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Internet Influence on Server Evolution CMG 2000 Conference Orlando, Florida Dec 11, 2000 John Baudrexl Intel Corporation Technology & Research Labs LabsIntel.

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Presentation on theme: "Internet Influence on Server Evolution CMG 2000 Conference Orlando, Florida Dec 11, 2000 John Baudrexl Intel Corporation Technology & Research Labs LabsIntel."— Presentation transcript:

1 Internet Influence on Server Evolution CMG 2000 Conference Orlando, Florida Dec 11, 2000 John Baudrexl Intel Corporation Technology & Research Labs LabsIntel

2 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 2 Agenda Net Impacts The I/O Squeeze Solution: InfiniBand* Technology A Clustering Vision Some Issues Summary Note: The following material represents the views of the author only, and is not intended to contract, promise, or represent any current or future Intel products.

3 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 3 net/www are growing rapidly 1.5B webpages, 1M added daily 400M users, 95M host machines 13M domain names china: 534K domains in 1 week bandwidth demand driven by: new user access technologies new applications larger, latency-sensitive data immense rise in IP traffic IP BW doubles every 100 days mobile access on the rise burgeoning e-biz adds fuel forcing buildout of high- bandwidth optical networks Net Impacts 99 # URLs on the WWW Data Size (KB) 0 100 10000 E-mailImage Hi Res Image Movie 1000 10 File 100000

4 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 4 internet growth giving rise to specialized service providers (SPs) NAPs, ISPs, ASPs, search engines, cacheing, etc colocation services web/E-biz hosting, storage outsourcing, electronic brokers gears of internet economy now rely on SPs to be agile, scalable, highly available SPs deploying powerful, rack-mounted gear mix of networking, storage devices many single function servers 3 traditional tiers: front-end, mid-tier, back-end SPs beginning to influence server design data centers are becoming a crossroads... requirements: security, all the bilities Net Impacts

5 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 5 Net Impacts many SPs are locating near NAPs for better performance (response) 17 router hops on ave often tens of ms apart caching technologies are proliferating more data center floor space needed difficult to build big ones expensive: $500-$700/sf not uncommon retrofits not much cheaper managed services hold key to improved ROI global situation in the background, Moores Law keeps time... so what does all this mean?

6 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 6 incentive/capability to make servers result: new higher density servers powerful, memory-rich more units in less volume, floor space easier to deploy and manage rapidly/remotely configurable reasonable cost more modular, available, reliable the server is the FRU - service it offline prediction: high density storage also coming 10,000 petabytes of storage anticipated online worldwide by 2005 much of it stored in data centers smaller! Net Impacts 1U is too big.

7 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 7 Agenda Net Impacts The I/O Squeeze Solution: InfiniBand* Technology A Clustering Vision Some Issues Summary

8 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 8 The I/O Squeeze shrinking form factor colliding with: increasing Hz, shorter parallel busses CPU and memory power dissipation (heat) size of power supply/heat removal components size of on-board I/O infrastructure very careful signal/layer layout required thermal challenges abound in opposition with reliability not much room for fans, PS, VRMs, etc. liquid-based cooling solutions being pondered cant pack enough I/O close enough anyway without violating PCI standards specs...

9 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 9 PCI bus technology: 1994 - industry readily embraced spec 32-bit/33MHz propagated rapidly first generation chipsets had limited scalability 1996 – first 64/33 bus available 1998 – first 64/66 bus available 2000 – first PCI-X bus (100MHz) available trends - hot plug busses tuning/awareness has led to better performance getting good feeds and speeds nowadays seeing 80-90% efficiency on modern busses BW exceeds most I/O interface technology reqs multi-channel cards emerging The I/O Squeeze

10 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 10 PCI bus technology issues - memory mapped load-store ops stall faster CPUs no standard driver card behavior scalability - out of slots, out of I/O reliability - bus parity err causes system reset stretching a parallel PCI bus is impractical cost (more pins, cables, connectors, etc.) skew/signal integrity issues increased power needed The I/O Squeeze

11 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 11 The I/O Squeeze lower speeds = more slots, longer busses multiple cards/chls can lead to chaotic bus behavior higher speeds = fewer slots, shorter bus lengths 133MHz pushing limit of modern parallel busses one slot looks like internal bus extension |||||||||||||| 64/66 64/100 64/133 Mem Ctrl I/O Hub Memory I/O Bridge I/O Bridge I/O Bridge CPU CPU high density system boundary PCI Slots traditional system boundary

12 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 12 Agenda Net Impacts The I/O Squeeze Solution: InfiniBand* Technology A Clustering Vision Some Issues Summary

13 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 13 InfiniBand* Technology...a new interconnect Rev 1.0 spec at: www.infinibandta.org

