Presentation on theme: "Glen Sampson. A Change in Attitude Prevention is the key Treating the cause rather than the symptoms pesticides are no longer the only way to go We cannot."— Presentation transcript:
A Change in Attitude Prevention is the key Treating the cause rather than the symptoms pesticides are no longer the only way to go We cannot only be concerned about the specific site we are dealing with but adjacent areas as well Total site management not just pest management We must be more knowledgeable about what is going on in a turf
Growing Turf Without Pesticides The philosophy of growing turf (or anything else) without pesticides is simply that a healthy soil grows healthy plants When you feed the beneficial life in the soil, those growing populations of microorganisms begin to accomplish many jobs that now consume great amounts of your time, money, and energy.
Key Definitions Plant Health Care (PHC) – A comprehensive system for managing the appearance, structure, and vitality of ornamental landscapes and sports turf within client expectations Site evaluation and preparation Plant selection, establishment, and cultivation Pest management Plant removal and utilization Integrated Pest Mgt. (IPM) – A method for managing pests that combines cultural, biological, and chemical control tactics into a single management strategy IPM is an essential component of the PHC management system!
Key Definitions Pest – any organism that threatens the health, structure, appearance, or value of desirable plants Competes with desirable plants for resources Diminishes personal enjoyment, comfort, or safety in the landscape Most organisms in the landscape are not pests Many organisms make positive contributions to the landscape A pest is not always a pest Not all pests require control
Categorizing the site Class A High level of service: fine ornamental lawns, golf and lawn bowling greens, irrigated sports fields. Class B Moderate level of service: general park areas, residential and commercial lawns, boulevards, recreational fields, golf fairways. Class C Low level of service: meadows, picnic areas, rough grass, undeveloped and naturalized areas.
IPM is: A pest management philosophy that utilizes all suitable pest management techniques and methods to keep pest populations below economically injurious levels or below what causes damage that is aesthetically unacceptable. Prevention is the key Each pest management technique must be environmentally sound and compatible with turf/landscape managers objectives.
A changing perspective on IPM and its implementation an increasingly competitive market higher expectations continued societal concerns over pesticides increasing regulations in many areas newer, less-toxic products Treating problems rather than symptoms
Societal and industry concerns Environmental concerns Pesticide contamination of urban creeks, estuaries, and other waterways is an increasing concern Health concerns Chronic health concerns, environmental sensitivities Pesticide resistance Pest resurgence Pest replacement
Sustainable Landscape Practices Best Management Practices Emphasize plant health and longevity creating outdoor spaces that utilize fewer inputs are environmentally friendly are self-perpetuating over a period of time. Improve the environment by conserving resources, reducing chemical inputs and reduce labour inputs
Manage pests Most problems in lawns are not caused by pests, such as weeds, insects or disease-causing pathogens. Damage is more likely the result of poor turfgrass selection or improper maintenance practices. Providing proper care and using an appropriate turfgrass species can prevent the majority of lawn problems.
Does IPM work? If our team invested time monitoring the turf conditions and paid attention to what were the stressors on a specific area such as a sports field, we knew we could keep the area very healthy with good plant cultural practices, -Karen Richter, Organizational Leader of Parks Maintenance at the City of Waterloo. With the consistent application of sound horticultural practices, Waterloo decreased its use of pesticides at a steady pace throughout the 1980s. By the mid-1980s, the city had eliminated blanket spraying. By 1990, Waterloo spot sprayed less than 10 per cent of its green space.
Basic Principles of IPM A dense, vigorously growing, healthy plant population will resist invasion by pests Pests must be kept below levels that are incompatible with the purpose of the desirable species
A Good Pest Management Strategy A good pest management strategy incorporates some or all methods available to manage a given pest. The goal to reduce pest populations and damage to economically and aesthetically tolerable levels. Complete eradication may not be possible, practical, or desirable.
