2 A Change in Attitude Prevention is the key Treating the cause rather than the symptomspesticides are no longer the only way to goWe cannot only be concerned about the specific site we are dealing with but adjacent areas as wellTotal site management not just pest managementWe must be more knowledgeable about what is going on in a turf
3 Growing Turf Without “Pesticides” The philosophy of growing turf (or anything else) without pesticides is simply that a healthy soil grows healthy plantsWhen you feed the beneficial life in the soil, those growing populations of microorganisms begin to accomplish many jobs that now consume great amounts of your time, money, and energy.
4 Key DefinitionsPlant Health Care (PHC) – A comprehensive system for managing the appearance, structure, and vitality of ornamental landscapes and sports turf within client expectationsSite evaluation and preparationPlant selection, establishment, and cultivationPest managementPlant removal and utilizationIntegrated Pest Mgt. (IPM) – A method for managing pests that combines cultural, biological, and chemical control tactics into a single management strategyIPM is an essential component of the PHC management system!
5 Key Definitions Pest – any organism that threatens the health, structure, appearance, or value of desirable plantsCompetes with desirable plants for resourcesDiminishes personal enjoyment, comfort, or safety in the landscapeMost organisms in the landscape are not pestsMany organisms make positive contributions to the landscapeA “pest” is not always a pestNot all pests require control
6 Categorizing the site Class A Class B Class C High level of service: fine ornamental lawns, golf and lawn bowling greens, irrigated sports fields.Class BModerate level of service: general park areas, residential and commercial lawns, boulevards, recreational fields, golf fairways.Class CLow level of service: meadows, picnic areas, rough grass, undeveloped and naturalized areas.
7 IPM is:A pest management philosophy that utilizes all suitable pest management techniques and methods to keep pest populations below economically injurious levels or below what causes damage that is aesthetically unacceptable.Prevention is the keyEach pest management technique must be environmentally sound and compatible with turf/landscape manager’s objectives.
8 A changing perspective on IPM and its implementation an increasingly competitive markethigher expectationscontinued societal concerns over pesticidesincreasing regulations in many areasnewer, less-toxic productsTreating problems rather than symptoms
9 Societal and industry concerns Environmental concernsPesticide contamination of urban creeks, estuaries, and other waterways is an increasing concernHealth concernsChronic health concerns, environmental sensitivitiesPesticide resistancePest resurgencePest replacementThese are industry concerns as well as societies concern.
11 Sustainable Landscape Practices Best Management PracticesEmphasize plant health and longevitycreating outdoor spaces that utilize fewer inputsare environmentally friendlyare self-perpetuating over a period of time.Improve the environment by conserving resources, reducing chemical inputs and reduce labour inputs
12 Manage pestsMost problems in lawns are not caused by pests, such as weeds, insects or disease-causing pathogens.Damage is more likely the result of poor turfgrass selection or improper maintenance practices.Providing proper care and using an appropriate turfgrass species can prevent the majority of lawn problems.
13 Does IPM work?“If our team invested time monitoring the turf conditions and paid attention to what were the stressors on a specific area such as a sports field, we knew we could keep the area very healthy with good plant cultural practices,” -Karen Richter, Organizational Leader of Parks Maintenance at the City of Waterloo.With the consistent application of sound horticultural practices, Waterloo decreased its use of pesticides at a steady pace throughout the 1980s. By the mid-1980s, the city had eliminated blanket spraying. By 1990, Waterloo spot sprayed less than 10 per cent of its green space.
14 Basic Principles of IPM A dense, vigorously growing, healthy plant population will resist invasion by pestsPests must be kept below levels that are incompatible with the purpose of the desirable species
15 A Good Pest Management Strategy A good pest management strategy incorporates some or all methods available to manage a given pest.The goalto reduce pest populations and damage to economically and aesthetically tolerable levels. Complete eradication may not be possible, practical, or desirable.
