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GROUNDING 101 Grounding 101 – Summer 2007 - TS3 WHY DO WE GROUND? Protect Equipment from Fault Currents Protect People SAFETY.

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Presentation on theme: "GROUNDING 101 Grounding 101 – Summer 2007 - TS3 WHY DO WE GROUND? Protect Equipment from Fault Currents Protect People SAFETY."— Presentation transcript:

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2 GROUNDING 101

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4 Grounding 101 – Summer TS3 WHY DO WE GROUND? Protect Equipment from Fault Currents Protect People SAFETY

5 Grounding 101 – Summer TS4 Electricity will always follow the path of least resistance to ground. Proper circuit grounding will keep electricity from using your body to get to ground Grounded Circuit Requirements: Path is continuous and permanent Path is continuous and permanent Ample capacity Ample capacity Low Resistance Low Resistance Circuit parts are bonded together Circuit parts are bonded together WHY SHOULD WE GROUND?

6 Grounding 101 – Summer TS5 WHAT DO WE GAIN? Provides personnel safety - #1 priority Provides personnel safety - #1 priority Provides a stable signal reference for instrument accuracy Provides a stable signal reference for instrument accuracy Controls Radio Frequency emissions & Electromagnetic Interferences (EMIs) Controls Radio Frequency emissions & Electromagnetic Interferences (EMIs) Provides a discharge path for short circuits and lightning strikes Provides a discharge path for short circuits and lightning strikes

7 Grounding 101 – Summer TS6 LIGHTNING PROTECTION LIGHTNING FACTS LIGHTNING FACTS Packs between 35,000 and 40,000 amperes Packs between 35,000 and 40,000 amperes Generates temperatures as high as 50,000 C Generates temperatures as high as 50,000 C Travels as far as 40 miles Travels as far as 40 miles Strikes somewhere on the earth every second Strikes somewhere on the earth every second Kills 100 people each year in the U.S.A. Kills 100 people each year in the U.S.A. Destroys millions of dollars in property and equipment Destroys millions of dollars in property and equipment

8 Grounding 101 – Summer TS7 STATIC DISCHARGE THE UNWANTED SPARK

9 Grounding 101 – Summer TS8 Example: TEL-COM CELL SITE Grounding Locations

10 Grounding 101 – Summer TS9 BURNDY HAS THREE TYPES OF GROUNDING PRODUCTS COMPRESSION EXOTHERMIC (weld) MECHANICAL

11 Grounding 101 – Summer TS10 MECHANICAL

12 Grounding 101 – Summer TS11 WHAT IS A MECHANICAL CONNECTOR? Makes a secure connection using bolts or other hardware to bind conductors in place. Range Taking Range Taking No special tooling No special tooling Inexpensive Inexpensive Removable Removable

13 Grounding 101 – Summer TS12 WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON CONNECTORS?

14 Grounding 101 – Summer TS13 GB Cable to bar with separator GBM Cable directly to bar GZ Cable to bar loop BUS BAR / FLAT BAR BUS BAR / FLAT BAR CONNECTOR CATEGORIES

15 Grounding 101 – Summer TS14 BUS BAR / FLAT BAR BUS BAR / FLAT BAR GCM Two Cables directly to bar GL Two parallel cables / tap QGFL Eye in basket GC Two cable to bar with separator CONNECTOR CATEGORIES

16 Grounding 101 – Summer TS15 KC Servit post GKA BUS BAR / FLAT BAR BUS BAR / FLAT BAR KPB CONNECTOR CATEGORIES

17 Grounding 101 – Summer TS16 CONNECTOR CATEGORIES FENCE POST, PIPE & TUBING FENCE POST, PIPE & TUBING GP Two cable Perpendicular GK Three cable parallel GD Two cable parallel GAR Cable to rod

18 Grounding 101 – Summer TS17 FENCE POST, PIPE & TUBING FENCE POST, PIPE & TUBING KC Servit post GG Cable or braid to rod GAR-TC Cable at degrees CONNECTOR CATEGORIES

19 Grounding 101 – Summer TS18 FENCE POST, PIPE & TUBING FENCE POST, PIPE & TUBING GC-A Duel rated pipe clamps Lower cost clamps CONNECTOR CATEGORIES

20 Grounding 101 – Summer TS19 GROUND RODS / REBAR GROUND RODS / REBAR GAR GRC GP GK Three cable parallel Two cable perpendicular Ground Rod Clamp Cable to rod CONNECTOR CATEGORIES

21 Grounding 101 – Summer TS20 STATIC GROUND STATIC GROUND GIE Vehicle or temporary ground GP-G1 Raised flooring GRF Raised flooring CONNECTOR CATEGORIES

