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E_English Grammar Course

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1 E_English Grammar Course
Chapter VI The Complex Sentence

2 Issues Subordination Classifications of subordinate clauses
Subordinators Nominal clauses Adverbial clauses Comparative and Comment clauses

3 1 Subordination Subordination 1/1 Non-symmetrical relation held
between two clauses: one clause is a constituent/ part of the other

4 1 Subordination Subordination 1/2 i.e. one clause is
Non-symmetrical relation, a constituent/ part of the other Non-symmetrical relation held between two clauses: one clause is a constituent/ part of the other [I like John [because John likes me] ] [superordinate/ independent/ main clause ] [subordinate/ dependent clause]

5 1 Subordination Subordination 1/3 Hierarchy of clauses X- Y- Z-
( I think [ that you can do it { if you try} ] ) S V O A Z = subordinate to Y Y = subordinate to X Y & Z = dependent clauses X = independent clause

6 Classifications of subordinate clauses
2/1 2 Classifications of subordinate clauses Classifications of subordinate clauses By structural type By functional type

7 Classifications of subordinate clauses
2/2 2 Classifications of subordinate clauses By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Verbless clause

8 Classifications of subordinate clauses
2/3 2 Classifications of subordinate clauses By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Verbless clause contains a subject and a predicate verb phrase having tense, person & number concord, & mood

9 Classifications of subordinate clauses
2/4 2 Classifications of subordinate clauses By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Infinitive with to -ing participle Infinitive without to -ed participle

10 Classifications of subordinate clauses
2/5 2 Classifications of subordinate clauses By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Infinitive with to -ing participle Infinitive without to -ed participle Without S: The best thing would be to tell everybody. With S: The best thing would be for you to tell everybody.

11 Classifications of subordinate clauses
2/6 2 Classifications of subordinate clauses By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause -ing participle Infinitive with to Infinitive without to -ed participle Without S: Leaving the room, he tripped over the mat. With S: Her aunt having left the room, I declared my passionate love for Celia..

12 Classifications of subordinate clauses
2/7 2 Classifications of subordinate clauses By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Infinitive with to Infinitive without to -ed participle -ing participle Without S: All I did was hit him on the head. With S: Rather than John do it, I’d prefer to give the job to Mary.

13 Classifications of subordinate clauses
2/8 2 Classifications of subordinate clauses By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Infinitive with to Infinitive without to -ed participle -ing participle Without S: Covered in snow, he looked like a snowman. With S: We left the room and went home, the job finished.

14 Classifications of subordinate clauses
2/9 2 Classifications of subordinate clauses By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Verbless clause 1. Ellipsis of the verb ‘be’ - Dozens of people died in the accident, many of them children. - Whether right or wrong, he always dominates the arguments.

15 Classifications of subordinate clauses
2/10 2 Classifications of subordinate clauses By structural type Finite clause Nonfinite clause Verbless clause 2. Reduction of non-finite clauses Too nervous to reply, he stared at the book in front of him and dared not look up.

16 Classifications of subordinate clauses
2/11 2 Classifications of subordinate clauses By function Nominal clause Adverbial clause Comparative clause Comment clause Lecture 22 Inservice grammar

17 3 Subordinators 3/1 Subordinating Simple subordinators conjunctions
Compound subordinators Correlative subordinators

18 3 Subordinators 3/2 Subordinating Simple subordinators conjunctions
Compound subordinators Correlative subordinators after, though, although, as, because, before, if, once since, that, until, when where, while, etc.