16 A Good Pest Management Strategy PreventionPrevention the introduction and/or spread of a pestInto or away from a siteExclusion One of the safest and most effective ways to manage pests in the home environment is to deny them access - pest-proofingExclusion by RegulationMechanical Exclusion
17 What does a Turf IPM program look like Tom Voigt and Tom Fermanian - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
18 Establishing new turf Rapid establishment of turf is desirable Reduces erosionSuppresses weed seed germination and weed growthOptimum seeding rates ( kg 100m2)Healthy turf to enter winter
19 Pre-plant weed control CultivationIrrigate to allow germination of weeds in planting bed.Follow up with a shallow (less than 1 inch) cultivation after weeds have emerged but before they get too big (usually before they have 4 leaves).Repeat the irrigation and cultivation cycle two or three times for best results.Summer cultivation for perennialsFor perennial weeds, it is ideal to repeatedly cultivate soil in summer, keeping it completely dry for extended periods to dehydrate propagules (stems, rhizomes, or tubers).Herbicide applicationIrrigate to allow germination of weed seeds in planting bed.Apply non-selective herbicide, such as glyphosate.Repeat the irrigation and herbicide cycle if necessary.SolarizationSolarization is very effective during the hottest part of the year. Six weeks are required for best results
20 Role of soil microorganisms Fertilize by fixing nitrogen from the air, mineralizing soil organic nutrient, generating carbon dioxide, and dissolving mineral nutrient from rockDe-thatch by composing thatch and other organic matter into valuable nutrients and humus, which in turn increase the water and nutrient holding capacity of the soilAerate the soilControl many insect and disease problems by competition and predation
21 Soil amendments and fertilizers Fertilizers vs. soil amendmentsFertilizers improve the supply of nutrients in the soil, directly affecting plant growth. Soil amendments improve a soil's physical condition (e.g. soil structure, water infiltration), indirectly affecting plant growth.TopsoilTopsoil may be added to raise the soil level to a minimum depth of 6 to 8 inches.The topsoil should be mixed into the existing soil.Soil pHThe ideal soil pH ranges fromGrass loses it comprtitive ability at lower pH
22 Soil amendments Organic (material) amendments Organic material improves soil structure.Organic material can be added to sandy soils to increase nutrient and moisture retention.Clay soils can also be amended with organic material to help loosen the soil and provide better aeration and drainage.Compost is the easiest organic material to use.A rotary tiller works best to incorporate the organic material to your soil.A layer of inches spread over your site should be tilled to a depth of inches.
23 Choose and identify your turf species Successful selection of a turf grass requires knowing how the turf will be used, where it will be grown and what level of quality is desiredFailure to properly identify a turf grass species can lead to mistakes in maintenance.not all turf grass species tolerate the same mowing height or frequency.Irrigation frequency and the amount of water needed vary among species as do the frequency and amount of fertilizer.Turf grasses also differ in how they adapt to sun, shade, and temperature.Most lawns are mixtures of various turf grass species.
24 Endophytic grassesEndophyte is a naturally occurring fungus that grows symbiotically in the grass plant.It produces compounds that prevent insects from feeding on the leaves and stems of the plant.Improved performance under low maintenance situations makes some of the endophytic forms good candidates for low maintenance uses such as on roadside right of ways and in parks.The presence of the fungus improves plant vigour and helps with resistance to some environmental stresses.Avanex™ - endophyte tall fescue for airports – research has shown that it reduces bird populations by 87%
25 Concerns with endophytic grasses Animal toxicity – alkaloids -ErgovalineReduced biodiversityInvasive speciesStorage issues that affect the viability of the endophytes – therefore, variety may not perform as expected
26 Lawn care for established lawns No two lawns are exactly alike. Lawns may differ by turf species, soil type, climate, location, how they are used, and how they are maintained. Tailor a program with the specifics of your situation in mind.A good maintenance program includesMowingIrrigatingFertilizingDethatchingAeratingA well-planned and executed maintenance program will produce good-looking, green turf grass that will quickly recover from wear, pest damage, or mechanical injury
27 Lawn renovation Some causes of lawns deterioration from poor maintenance,inadequate drainageheavy trafficpest problems,weed invasions,simply because the wrong grass species was planted.
