Presentation on theme: "Session Objectives Analyse the components of a good learning design Model learning design examples Produce an effective and efficient learning design for."— Presentation transcript:
Session Objectives Analyse the components of a good learning design Model learning design examples Produce an effective and efficient learning design for selected SP graduate attributes Design integrated activities for selected graduate attributes Identify the knowledge and skill components of teaching holistically Identify assessment methods for selected graduate attributes
Implementing Holistic Education: What Next......now that You have mapped the attributes in Your Course and Modules
SP Graduate attributes CIE Communication & Teamwork Competence Personal & Social Effectiveness Global Mindset Ethics & Responsibility Context: SP Graduate Attributes
Summary SP Graduate Attributes (Competency areas with customized SLOs) Produce Learning Designs for developing competence Produce Assessment Items for assessing competence Infuse Graduate Attributes into Course & Module structure EDU Support
In basic terms this means that the Graduate Attribute knowledge/skill components incorporated in the Learning Outcomes must be effectively taught through the Learning Designs used and accurately measured in the Assessment System. Curriculum Alignment Learning Outcomes Learning Designs Assessment System Graduate Attributes
A Learning Design is a planned experience (e.g., a Strategy involving a number of instructional methods, activities and resources) that facilitates desired learning outcomes for a group of students. A Learning Activity is any task (e.g., experiment, case, project, etc) that students are given to do, which aims to build key understanding/competence relating to specific learning outcomes. Learning Design
The Essential Questions How to produce a Learning Design that can effectively and efficiently facilitate the desired learning? How to actually facilitate the learning experience for students in practice?
Planning the Learning Design What Learning Outcomes (objectives) are to be met – Specific subject content (facts, concepts, principles, procedures) – Other graduate attributes (e.g., teamwork/communication, types of thinking, ethical reasoning, etc) What Instructional Methods can be employed – (e.g., explanation, demonstration, Q & A, group work, simulation, etc) What Activities can support learning/assessment – (e.g., performance task, case, project, etc) What additional Resources can support learning – (e.g., texts, handouts, web links, etc) How can an effective and efficient strategy be designed for this group of learners? Note: this process is Iterative, not Linear
Competences are context-dependent and should be learned and assessed in the technical context. Why Integrate Competences? Communication In Engineering Means Being Able To Use The Technical Concepts Comfortably, Discuss A Problem At Different Levels, Determine What Is Relevant To The Situation, Argue For Or Against Conceptual Ideas And Solutions, Develop Ideas Through Discussion And Collaborative Sketching, Explain The Technical Matters For Different Audiences, Show Confidence In Expressing Yourself Within The Field...
Teamwork in Engineering means? Being able to identify and utilize strengths of different team members Setting goals, agendas, ground-rules and meeting deadlines Dealing quickly and effectively with disagreements/conflict
Creativity, Innovation & Enterprise Apply critical and creative thinking skills in problem solving Use a range of critical thinking skills (e.g., analysis, comparison and contrast, inference and interpretation, and evaluation) Use the creative thinking process (e.g., generating possibilities, incubation, illumination) Identify barriers to effective thinking (e.g., traits, dispositions, working memory, perception, lack of information) Identify contradictory perspectives and underlying assumptions Use metacognition in monitoring the quality of personal thinking
What is the relationship between Knowledge & Thinking? U
A Model of Thinking Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved Meta-cognition Comparison & Contrast Inference & Interpretation Evaluation Generating Possibilities Analysis 14
Generating Possibilities What do we do when we generate possibilities? Generate many possibilities Generate different types of possibilities Generate novel possibilities Meta- cognition Comparison & Contrast Inference & Interpretation Evaluation Generating Possibilities Analysis Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved 15 All creative products involve the combining of old ideas or elements in new ways
Comparison and Contrast What do we do when we compare and contrast? Identify what is similar between things - objects/options/ideas, etc Identify what is different between things Identify and consider what is important about both the similarities and differences Identify a range of situations when the different features are applicable Meta- cognition Comparison & Contrast Inference & Interpretation Evaluation Generating Possibilities Analysis Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved 16