14 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 14 InfiniBand* Technology new industry specification endorsed by majority server OEM, I/O people many new concepts - products avail end 01 allows separation of CPU/memory from I/O reliable, scalable, switched, packet-based, hardware-routed, serial message-passing fabric architecture designed to endure at least 10 years defines protocol, pgm model, wire, interop, err handling expected to replace PCI in servers new type of I/O bridge no PCI slots anymore, plug in hoses instead based on VI Architecture: QP/CQ concept, rDMAs high speed serial pt-to-pt links (2.5Gb/sec) widths: 1x = 500MB/sec, 4x = 2GB/sec, 12x = 6GB/sec bi-dir range of service classes, flow control, QoS verbs software interface for IPC, I/O many other features – see website

15 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 15 InfiniBand* Technology Router CA Network Link Sys Mem CPU CPU Mem Cntlr HCA Link Switch Link Link TCATarget TCA Target Host Interconnect Router Link Source: InfiniBand* Trade Association one interconnect for storage, net, IPC

16 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 16 Agenda Net Impacts The I/O Squeeze Solution: InfiniBand* Technology A Clustering Vision Some Issues Summary

17 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 17 A Clustering Vision skinny powerful servers 1-2 IA processors, maybe even Itanium gobs of memory (>4GB if you want) all-InfiniBand* I/O – no PCI slots completely remote management external 48V power supply legacy free no floppy, no keyboard, mouse, video, CD-rom, serial, parallel - all gone! no hard drive – boot from anywhere reduces volume, minimizes human interaction only 2 kinds of hoses attached power cord InfiniBand* cables

18 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 18 A Clustering Vision cluster together as needed deploy lightweight IPC protocol such as VIA out-of-band management and configuration attach external I/O devices (gateways) storage (IBA-FC/SCSI), network (IBA-LAN/WAN) etc. add intelligent, scalable network services distributed, smart packet processing at line rates build in large distributed memory use lightweight IPC transport over IBA remote memory access << local/ext disk access fast response time – replaces some cache tech meets e-commerce scalability requirement new price/perf potential for e-Biz IA platforms usually best price/performance IBA* chipsets low cost/port over time

19 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 19 A Clustering Vision ten nodes 20 Itanium (McKinley) processors gobs of MIPS, flops 80GB distributed RAM >1TB internal HDD 40GB/s bi-directional redundant I/O BW two 4x IBA* links per node 6kW peak power 3kW average total 10U - 18 high!

20 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 20 Agenda Net Impacts The I/O Squeeze Solution: InfiniBand* Technology A Clustering Vision Some Issues Summary

21 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 21 thermal challenges some compelling solutions emerging rack may also now require thermal engineering products implementing InfiniBand* links still a year away partners will gain early access true legacy free systems still a pipe dream product quality BIOS, backward compatibility work underway in this direction clusters are hard to implement and manage reliable failover hard enough performance clustering harder still linux helps some lots of momentum in the industry to change this Some Issues

22 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 22 increased density impacts the data center power delivery W/sf 2 reqs increasing faster than industry supply cooling new construction: raised floor retrofit: ceiling supply only cost effectiveness site selection demands proximity to power/net grid reality is multi-dimensioned, complex provision for greater backup capability more batteries, generators, conversion/delivery environmental zoning prevents storage of sufficient diesel fuel! heat plume an EPA concern despite apparent economies of scale,super data centers will be rare Some Issues

23 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 23 Product Heat-Density Trends Some Issues

24 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 24 electrical power consumption in U.S. today: 8% internet, 5% computing projection: by 2010, 30% of U.S. consumption will go to IT data center power density trend mainframe days: 20-40 W/ft 2 standard today: ~60-100 W/ft 2 (way) high end today: ~200 W/ft 2 some folks looking for 300-500 W/ft 2 cooling physics 1 ton of AC, 500cfm airflow at 20 o F ΔT dissipates ~4kW generating 1 ton of AC takes ~1kW of input power harder to remove heat than to supply power equipment heat generation (commonly operate at ~50% of nameplate listed below) SMP servers today: 7U = 700W; 4U = 400W; 2U = 200W; 1U = 150W 3U Clariion 5000-series 10 drive FC JBOD disk array = 350W 11U Cisco Catalyst 6000-series 32Gb LAN/WAN switch = 1.3kW a 42U rack: occupies 15-20 ft 2, accounting for walkways and access 100 W/U * 42U * 50% nameplate ÷ 20 ft 2 /rack power density requirement ~105 W/ft 2 Issues: Density Factoids Source: Intel ASL research

25 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 25 Agenda Net Impacts The I/O Squeeze Solution: InfiniBand* Technology A Clustering Vision Some Issues Summary

26 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 26 Summary internet growth creating crossroads at service providers, data centers Moores Law, SPs are driving server evolution to higher densities pushing I/O out of the box data center infrastructure not ready for higher density equipment impacts need to develop mitigation strategy IBA* Architecture fits data center reqs convergence creates compelling soln space high density large memory InfiniBand* Architecture

27 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 27 Backup Material

28 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 28 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 19971998199920002001 Year Max Bandwidth (MBps) ATM Ethernet FC 1394 SCSI Source: In-Stat, Electronic Trend Chart based on bi-directional bandwidths, and on estimated availability of new standards/technologies I/O Interface Bandwidth Trend: Increasing!

