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Lesson 5.13: The U.S. Navy in the Strategy of Containment, 1953-1963 Sea Power and Maritime Affairs.

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson 5.13: The U.S. Navy in the Strategy of Containment, 1953-1963 Sea Power and Maritime Affairs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lesson 5.13: The U.S. Navy in the Strategy of Containment, 1953-1963 Sea Power and Maritime Affairs

2 Enabling Objectives Comprehend the development of new strategies and weapons systems, in terms of competition for resources within the DoD and within the U.S. Navy, during the Cold War.Comprehend the development of new strategies and weapons systems, in terms of competition for resources within the DoD and within the U.S. Navy, during the Cold War. Comprehend how the threat of limited naval presence was used to influence international affairs during the 1950s.Comprehend how the threat of limited naval presence was used to influence international affairs during the 1950s. Know the impact of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 on U.S. naval policy and national policy.Know the impact of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 on U.S. naval policy and national policy.

3 The U.S. Navy in the Strategy of Containment, 1953-1963 Elected 1952-1960Elected 1952-1960 Administration increases military funding after the Korean War.Administration increases military funding after the Korean War.

4 Worldwide U.S. interests.Worldwide U.S. interests. –Strategy of containment must be backed by threat of force. –Naval deployments - worldwide. Influence international affairs.Influence international affairs. Threat of either limited or unlimited naval force.Threat of either limited or unlimited naval force. Numbered fleets deployed in different regions.Numbered fleets deployed in different regions. –Second FleetAtlantic –Third FleetEastern Pacific –Sixth FleetMediterranean –Seventh FleetWestern Pacific and Indian Ocean –Fifth FleetArabian Gulf (1995) The U.S. Navy in the Strategy of Containment, 1953-1963

5 Admiral Arleigh Burke Chiefof Naval Operations 1955-1961

6 6 Admiral Hyman G. Rickover Father of the Nuclear Navy and Naval Reactors

7 7 USS Nautilus (SSN 571) Commissioned September 1954.Commissioned September 1954. First nuclear-powered submarine.First nuclear-powered submarine. First submarine to cruise under the North Pole.First submarine to cruise under the North Pole.

8 USS Seawolf Launched in 1955.Launched in 1955. Second nuclear- powered submarine.Second nuclear- powered submarine.

9 Polaris Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBMs) Strategic DeterrenceStrategic Deterrence Nuclear TriadNuclear Triad –With strategic bombers and ICBMs. Eventually replaced by Poseidon and Trident missiles on newer submarines.Eventually replaced by Poseidon and Trident missiles on newer submarines.

10 June 9, 1959 – Navys 1 st Ballistic Missile Sub USS George Washington (SSBN-598)

11 11 USS Long Beach 14 July 195914 July 1959 Navys 1 st nuclear-powered surface shipNavys 1 st nuclear-powered surface ship Carried 8 Polaris missiles.Carried 8 Polaris missiles.

12 12 First Nuclear powered carrier commissioned (CVAN 65) Enterprise - 25 November, 1961

13 13 Nikita Khrushchev Succeeded Stalin as Soviet premier after his death in 1953.Succeeded Stalin as Soviet premier after his death in 1953. Proposed peaceful competition between the superpowers.Proposed peaceful competition between the superpowers. –Challenged U.S. to meet Communist challenges in third world countries.

14 John Fitzgerald Kennedy Elected President over Eisenhowers Vice President Richard Nixon in 1960.Elected President over Eisenhowers Vice President Richard Nixon in 1960. Navy PT boat commander in WW II as a Lieutenant.Navy PT boat commander in WW II as a Lieutenant.

15 The Cold War Heats Up The Space RaceThe Space Race –Sputnik: First man-made satellite:1957 –Yuri Gagarin –Kennedy :U.S. will land a man on the moon before the decade is out. –Naval aviators chosen among first astronauts. We will bury you! speech at the United Nations – 1960We will bury you! speech at the United Nations – 1960 Berlin Wall erected in 1961.Berlin Wall erected in 1961. Kennedy: Ich bin ein Berliner.-1963Kennedy: Ich bin ein Berliner.-1963

16 16 Meanwhile…. Fidel Castro in Cuba Leader of Cuban Revolution against U.S.-supported President Batista in 1959.Leader of Cuban Revolution against U.S.-supported President Batista in 1959. Establishes Communist government aligned with the Soviet Union.Establishes Communist government aligned with the Soviet Union. Eisenhower uses CIA to train 1,400 Cuban exiles in GuatemalaEisenhower uses CIA to train 1,400 Cuban exiles in Guatemala

17 Cuban Missile Crisis 1961 - Bay of Pigs Invasion:1961 - Bay of Pigs Invasion: –CIA-trained Cuban rebels landed by U.S. Navy. –Defeated by Castros communists. 1962: Soviet nuclear missiles move to Cuba.1962: Soviet nuclear missiles move to Cuba. –Located by Air Force U-2 reconnaissance plane. Options for President Kennedy:Options for President Kennedy: –Air strikes or invasion too risky - may start nuclear war. –Blockade or Quarantine of missiles established by Navy. 22 Oct 62- fleet directed to block military shipments from Cuba.22 Oct 62- fleet directed to block military shipments from Cuba. 25 Oct 62- Soviet Ships reverse course25 Oct 62- Soviet Ships reverse course Khrushchev agrees to remove missiles.Khrushchev agrees to remove missiles.

18 Cuban Missile Crisis

19 Kennedys naval Quarantine is a conventional engagement involving small shipsKennedys naval Quarantine is a conventional engagement involving small ships No fleet action; no hostilitiesNo fleet action; no hostilities Khrushchev agrees to remove missiles in CubaKhrushchev agrees to remove missiles in Cuba Soviet naval policy reviewed.Soviet naval policy reviewed. –Need a more balanced Navy of surface, subsurface, and air forces to challenge U.S. for command of the seas.

20 Cuban Missile Crisis Soviet had no symmetrical, opposing forcesSoviet had no symmetrical, opposing forces Soviet naval policy reviewed.Soviet naval policy reviewed. –Need a more balanced Navy of surface, subsurface, and air forces to challenge U.S. for command of the seas.

21 Battle History Video Chapter 3 "Steel Walls of Freedom"Chapter 3 "Steel Walls of Freedom" -Time 36:54 - 39:24.

22 Enabling Objectives Comprehend the development of new strategies and weapons systems, in terms of competition for resources within the DoD and within the U.S. Navy, during the Cold War.Comprehend the development of new strategies and weapons systems, in terms of competition for resources within the DoD and within the U.S. Navy, during the Cold War. Comprehend how the threat of limited naval presence was used to influence international affairs during the 1950s.Comprehend how the threat of limited naval presence was used to influence international affairs during the 1950s. Know the impact of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 on U.S. naval policy and national policy.Know the impact of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 on U.S. naval policy and national policy.

23 Questions? Next time: The U.S. Navy, Vietnam and Limited War, 1964-1975


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