28 Lawn Renovation Neglected lawns Take better care of your lawn and bring it back to life with regular maintenance.Localized problems - Partially renovate your lawn by patching.Problem areas spread throughout the lawnOverseed your lawn.Severe problems encompassing more than 40% of the lawnCompletely renovate your lawn by killing it and starting over from scratch.Don't repeat mistakes! Find the cause of your problems before you renovate
29 Weeds as stress indicators in turf Species ConditionAnnual bluegrass low fertility, compact soil, mowing too short, excessive moistureButtercup Excessive moistureChickweed thin grass, excessive moistureClover low nitrogen, drought, compactionCrabgrass thin grass, low fertility, compactionDandelion thin grass, low fertility, mowing too shortHawkweed low pH
30 Weeds as stress indicators in turf Species ConditionSheep sorrel low pHMoss heavy shade, low fertility, low pHPlantain low fertility, mowing too shortDock excessive moistureCreeping charlie excessive shade
31 Overseeding a lawn When should you overseed? Your lawn appears to be in good condition, but just a little thinThinning lawn following winterHigh traffic areasAlways determine and solve the cause of your current problem before beginning repairs, and plan to seed at a time of year appropriate to the planted turf species.What should you overseed with?If your lawn is in relatively good condition in most areas, choose the seed mix you used in the past or turf recommended for overseeding
32 Patching the lawn with seed, sod, sprigs, plugs, stolons Overseeding your lawnClosely mow the turf and rake up the debrisDethatch and aerateSeed, fertilize, and irrigateMaintenancePatching the lawn with seed, sod, sprigs, plugs, stolonsDig out the affected areaWork the soilReplant with seed, sod, stolons, sprigs, plugsComplete renovationKill the existing turf and weedsRemove the remaining turfRethink your irrigation systemPrepare the soil
46 Components of a Sustainable Urban Landscape/Golf Course Program Fertility managementMowing practicesWater managementTraffic managementWeed managementDisease and insect managementIntegrated pest (turf) management=
47 “A pest management philosophy” Recognizes there is no “cure-all” in pest control.Dependence on any one pest management method will have undesirable effects.Determine and correct the cause of the pest problem.Understanding Pest biology and ecology is essential.Manipulate the environment to the crop’s advantage and to the detriment of the pest.Recognizes that eradication of a pest is seldom necessary or even desirable, and generally not possible.Some damage is unavoidable and acceptable
48 Effective pest management plans are comprehensive in scopeintegrate agronomic and biological principlesintegrates cultural, biological and chemical pest control practices.They provide proven, science-driven and reliable methods for resolving the sometimes conflicting goals that golf course superintendents faceproducing consistently high quality, high playability turfat the same time reducing environmental impacts and keeping within budget constraints.
49 Schematic of IPM Concept Toolbox of management tactics:Biological ControlsCultural ControlsMechanical ControlsChemical ControlsDecision-making aids:Proper Pest IdentificationPest Monitoring MethodsEnvironmental MonitoringUse of Degree DaysModels economic injuryAction thresholdsKnowledge of pest/host/ecosystem biology:Life CycleBehaviourSeasonalCyclePopulationdynamicsInteractionSchematic of IPM Concept
50 Approaches for Turf Protection using IPM Regulation using certified seed, sod, sprigsGenetic selection of the best adapted species/cultivars for the locationCultural – a healthy grass means fewer problemsPhysical – isolating areas where pests are a problemBiological – favouring natural competitionChemical
51 The ability to identify, understand the biology and stay abreast of control strategies for golf course pests – including weeds, diseases, insects and other arthropods and nematodes – is essential for development and implementation of IPM plans.
52 “Each Pest Control Technique Must be Environmentally Sound” Risk vs “Each Pest Control Technique Must be Environmentally Sound” Risk vs. Benefits
53 And “Compatible with With Producers Objectives”
54 Pest IdentificationWhat are the key pests to be managed in the system, what are their life cycles, how do they reproduce and how do they disperse.Text booksFact sheetsSpecialistsExpert pest id systems
59 Monitoring - What’s Needed Site DescriptionsPast history, soil factors, fertility level, drainage, managementDevelop a descriptive and predictive modelsWhat pests are most likely to occur, ways in which they can be introduced and seriousness of the problemIdentify and fill in knowledge gapsLife cycles, reproductive strategyBiology, ecology
60 MONITORINGBased on visual inspections (rough estimations) and on pest counts, presenceIt is important to keep written records of all counts, as well as notes from visual inspections for future reference.Photographs are useful as a record.
61 Diagnosing your problem Lawn problems are difficult to diagnose, and the diagnosis process can be quite complex.Remember that most turf grass problems are caused by improper management practices, not by insects or diseases.Before you begin the diagnostic process, take a look at how you manage your lawn. You may be able to solve your problem by simply changing your cultural practices.