Analysis What do we do when we analyse? Identify relationship of the parts to a whole in system /structure/model Identify functions of each part Identify consequences to the whole, if a part was missing Identify what collections of parts form important sub-systems of the whole Identify if and how certain parts have a synergetic effect Meta- cognition Comparison & Contrast Inference & Interpretation Evaluation Generating Possibilities Analysis Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved 17
Inference and Interpretation What do we do when we make inferences and interpretations? Meta- cognition Comparison & Contrast Inference & Interpretation Evaluation Generating Possibilities Analysis Identify intentions and assumptions in data Separate fact from opinion in data Identify key points, connections, and contradictions in data Make meaning of the data/information available Establish a best picture to make predictions Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved 18
Evaluation What do we do when we evaluate? Decide on what is to be evaluated Identify appropriate criteria from which evaluation can be made Prioritize the importance of the criteria Apply the criteria and make decision Meta- cognition Comparison & Contrast Inference & Interpretation Evaluation Generating Possibilities Analysis Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved 19
Meta-cognition What are we doing when we are meta-cognitive? Aware that we can think in an organized manner Actively thinking about the ways in which we are thinking Monitoring and evaluating how effective we are thinking Seeking to make more effective use of the different ways of thinking and any supporting learning/ thinking strategies /tools Meta- cognition Comparison & Contrast Inference & Interpretation Evaluation Generating Possibilities Analysis Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved 20
Being aware of ones thinking, evaluating how well we are using the range of specific types of thinking and taking necessary corrective action Put simply, meta-cognition is Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss Prevention Thinking about your thinking What assumptions did I made? How can I spot an error if I make one? Do I know what do I need to know? Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved 21
<> One dark foggy night in Halifax, as Percy Shaw was driving home, he saw two small green lights, very close together near the edge of the road. He noted that they were the eyes of a cat, which were reflecting the light from his head lights. Percy was intrigued by this …and subsequently invented a small device involving two marbles placed close together in a rubber casing; this would then be set in the road at intervals between the lanes of traffic. After a year of experiments, Percy patented the invention and then, in 1935, formed his company, Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd. (Thats Innovation & Enterprise) What is Creativity? A product or response will be judged creative to the extent that it is novel, useful or a valuable response to the task at hand. (summarized from Amabile, 1996, p.35)
The Creative Process Interest Preparation (ongoing- may be years) Incubation (best between periods of intense focused work and rest) Illumination Verification Application
Reframing & Creativity How your perceive something makes all the difference and you are free to see things from any perspective you wish (Adler, 1996, p.145) To shift to a different frame will typically reframe ones perspective and therefore, ones meaning. And when we do this, our very world changes, which changes the sensory experience, hence how we feel Slimy Pond Life or Tasty Dinner?
The problem of slow lifts
Creative Thinking involves.. Generating many ideas Different types of ideas Novel ideas All creative products involve the combining of old ideas or elements in new ways
BRAINSTORMING DEFER JUDGEMENT STRIVE FOR QUANTITY FREEWHEEL HITCH HIKE
Forced Associations (Random Triggers) Forced Associations is a technique for linking another thinking pattern into the one we are presently using. We do this by selecting a random concrete noun from a different field and combining it with the problem under consideration. For example, we might be looking at ways to make lifts quicker. By choosing a random word Mirror could lead to installing mirrors by lifts. As we know this is a popular solution for slow lifts. The lift doesnt go faster, but people waiting dont notice this as they look in the mirror. Force Associate with Mirror
PO (Provocative Operation) PO involves making deliberately provocative statements, which seek to force thinking out of established patterns. Examples:Everybody should go to prison Lets abolish schools Having made a provocative statement, it is then necessary to suspend judgement and use the statement to generate ideas. For example, you can generate ideas by examining: The consequences of the statement What the benefits could be? What would need to change in order to make it a sensible statement? What would happen if a sequence of events changed?