A Good Pest Management Strategy Prevention Prevention the introduction and/or spread of a pest Into or away from a site Exclusion One of the safest and most effective ways to manage pests in the home environment is to deny them access - pest-proofing Exclusion by Regulation Mechanical Exclusion
What does a Turf IPM program look like Tom Voigt and Tom Fermanian - University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign
Establishing new turf Rapid establishment of turf is desirable Reduces erosion Suppresses weed seed germination and weed growth Optimum seeding rates ( kg 100m 2 ) Healthy turf to enter winter
Pre-plant weed control Cultivation Irrigate to allow germination of weeds in planting bed. Follow up with a shallow (less than 1 inch) cultivation after weeds have emerged but before they get too big (usually before they have 4 leaves). Repeat the irrigation and cultivation cycle two or three times for best results. Summer cultivation for perennials For perennial weeds, it is ideal to repeatedly cultivate soil in summer, keeping it completely dry for extended periods to dehydrate propagules (stems, rhizomes, or tubers). Herbicide application Irrigate to allow germination of weed seeds in planting bed. Apply non-selective herbicide, such as glyphosate. Repeat the irrigation and herbicide cycle if necessary. Solarization Solarization is very effective during the hottest part of the year. Six weeks are required for best results
Role of soil microorganisms Fertilize by fixing nitrogen from the air, mineralizing soil organic nutrient, generating carbon dioxide, and dissolving mineral nutrient from rock De-thatch by composing thatch and other organic matter into valuable nutrients and humus, which in turn increase the water and nutrient holding capacity of the soil Aerate the soil Control many insect and disease problems by competition and predation
Soil amendments and fertilizers Fertilizers vs. soil amendments Fertilizers improve the supply of nutrients in the soil, directly affecting plant growth. Soil amendments improve a soil's physical condition (e.g. soil structure, water infiltration), indirectly affecting plant growth. Topsoil Topsoil may be added to raise the soil level to a minimum depth of 6 to 8 inches. The topsoil should be mixed into the existing soil. Soil pH The ideal soil pH ranges from Grass loses it comprtitive ability at lower pH
Soil amendments Organic (material) amendments Organic material improves soil structure. Organic material can be added to sandy soils to increase nutrient and moisture retention. Clay soils can also be amended with organic material to help loosen the soil and provide better aeration and drainage. Compost is the easiest organic material to use. A rotary tiller works best to incorporate the organic material to your soil. A layer of inches spread over your site should be tilled to a depth of inches.
Choose and identify your turf species Successful selection of a turf grass requires knowing how the turf will be used, where it will be grown and what level of quality is desired Failure to properly identify a turf grass species can lead to mistakes in maintenance. not all turf grass species tolerate the same mowing height or frequency. Irrigation frequency and the amount of water needed vary among species as do the frequency and amount of fertilizer. Turf grasses also differ in how they adapt to sun, shade, and temperature. Most lawns are mixtures of various turf grass species.
Endophytic grasses Endophyte is a naturally occurring fungus that grows symbiotically in the grass plant. It produces compounds that prevent insects from feeding on the leaves and stems of the plant. Improved performance under low maintenance situations makes some of the endophytic forms good candidates for low maintenance uses such as on roadside right of ways and in parks. The presence of the fungus improves plant vigour and helps with resistance to some environmental stresses. Avanex - endophyte tall fescue for airports – research has shown that it reduces bird populations by 87%
Concerns with endophytic grasses Animal toxicity – alkaloids -Ergovaline Reduced biodiversity Invasive species Storage issues that affect the viability of the endophytes – therefore, variety may not perform as expected
Lawn care for established lawns No two lawns are exactly alike. Lawns may differ by turf species, soil type, climate, location, how they are used, and how they are maintained. Tailor a program with the specifics of your situation in mind. A good maintenance program includes Mowing Irrigating Fertilizing Dethatching Aerating A well-planned and executed maintenance program will produce good-looking, green turf grass that will quickly recover from wear, pest damage, or mechanical injury
Lawn renovation Some causes of lawns deterioration from poor maintenance, inadequate drainage heavy traffic pest problems, weed invasions, simply because the wrong grass species was planted.