22 Grounding 101 – Summer TS21 CABLE & BRAID CABLE & BRAID Braid GX Cross connection GG Cable or braid to rod KA Tap to run Spans movable areas CONNECTOR CATEGORIES

23 Grounding 101 – Summer TS22 RAIL & BEAM RAIL & BEAM TRANSFORMER TRANSFORMER KC Servit post QGFL Eye in basket GA-H Cable to H beam or tube J&RGC CONNECTOR CATEGORIES

24 Grounding 101 – Summer TS23 HIGHLIGHTS: SPLIT BOLTS KS25 AVAILABLE FROM #2 TO 500 kcmil UL Listed for direct burial

25 Grounding 101 – Summer TS24 HIGHLIGHTS: Parts of a Split Bolt

26 Grounding 101 – Summer TS25 HIGHLIGHTS: Dual Rated Split Bolts Used for any combination of copper and aluminum conductors.

27 Grounding 101 – Summer TS26 JOINING COPPER AND ALUMINUM

28 Grounding 101 – Summer TS27 RAISED FOOR GROUNDING RAISED FLOOR GROUND GRIDS

29 Grounding 101 – Summer TS28 GRF CLAMP ON RAISED FLOOR Can be used on round or square pedestals Accommodates one or two grounding wires

30 Grounding 101 – Summer TS29 GP-G1 / GP-RT FOR RAISED FLOOR Epoxy paint penetrating Can be used on round or square pedestals Accommodates one or two grounding wires

31 Grounding 101 – Summer TS30 QUESTION: WHEN IS A MECHANICAL CONNECTOR NOT ACCEPTABLE? WHEN IS A MECHANICAL CONNECTOR NOT ACCEPTABLE? When a permanent connection is called out, or When connection is exposed to severe conditions such as extreme vibration ANSWER:

32 Grounding 101 – Summer TS31 MECHANICAL QUESTIONS?

33 Grounding 101 – Summer TS32 BURNDYWELD

34 Grounding 101 – Summer TS33 USES AN EXOTHERMIC PROCESS TO JOIN COPPER PROVIDES A SOLID COPPER IRREVERSIBLE BOND WILL NOT LOOSEN OR CORRODE AT THE WELD BURNDYWELD

35 Grounding 101 – Summer TS34 EXOTHERMIC PROCESS The exothermic process is a simple, efficient method of welding copper to copper or copper to steel. This process uses a high temperature reaction of powdered copper oxide and aluminum. Reaction takes place in a graphite mold. Mold will last for 50 or more welds with proper care. This system is very field friendly, since it is light and portable and requires no outside power.

36 Grounding 101 – Summer TS35 MOLD THE SEQUENCE OF STEPS Open mold using handle clamp, and insert the conductors as desired Insert steel disc into the mold cavity Pour powdered metal into the mold cavity Close the lid Tap powder container to add the starting powder to ignition pocket Use flint device to ignite Brush and remove mold

37 Grounding 101 – Summer TS36 SIX STEPS FOR A PERFECT BURNDYWELD

38 Grounding 101 – Summer TS37 OVER 57 DIFFERENT MOLDS WELD TO REBAR CABLE TO CABLE

39 Grounding 101 – Summer TS38 MOUNT TO FLAT OR ROUND SURFACE MOLDS

40 Grounding 101 – Summer TS39 SINGLE SHOTS PROVIDES THE SAME WELD RESULT IN A COST EFFECTIVE, ONE TIME USE PACKAGE

41 Grounding 101 – Summer TS40 WELD QUALITY What do you look for?

42 Grounding 101 – Summer TS41 WELD QUALITY Many factors contribute to the weld success

43 Grounding 101 – Summer TS42 WELD INSPECTION HOW DO YOU TEST THE INTEGRITY OF A WELD IN THE FIELD?

44 Grounding 101 – Summer TS43 COMMON PROBLEMS WITH EXOTHERMIC WELDING Moisture Worn molds Unclean conductors Unclean mold Mistakes made in welding process

45 Grounding 101 – Summer TS44 ANY QUESTIONS ON BURNDYWELD?

46 Grounding 101 – Summer TS45 COMPRESSION

47 Grounding 101 – Summer TS46 COMPRESSION THEORY CREATION OF A HOMOGENEOUS MASS

48 Grounding 101 – Summer TS47 HY-GROUND SYSTEM

49 Grounding 101 – Summer TS48 COMPRESSION BURNDY HAS DEVELOPED AN IRREVERSIBLE COMPRESSION GROUND SYSTEM WHICH MEETS THE STRINGENT SAFETY AND PREFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS UL AND IEEE. CONNECTORS EMPLOY WELL PROVEN DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND TECHNOLOGY THAT HAVE BEEN IN EXISTENCE FOR OVER 60 YEARS. » Range Taking » Permanent » Safe to install » Quick and Easy