29 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 29 HOW LONG TO REACH 30% PENETRATION? (U.S. Internet Council, Apr. 1999).U.S. Internet Council Internet -- 7 years Television – 17 years Telephone – 38 years Electricity – 46 years. # ONLINE WORLDWIDE 1998 – 95.43 million people. (eMarketer eStats 1999).eMarketer eStats 1998, Dec. – 144 million (IDC, Dec. 1999). 1999, Dec. – 240 million (IDC, Dec. 1999). 2000, Sept. – 377 million (Nua Internet Surveys (www.nua.ie) 2002 – over 490 million (Computer Industry Almanac, Nov. 1999).Computer Industry Almanac 2005 – over 765 million (Computer Industry Almanac, Nov. 1999).Computer Industry Almanac Net Explosion Source : An IDC Telebriefing, March 4, 1999 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1997199819992000200120022003 Devices Users

30 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 30 HOST COMPUTERS: In July 1999 there were 56.2 million "host" computers supporting web pages. In July 1997 there were 19.5 million host computers, with 3.2 million hosts in July 1994, and a mere 80,000 in July 1989. (Internet Software Consortium – Internet Domain Survey).Internet Software Consortium – Internet Domain Survey Monthly Average Hosts in Millions (Nov. 2000, Telecordia Technologies www.netsizer.com) Month199819992000 Jan30.352944.229270.2238 Feb31.390648.061672.9501 Mar32.426750.480875.1010 Apr33.571653.468977.1504 May34.515855.809280.1905 Jun35.450457.349982.8749 Jul36.486259.292285.8418 Aug37.216961.361788.6271 Sep38.563763.334491.5614 Oct39.933965.640794.2659 Nov41.519067.3174- Dec43.033168.8020- Net Explosion

31 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 31 BACKBONE CAPACITY: The capacity of the Internet backbone to carry information is doubling every 100 days. (U.S. Internet Council, Apr. 1999).U.S. Internet Council DATA TRAFFIC SURPASSING VOICE: Voice traffic is growing at 10% per year or less, while data traffic is conservatively estimated to be growing at 125% per year, meaning voice will be less than 1% of the total traffic by 2007. (Technology Futures, Inc March 2000).Technology Futures, Inc EMAIL VOLUME: Average U.S. consumer will receive 1,600 commercial email messages in 2005, up from 40 in 1999, while non-marketing and personal correspondence will more than double from approximately 1,750 emails per year in 1999 to almost 4,000 in 2005 (Jupiter Communications, May 2000).Jupiter Communications DOMAIN NAMES: There are 12,844,877 unique domain names (e.g. Cisco.com) registered worldwide, with 428,023 new domain names registered each week. (NetNames Statistics 12/28/1999).NetNames Statistics Net Explosion

32 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 32 TOTAL AMOUNT OF DATA: 1,570,000,000 pages, 29,400,000,000,000 bytes of text, 353,000,000 images, and 5,880,000,000,000 bytes of image data. (The Censorware Project, Jan. 26, 1999).The Censorware Project NEW DATA EACH DAY: In just the last 24 hours, the web has added 3,180,000 new pages, 59,700,000,000 new bytes of text, 716,000 new images, and 11,900,000,000 new bytes of image data. (The Censorware Project, Jan. 26, 1999).The Censorware Project WEB PAGE LIFE SPAN: The average life span of a web page is about 44 days. (The Censorware Project, Jan. 26, 1999).The Censorware Project TRACKING WEB CONTENT CHANGES: To keep up with the changes to web content, you'd need to download about 873,000,000,000 bytes of information per day, which would mean you'd need a connection capable of downloading 10,100,000 bytes per second. (The Censorware Project, Jan. 26, 1999).The Censorware Project Net Explosion

33 LabsIntel *All trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners © 2000 Intel Corporation 33 DOCUMENTS ON WEB: The web now contains over one billion unique, indexable documents. (Emarketer/ Inktomi Corp., Jan. 2000).Emarketer/ Inktomi CORPORATE EMAILS: In 2004, companies will send more than 200 billion e-mails. (Forrester Research, February 2000).Forrester Research DOWNLOAD SPEEDS IMPROVING: Average homepage took 4.73 seconds to download by the end of 1999, 27% faster than at the beginning of the year (6.49 seconds). (Keynote Systems, April 2000). NEW WEB PAGES: On average, more than 3 million Web pages were created every day in 1999. (IDC, Apr. 2000). WEB HITS/DAY 1999: U.S. web pages averaged one billion hits per day (aggregate) in October 1999. (eMarketer/Media Metrix, Nov. 1999). Net Explosion


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