62 Diagnostic tips Know the history of your lawn Know your predominant turf speciesIdentify the problem when you first see symptomsCheck for symptoms in the early morningCollect entire grass plant samplesPerform a drench testGet help
81 Action ThresholdPest Population at which a grower must take action to prevent a pest populations from reaching the economic injury levelEconomic threshold is slightly below the economic injury levelPest populations must be increasing
82 Economic Injury Level (Aesthetic) Action ThresholdPestDensityPest PopulationThis graph explains the relationship of the Economic Injury Level to the Economic Threshold. The red arrow may indicate a pesticide application which was applied at the economic threshold and did not allow the pest population to reach the Economic Injury Level.Time
83 Action thresholds In turf, it is difficult to put a dollar value Therefore it is dictated by the individuals tolerance for pest damage -aestheticAesthetic threshold – similar to economic threshold except based on what is visually unacceptableMost lawns can withstand some loss of foliage without quality and growth being affectedMay need to adjust aesthetic sensitivities to allow for a little more damage
84 “To Keep Pests Below the Economic Injury Level” Cost of control = $ amount of damage caused by the pestIncludes amount of pest damageCost of each control practiceAre determined through extensive researchEconomic Injury Level is the information that is necessary to develop an Economic Threshold, which is used by crop advisors
85 Action thresholds of some common pests Number per sq. ft.Monitoring methodArmy worms3-4Visual, soap flushChinch bugs20 adultsFlotation, soap flushCutworms1White grubsVisual
86 Action thresholds for cranefly Average # larvae per sq. ftDecision0- 25Do nothing; fertilize appropriately. May need to treat if turf is young, not well established and with poor root structureIf your lawn is vigorous and healthy, do nothing. Decisions are based on the health of the turf, your personal tolerance, location and use of the turf50-80Treat crane fly problem. Look towards long-term solutions, such as replacing problem areas with a turf alternative species.
87 Insect traps for monitoring Visual cues – color trapsomnidirectional shapesmooth poly surfacescientifically tapered coneattractive, permanent yellow color
88 Growing degree daysDaily high + daily low/2 – base development temperature of the insect=daily degree daysBelow the base development temperature the insect will not develop. Insects vary in their base development temperature. The base development temperature of European corn borer is 7oC
89 Example Can use a max-min thermometer Cumulative total Max = 25oC Min = 10oCAverage = 17.5oCSubtract base temperature 7oCTotal degree days = 10.5Cumulative total
91 Hairy Chinch Bug Blissus leucopterus hirtus Immature nymphs - bright red in colour when they first hatch, and begin to darken from brick red to grey/brown when they are nearly matureCharacteristic white band across their abdomen which is eventually covered by the enlarging wings as the insects become larger and mature.
92 Control - monitoringobtain a large can which has a circular area of approximately 200 centimetrescut out the bottom and the top to form a cylinder and force this into the turffill the cylinder with water, the chinch bugs will soon float to the surface where they can be seen
93 Growing degree days – Chinch bug max temperature – min temperature – base temperature2427 and 877 degree-days (7ºC base, air temperature)numbers of second and third instar nymphs peak between mid-July and mid-August.Threshold -100 nymphs per sq ft.Based on growing degree-days fornormal years - monitor for chinchbugs from July 1 to mid-August.
94 Annual bluegrass BIOLOGY a winter annual, cool-season grass. The leaf tips are boat-shaped like the bow of a boat.Poa has a prominent membranous ligule and a shallow, fibrous root system.The plant oftentimes is lighter green than perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass and creeping bentgrass.
96 Annual BluegrassAnnual Bluegrass is a lighter green colour than Kentucky Bluegrass or Fine Fescue and therefore causes discoloration throughout the lawnIt has a tendency to thin out and die during summer drought conditions. This can cause areas of patching which weeds and insects will take advantage of.its seed head production is higher than Kentucky Bluegrass or Fine Fescue, which causes the lawn to appear overrun and not well maintained and gives it an unsightly look.