Lawn Renovation Neglected lawns Take better care of your lawn and bring it back to life with regular maintenance. Localized problems - Partially renovate your lawn by patching. Problem areas spread throughout the lawn Overseed your lawn. Severe problems encompassing more than 40% of the lawn Completely renovate your lawn by killing it and starting over from scratch. Don't repeat mistakes! Find the cause of your problems before you renovate
Weeds as stress indicators in turf SpeciesCondition Annual bluegrasslow fertility, compact soil, mowing too short, excessive moisture ButtercupExcessive moisture Chickweedthin grass, excessive moisture Cloverlow nitrogen, drought, compaction Crabgrassthin grass, low fertility, compaction Dandelionthin grass, low fertility, mowing too short Hawkweedlow pH
Weeds as stress indicators in turf SpeciesCondition Sheep sorrel low pH Mossheavy shade, low fertility, low pH Plantainlow fertility, mowing too short Dockexcessive moisture Creeping charlieexcessive shade
Overseeding a lawn When should you overseed? Your lawn appears to be in good condition, but just a little thin Thinning lawn following winter High traffic areas Always determine and solve the cause of your current problem before beginning repairs, and plan to seed at a time of year appropriate to the planted turf species. What should you overseed with? If your lawn is in relatively good condition in most areas, choose the seed mix you used in the past or turf recommended for overseeding
Overseeding your lawn Closely mow the turf and rake up the debris Dethatch and aerate Seed, fertilize, and irrigate Maintenance Patching the lawn with seed, sod, sprigs, plugs, stolons Dig out the affected area Work the soil Replant with seed, sod, stolons, sprigs, plugs Complete renovation Kill the existing turf and weeds Remove the remaining turf Rethink your irrigation system Prepare the soil
What are the abiotic stress factors Compaction
Examples of poor design that can lead to problems
Abiotic factors Dog Urine
Abiotic factors Fertilizer burn
Abiotic factors Nitrogen deficiency
Abiotic factors Uneven fertilizer application
Abiotic factors Overwatering
Abiotic factors Glyphosate (Roundup damage)
Abiotic factors Items left on lawn
Abiotic factors Scalping
Abiotic factors Shade
Abiotic factors Dull mower blades
Fertility management Mowing practices Water management Traffic management Weed management Disease and insect management Components of a Sustainable Urban Landscape/Golf Course Program = Integrated pest (turf) management
A pest management philosophy Recognizes there is no cure-all in pest control. Dependence on any one pest management method will have undesirable effects. Determine and correct the cause of the pest problem. Understanding Pest biology and ecology is essential. Manipulate the environment to the crops advantage and to the detriment of the pest. Recognizes that eradication of a pest is seldom necessary or even desirable, and generally not possible. Some damage is unavoidable and acceptable
Effective pest management plans are comprehensive in scope integrate agronomic and biological principles integrates cultural, biological and chemical pest control practices. They provide proven, science-driven and reliable methods for resolving the sometimes conflicting goals that golf course superintendents face producing consistently high quality, high playability turf at the same time reducing environmental impacts and keeping within budget constraints.
Life CycleBehaviour Seasonal Cycle Population dynamics Interaction Proper Pest Identification Pest Monitoring Methods Environmental Monitoring Use of Degree Days Models economic injury Action thresholds Biological Controls Cultural Controls Mechanical Controls Chemical Controls Schematic of IPM Concept Toolbox of management tactics: Decision-making aids: Knowledge of pest/host/ecosystem biology:
Approaches for Turf Protection using IPM Regulation using certified seed, sod, sprigs Genetic selection of the best adapted species/cultivars for the location Cultural – a healthy grass means fewer problems Physical – isolating areas where pests are a problem Biological – favouring natural competition Chemical
The ability to identify, understand the biology and stay abreast of control strategies for golf course pests – including weeds, diseases, insects and other arthropods and nematodes – is essential for development and implementation of IPM plans.
Each Pest Control Technique Must be Environmentally Sound Risk vs. Benefits
And Compatible with With Producers Objectives
Pest Identification What are the key pests to be managed in the system, what are their life cycles, how do they reproduce and how do they disperse. Text books Fact sheets Specialists Expert pest id systems
Monitoring - Whats Needed Site Descriptions Past history, soil factors, fertility level, drainage, management Develop a descriptive and predictive models What pests are most likely to occur, ways in which they can be introduced and seriousness of the problem Identify and fill in knowledge gaps Life cycles, reproductive strategy Biology, ecology
MONITORING Based on visual inspections (rough estimations) and on pest counts, presence It is important to keep written records of all counts, as well as notes from visual inspections for future reference. Photographs are useful as a record.