S C A M P E R SCAMPER is a checklist that helps to think of ways to improve existing products or create new ones Substitute Combine Adapt Magnify, Minify, Modify Put to other use Eliminate Reverse
Morphological Matrix This tool encourages new possibilities through combining options X X X X X X OPTIONS
Ethics & Responsibility Apply knowledge of sound values and ethics to professional and personal life Identify the need for values and ethical codes of conduct Compare and contrast value systems and ethical codes of conduct Analyse the impact of values and ethical codes of conduct on personal and professional behavior Use ethical reasoning on issues relating to human conduct in personal and professional contexts Demonstrate behaviour consistent with agreed codes of ethics and value systems http://www.sp.edu.sg/wps/portal/vp-spws/!ut/p/c1/04_ SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os_hQD1NXIzdTEwP_EC9TA0__ YFdLJ9cAIxMXU
Activities Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in class listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves. (Chickering & Gamson) However, activities for activity sake is as bad as dull lecturing - in fact the second sin of teaching. Good activities must be meaningful, challenging but achievable, and effective in terms of facilitating the desired learning outcomes
Steps in Designing Learning Activities Step 1: Identify the subject knowledge/skills and other graduate attribute components to be incorporated into the activity For this step, it is important to: Choose specific topic areas in your module(s)that contain knowledge essential for key understanding of the subject. For example, central concepts, principles and models. Identify the graduate attribute knowledge/skill components (e.g., critical thinking, creative thinking, communications, teamwork, etc) that promote student understanding/ competence in applying these topic areas.
Steps in designing learning activities Step 2: Produce the learning activity It is important that the activity: Clearly involves the application of the range of knowledge and skills identified from Step 1. Is sufficiently challenging, but realistically achievable in terms of students prior competence, access to resources, and time frames allocated. Successful completion usually involves more than one correct answer or more than one correct way of achieving the correct answer Clear notes of guidance are provided, which: – Identify the products of the activity and what formats of presentation are acceptable (e.g. written report, oral presentation, portfolio, etc) – Specify the parameters of the activity (e.g. time, length, areas to incorporate, individual/collaborative, how much choice is permitted, support provided, etc) – Cue the desired skills where relevant (e.g., types of thinking) – Spell out key aspects of the assessment process and criteria.
Teaching Holistically What does this mean? Understanding the connectedness of fields of knowledge Ability to recognize and exploit Teachable Moments Competence in Social & Emotional Intelligence
What is a Teachable Moment? A teachable moment is an unplanned opportunity that arises in the classroom where a teacher has an ideal chance to offer insight to his or her students.
The Importance of Emotionally Intelligent Teachers How emotions impact learning Determining attention Memory and recall Associate learning with pleasure, novelty and pain – hence can foster intrinsic interest, perseverance, etc – or kill it Influence the affective climate of the classroom The emotions that teachers display – both consciously and unconsciously – can significantly enhance or inhibit student learning ( Powell & Powell, 2010)
Imitation & Mirror Neurons When people are interacting with each other, the same brain structures are simultaneously activated in their brains. For example, if you watch someone making a cup of coffee, your brain not only processes the action – it also reproduces it. Essentially, we are predisposed to imitate those around us, and much occurs subconsciously. This has big implications for how we impart beliefs and values to students. To a large extent, what they see in our behaviour - their perception - may be central to how we might influence them in the affective domain, for better or for worst.
What is Social Intelligence? There are many definitions in the literature. A simple but useful one is.. … the ability to get along well with others and to get them to cooperate with you (Karl Albrecht) Key skills include: Sensory Acuity - ability to notice, to monitor, and to make sense of the external cues from other people. We do this through evaluating the result of any behaviour. Requires good observation and listening skills Empathy - ability to put oneself into another persons situation and see the world from their set of experiences and perspective Clarity of communication - ability to communicate clearly and authentically through calibration of words, tone and body language
What is Emotional Intelligence? Daniel Golemans 5 Dimensions 1.Self-Knowledge (Understanding oneself, integrating internal conflicts, knowing strengths & weaknesses emotionally) 2.Self-Management/Regulation (The ability not to just react to events, but consider carefully the implications and consequences) 3.Motivation (Our energy source – motivated teachers are seen as enthusiastic, optimistic and energetic) 4.Social Awareness (Ability to empathize and feel what others might be experiencing) 5.Relationship Management (Knowing how to use emotions – emotionally sensitive – in the ways we communicate with others to build rapport and motivate them)