50 Grounding 101 – Summer TS49 COMMON APPLICATIONS Where HY-GROUND is used

51 Grounding 101 – Summer TS50 GRID LAY OUT

52 Grounding 101 – Summer TS51 COMPONENTS OF HY-GROUND WHATS NEEDED Proper Connector Correct Crimping Tool Specified Die

53 Grounding 101 – Summer TS52 IRREVERSIBLE CONNECTION RATED FOR DIRECT BURIAL MANY COMPONENTS AVAILABLE CONNECTORS

54 Grounding 101 – Summer TS53 MEETS REQUIREMENTS UNDERWRITERS LAB TESTS NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE IEEE 837 REQUIREMENTS UL96 LISTED FOR LIGHTNING PROTECTION CANADA STANDARDS ASSOCIATION APPROVED FOR DIRECT BURIAL

55 Grounding 101 – Summer TS54 UL LISTINGS Rigorous testing in the Burndy UL facilities ensures all product exceed standards.

56 Grounding 101 – Summer TS55 SUPERIOR CONNECTION PRE-FILLED WITH PENETROX OXIDE-INHIBITOR Superior connection

57 Grounding 101 – Summer TS56 PENETROX E FILLED SHOWS VERY FEW CONTACT POINTS Penetrox Fills The Gaps For Better Contact Air Gaps

58 Grounding 101 – Summer TS57 EASY TO INSPECT DIE INDEX EMBOSSMENT. Match embossed number to the number listed the on connector. U-997

59 Grounding 101 – Summer TS58 INSTALLS IN ANY ENVIRONMENT Installs In Wet Environments

60 Grounding 101 – Summer TS59 YGL-C Cross connection YGLR-C Ground rod to grid YGHP-C Figure 6 YGHC-C Figure C COMMON TYPES - HY-GROUND

61 Grounding 101 – Summer TS60 YGHR-C Figure 8 YGHP-C Ground rod or tap Wire third hand YGIB Crimp to structure H-Tap Splice or tap COMMON TYPES - HY-GROUND

62 Grounding 101 – Summer TS61 COMMON TYPES - HY-GROUND YGHS HGS Splice- heavy duty / standard YGHA Hylug GSTUD-HY Versitail weld on YGF Grounding plate

63 Grounding 101 – Summer TS62 YGHC-C FINDING THE PROPER CONNECTOR

64 Grounding 101 – Summer TS63 FINDING THE PROPER CONNECTOR

65 Grounding 101 – Summer TS64 HY-GROUND CRIMPING TOOLS Y46 HY-PRESS REMOTE HEAD Y750HS PAT750XP 18V PATRIOT 18VOLT

66 Grounding 101 – Summer TS65 FINDING THE PROPER DIE Installation Data Listed in Catalog INSTALLATION DATA DIE INDEX NUMBER Y750/Y35 Y39 HYPRESS 1 Y45 HYPRESS 2 Y46 HYPRESS NUMBER OF CRIMPS CU-C 1 OU-O 1

67 Grounding 101 – Summer TS66 ANY QUESTIONS ON COMPRESSION?

68 Grounding 101 – Summer TS67 WHERE DO YOU USE THE THREE TYPES OF GROUNDING PRODUCTS? COMPRESSION EXOTHERMIC (weld) MECHANICAL

69 Grounding 101 – Summer TS68 TEL-COM TOWER CONNECTION APPLICATIONS

70 Grounding 101 – Summer TS69 CENTRAL OFFICE SITE CONNECTION APPLICATIONS

71 Grounding 101 – Summer TS70 DIFFERENT WIRE TYPES ALWAYS KNOW THE SIZE AND TYPE OF WIRE YOU ARE CRIMPING

72 Grounding 101 – Summer TS71 WIRE GAGE KEEP A WIRE MIKE HANDY FOR WIRE IDENTIFICATION

73 Grounding 101 – Summer TS72 AVOID CORROSION USE PENETROX-E OXIDE INHIBITOR ON COPPER CONNECTIONS

74 Grounding 101 – Summer TS73 THANKS FOR CONSIDERING BURNDY PRODUCTS PLEASE CONTACT US IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS OR PRODUCT NEEDS. TECHNICAL SERVICE (800) NEVER LET LIFE BE A SHOCK TO YOU!


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