Diagnosing your problem Lawn problems are difficult to diagnose, and the diagnosis process can be quite complex. Remember that most turf grass problems are caused by improper management practices, not by insects or diseases. Before you begin the diagnostic process, take a look at how you manage your lawn. You may be able to solve your problem by simply changing your cultural practices.
Diagnostic tips Know the history of your lawn Know your predominant turf species Identify the problem when you first see symptoms Check for symptoms in the early morning Collect entire grass plant samples Perform a drench test Get help
Pink Snow Mold Michrodochium nivale
Gray Snow mold Typhula spp.
anthracnose Colletotrichum graminicola
Dollar spot Sclerotinia homoeocarpa
Black Turfgrass Ataenius
Black Turfgrass Ataenius damage
White Grubs European Chafer Japanese Beetle June Beetle
Action Threshold Pest Population at which a grower must take action to prevent a pest populations from reaching the economic injury level Economic threshold is slightly below the economic injury level Pest populations must be increasing
Time Pest Density Economic Injury Level (Aesthetic) Action Threshold Pest Population
Action thresholds In turf, it is difficult to put a dollar value Therefore it is dictated by the individuals tolerance for pest damage -aesthetic Aesthetic threshold – similar to economic threshold except based on what is visually unacceptable Most lawns can withstand some loss of foliage without quality and growth being affected May need to adjust aesthetic sensitivities to allow for a little more damage
To Keep Pests Below the Economic Injury Level Economic Injury Level: Cost of control = $ amount of damage caused by the pest Includes amount of pest damage Cost of each control practice Are determined through extensive research Economic Injury Level is the information that is necessary to develop an Economic Threshold, which is used by crop advisors
Action thresholds of some common pests PestNumber per sq. ft. Monitoring method Army worms3-4Visual, soap flush Chinch bugs20 adultsFlotation, soap flush Cutworms1Visual, soap flush White grubs3-4Visual
Action thresholds for cranefly Average # larvae per sq. ft Decision Do nothing; fertilize appropriately. May need to treat if turf is young, not well established and with poor root structure If your lawn is vigorous and healthy, do nothing. Decisions are based on the health of the turf, your personal tolerance, location and use of the turf Treat crane fly problem. Look towards long- term solutions, such as replacing problem areas with a turf alternative species.
Insect traps for monitoring Visual cues – color traps omnidirectional shape smooth poly surface scientifically tapered cone attractive, permanent yellow color
Growing degree days Daily high + daily low/2 – base development temperature of the insect=daily degree days Below the base development temperature the insect will not develop. Insects vary in their base development temperature. The base development temperature of European corn borer is 7 o C
Example Can use a max-min thermometer Max = 25 o C Min = 10 o C Average = 17.5 o C Subtract base temperature 7 o C Total degree days = 10.5 Cumulative total
Chinch bug and damage
Hairy Chinch Bug Blissus leucopterus hirtus Immature nymphs - bright red in colour when they first hatch, and begin to darken from brick red to grey/brown when they are nearly mature Characteristic white band across their abdomen which is eventually covered by the enlarging wings as the insects become larger and mature.
Control - monitoring obtain a large can which has a circular area of approximately 200 centimetres cut out the bottom and the top to form a cylinder and force this into the turf fill the cylinder with water, the chinch bugs will soon float to the surface where they can be seen
Growing degree days – Chinch bug max temperature – min temperature – base temperature and 877 degree-days (7ºC base, air temperature) numbers of second and third instar nymphs peak between mid-July and mid-August. Threshold -100 nymphs per sq ft. Based on growing degree-days for normal years - monitor for chinch bugs from July 1 to mid-August.
Annual bluegrass BIOLOGY a winter annual, cool-season grass. The leaf tips are boat-shaped like the bow of a boat. Poa has a prominent membranous ligule and a shallow, fibrous root system. The plant oftentimes is lighter green than perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass and creeping bentgrass.