97 Control of Annual Bluegrass Use certified seed and cut out and re-seed bare areas or overseed later in seasonAerating your lawn once a yearWater deeply and infrequently to encourage good root development in your Fescue and Bluegrass lawns.Mow at 2 1/2 to 3 inches to discourage development of seed heads.UUnless a soil test recommends otherwise, cut back on applying high phosphorus fertilizersSlow release N fertilizers and spread over the summer
98 ControlInsecticidescultural and mowing practices that minimize thatch accumulationWATCH FOR Chinch bugs when weather turns hot and dryWeekly deep waterings
99 Should Pesticides be used in an IPM Program? Pesticides used only as a last resort and in a manner that is legal.Pesticides are to be used when there is no risk of environmental damage or when benefits outweigh the risks. Use pesticides only when other control practices aren’t available, economical or practical.Must monitor pest populations in the field.Identify the pestCompare pest population and the economic thresholdLife stage susceptible to pesticide?Crop stage and preventable loss.
100 What is “Cultural Control” Agronomic practices that are designed to:Optimize growing conditions for the desirable plants. Anything that increases a plant’s competitive edge will result in increased tolerance to pests often resulting in reduced pesticide use.Create unfavorable conditions for the pestE.g. fertility management, irrigation scheduling, mowing heights
101 What is Mechanical Control? Uses machinery and/or other tools to control pestsMowingPhysical barriersMulchesFloating mulchGreens covers
102 What is Sanitary Control? Methods to avoid introducing a pest into a siteCleaning equipment –mowers, golf carts, fertilizer applicatorsPlanting certified seedQuarantines
103 What is Natural Control? Enhancement of naturally occurring pest management methodsBeneficial insectsBeneficial diseases
104 What is Biological Control? Manipulation of biological organism to control pestsRelease of predators/parasites/disease of an insect or weedCan be time consuming, expensive and difficultE.g. cinnabar moth,
105 Registered Bioherbicides “Biomal” for roundleaf mallow control2003 – “Chontrol” for woody shrubs along rights of way2007 – “Sarritor” limited use of Sclerotinia minor on dandelion
111 What is Host Plant Resistance? Manipulating the plant to withstand or tolerate pestsNatural breeding methodGenetically modified plantsNot a permanent method of controlExamples: resistant varieties, endophyte grasses
112 Barriers to adaptation of IPM There is a large gap between the general IPM principles found in textbooks and the development of site-specific strategies that address issues of climate and weather, turf varieties, soil and water quality, specific pest complexes, client/golfer expectations and varying budgets.There are currently few tools available to landscapers/superintendents that bridge this gap, and as a result, IPM programs are rarely realized to their full potential.
113 Barriers to adaptation of IPM Once IPM plans are developed, they cannot remain static.Shifts in pest populationsChanges in client/golf course expectations and budgetsThe introduction of new products, technologies and scientific informationRequire methods of evaluating new advances as well as procedures for periodic updating of IPM plans.
114 Barriers to adaptation of IPM Monitoring (for pests, weather, equipment operation/calibration and for the quality of water, soil and turf) and record keeping are the backbone of any successful IPM programInformation on monitoring and record keeping tools and procedures needs to be centralized and presented in a form that is easily accessible to landscapers/golf course superintendents.
115 Barriers to adaptation of IPM Objective evaluation of the success (or failure) of newly introduced practices in meeting turf maintenance goals.Without tools for assessing the effectiveness of new techniques, the landscapers/superintendent’s ability to justify and promote their management decisions can be compromised.
116 Barriers to adaptation of IPM Superintendents vary widely in their technical backgrounds, computer literacy access to information.And golf courses vary widely in their interest in IPM principles and the budgets available to implement them.Yet the ability to incorporate IPM into turf management programs should be feasible for all interested superintendents and golf coursesRather than assuming a “one size fits all” approach to IPM, successful plans need to be flexible enough to take these differences into account and to make it possible for superintendents at levels to participate.
117 IPMgolfpro™ SPRAY & SCOUT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE IPM golfpro™ is a web based software specifically designed for golf course Superintendents to track and manage their Spray and Scout activities.IPM golfpro™ offers the following:Easy to use and understandPlan, execute, track and document your pest management strategiesGenerate reports required by the IPM regulatory legislationTrack your Fertilizer and Pesticide usageCalibrate your SprayersTrack your staff Training history
118 PRICING: Annual Subscription in CAD$ (plus applicable taxes) Annual subscription to IPM golfpro™ software includes initial course setup, technical support, maintenance and updatesPRICING: Annual Subscription in CAD$ (plus applicable taxes)Number of Holes9 $34918 $69827 $104736 $1396
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