throw-ins T administers all throw-ins in back court In front court, throw-in administered by official responsible for line Hand or bounce ball Sideline: bouncing recommended Endline and remaining in front court: handing the ball is recommended Sound warning whistle after time-out, intermission, or unusual delay

52 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
T TABLE T L L T Throw-in in back court: Both continue covering their respective sideline T

53 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
T T TABLE Throw-in in front court by T L L T T

54 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
TABLE T Throw-in in front court by L: Endline: hand the ball Sideline: bounce the ball L

55 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
TABLE L Throw-in in front court by L: Endline: hand the ball Sideline: bounce the ball T

56 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
TABLE T Throw-in in front court on L sideline above free throw line extended: L administers and becomes new T T becomes new L L L T

57 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
FOUL CALLING PROCEDURE Calling official: Stop clock Bird dogging only if needed for clarification Move near fouling player and STOP State colour and number Indicate nature of foul Give free-throw shooter’s number Visually give number of free throws to partner or Indicate throw-in spot Proceed quickly to reporting area (diagram next page) STOP Report colour and number of fouler (one hand), nature of foul, number of free throws Notification of 5th foul given by free official When appropriate, BFST sequence (Basket, Foul, Substitution, Time-out)

58 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
VISITOR TABLE HOME FOUL REPORTING AREA

59 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
FOUL CALLING PROCEDURE (continued) Free official: Freeze and keep all players within field of vision until reporting is completed Ignore ball during reporting After reporting is completed, secure loose ball and proceed to proper position for free throw or throw-in Move around players, not through them Double whistle: Eye contact Official responsible for zone where foul occurred takes the call Exception: if drive to basket, official in whose area drive originated takes the call Switching positions: Always switch positions after each foul Free official responsible to force switch

60 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
TABLE Free throw administration L & T: eye contact, visual number of throws, lane spaces properly occupied, final look at table T: Position: opposite table, behind free throw line extended, halfway between sideline and lane line Visible count (discrete) Free thrower All but first lane space on opposite side Step toward endline after ball is released Flight of ball Signal start of clock if last free throw unsuccessful and ball must remain live L: Step into lane and announce number of throws Bounce ball to free thrower Position 1,5 m outside lane line, well off court Watch first lane space on near lane line and all lane spaces opposite Signal start of clock on throw-in after last successful free throw M S

61 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
TABLE Free throw administration on technical foul Same procedure as normal free throw, no line up. T position to observe all players other then free thrower After last free throw, L retrieves ball and play is resumed at the point of interruption (CIS men). (In FIBA, ball is bounced to T to administer throw-in at mid-court opposite table) L T

62 NFHS 2-PERSON MECHANICS
VISITOR TABLE HOME Positions during timeouts Official responsible to handle play resumption takes spot nearer spot of resumption At first horn, move toward huddle and announce: « First horn. » Move to proper position to resume play O O O Short timeout Short timeout O Long timeout Long timeout


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