Annual Bluegrass is a lighter green colour than Kentucky Bluegrass or Fine Fescue and therefore causes discoloration throughout the lawn It has a tendency to thin out and die during summer drought conditions. This can cause areas of patching which weeds and insects will take advantage of. its seed head production is higher than Kentucky Bluegrass or Fine Fescue, which causes the lawn to appear overrun and not well maintained and gives it an unsightly look.
Control of Annual Bluegrass Use certified seed and cut out and re-seed bare areas or overseed later in season Aerating your lawn once a year Water deeply and infrequently to encourage good root development in your Fescue and Bluegrass lawns. Mow at 2 1/2 to 3 inches to discourage development of seed heads.U Unless a soil test recommends otherwise, cut back on applying high phosphorus fertilizers Slow release N fertilizers and spread over the summer
Control Insecticides cultural and mowing practices that minimize thatch accumulation WATCH FOR Chinch bugs when weather turns hot and dry Weekly deep waterings
Should Pesticides be used in an IPM Program? Pesticides used only as a last resort and in a manner that is legal. Pesticides are to be used when there is no risk of environmental damage or when benefits outweigh the risks. Use pesticides only when other control practices arent available, economical or practical. Must monitor pest populations in the field. Identify the pest Compare pest population and the economic threshold Life stage susceptible to pesticide? Crop stage and preventable loss.
What is Cultural Control Agronomic practices that are designed to: Optimize growing conditions for the desirable plants. Anything that increases a plants competitive edge will result in increased tolerance to pests often resulting in reduced pesticide use. Create unfavorable conditions for the pest E.g. fertility management, irrigation scheduling, mowing heights
What is Mechanical Control? Uses machinery and/or other tools to control pests Mowing Physical barriers Mulches Floating mulch Greens covers
What is Sanitary Control? Methods to avoid introducing a pest into a site Cleaning equipment –mowers, golf carts, fertilizer applicators Planting certified seed Quarantines
What is Natural Control? Enhancement of naturally occurring pest management methods Beneficial insects Beneficial diseases
What is Biological Control? Manipulation of biological organism to control pests Release of predators/parasites/disease of an insect or weed Can be time consuming, expensive and difficult E.g. cinnabar moth,
Registered Bioherbicides Biomal for roundleaf mallow control 2003 – Chontrol for woody shrubs along rights of way 2007 – Sarritor limited use of Sclerotinia minor on dandelion
What is Host Plant Resistance? Manipulating the plant to withstand or tolerate pests Natural breeding method Genetically modified plants Not a permanent method of control Examples: resistant varieties, endophyte grasses
Barriers to adaptation of IPM There is a large gap between the general IPM principles found in textbooks and the development of site-specific strategies that address issues of climate and weather, turf varieties, soil and water quality, specific pest complexes, client/golfer expectations and varying budgets. There are currently few tools available to landscapers/superintendents that bridge this gap, and as a result, IPM programs are rarely realized to their full potential.
Barriers to adaptation of IPM Once IPM plans are developed, they cannot remain static. Shifts in pest populations Changes in client/golf course expectations and budgets The introduction of new products, technologies and scientific information Require methods of evaluating new advances as well as procedures for periodic updating of IPM plans.
Barriers to adaptation of IPM Monitoring (for pests, weather, equipment operation/calibration and for the quality of water, soil and turf) and record keeping are the backbone of any successful IPM program Information on monitoring and record keeping tools and procedures needs to be centralized and presented in a form that is easily accessible to landscapers/golf course superintendents.
Barriers to adaptation of IPM Objective evaluation of the success (or failure) of newly introduced practices in meeting turf maintenance goals. Without tools for assessing the effectiveness of new techniques, the landscapers/superintendents ability to justify and promote their management decisions can be compromised.
Barriers to adaptation of IPM Superintendents vary widely in their technical backgrounds, computer literacy access to information. And golf courses vary widely in their interest in IPM principles and the budgets available to implement them. Yet the ability to incorporate IPM into turf management programs should be feasible for all interested superintendents and golf courses Rather than assuming a one size fits all approach to IPM, successful plans need to be flexible enough to take these differences into account and to make it possible for superintendents at levels to participate.
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