19 3 Subordinators 3/3 Subordinating Simple subordinators conjunctions
Compound subordinators Correlative subordinators ending with ‘that’: in that, so that, such that … ending with optional ‘that’: now (that), provided (that), supposing (that), seeing (that)… ending with ‘as’: so far as, as long as, so as (to do sth)… ending with ‘than’: sooner than, rather than… others: as if, as though, in case

20 3 Subordinators 3/4 Subordinating Simple subordinators conjunctions
Compound subordinators Correlative subordinators if… then, although… yet, as… as, so… as, so… that no sooner… than, more/ less… than, the… the, whether… or

21 3 Subordinators 3/5 Other indicators of Wh-element initial markers
subordination Wh-element initial markers Subject-operator inversion No marker

22 3 Subordinators 3/6 Other indicators of Wh-element initial markers
subordination Wh-element initial markers Subject-operator inversion No marker I don’t know who knocked at the door last night.

23 3 Subordinators 3/7 Other indicators of Wh-element initial markers
subordination Wh-element initial markers Subject-operator inversion No marker Had it not been for your help, I would have died.

24 3 Subordinators 3/8 Other indicators of Wh-element initial markers
subordination Wh-element initial markers Subject-operator inversion No marker 1. nominal clause e.g. I suppose (that) you’re right. 2. comment clause e.g. You’re right, I suppose.

25 4 Nominal clauses 4/1 Nominal Clauses Finite Non-finite that clause
to-infinitive nominal clause wh-interrogative clause nominal –ing clause Yes - No interrogative clause bare infinitive Nominal relative clause

26 4 Nominal clauses 4/2 Finite Nominal Clauses that clause
wh-interrogative clause Yes - No interrogative clause Nominal relative clause - S: That you were wrong is undeniable. - Od: I knew that I was wrong. - Cs: The problem is that he refuses to speak in court. - Appositive: The fact that he hates English makes it hard for him to study it. - Cadj: I’m sure that things will improve.

27 4 Nominal clauses 4/3 Finite Nominal Clauses wh-interrogative clause
that clause wh-interrogative clause Yes - No interrogative clause Nominal relative clause Function as S, Od, Cs, Ap, Cadj, & Cprep (They haven’t decided on who wins the cup.) - Leave a gap of unknown information

28 Yes - No interrogative clause
4/4 4 Nominal clauses Finite Nominal Clauses that clause wh-interrogative clause Yes - No interrogative clause Nominal relative clause Is formed with if/ whether e.g. Do you know if/ whether the teacher has come yet?

29 Nominal relative clause
4/5 4 Nominal clauses Finite Nominal Clauses that clause wh-interrogative clause Yes - No interrogative clause Nominal relative clause S: What he is pursuing is fame. Od: I want to see whoever in charge of this department. Oi: She gave whoever came into the store a handful of sweets. Cs: University is where you train for your future career. - Co: You can call me whatever you like. - Ap: Tell me your nickname, that is, the way your friends often call you. Cprep: Vote for whichever candidate you like.

30 4 Nominal clauses 4/6 Non-finite nominal clauses
to-infinitive nominal clause nominal –ing clause bare infinitive - S: To become an MC has always been my dream. - Od: John wanted her to open the door. - Cs: My wish is to stay here one more week. - Ap: His ambition to be a famous writer was fulfilled. - Cadj: I’m glad to help you.

31 4 Nominal clauses 4/7 Non-finite nominal clauses
to-infinitive nominal clause nominal –ing clause bare infinitive - Function as S, Od, Cs, Ap, Cprep, & Cadj - Genitive case in formal style e.g. I’m surprised at his making that mistake. Objective or common case: e.g. I’m surprised at him making

32 4 Nominal clauses 4/8 Non-finite nominal clauses
to-infinitive nominal clause nominal –ing clause bare infinitive - ‘to’ is optional in case of ‘do’ proform. E.g. All I did was (to) turn off the gas. - bare infinitive is obligatory when the infinitive clause is initial E.g. Turn off the gas was all I did.

33 5 Adverbial clauses 5/1 Time Purpose Place Result
Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

34 5 Adverbial clauses 5/2 Time Purpose Place Result
- after, before, until, since, when + finite clause - after, before, since, until, when(ever), while + V-ing - once, until, when(ever), while + V-ed - as soon as, once, when(ever), while + Verbless clause Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

35 5 Adverbial clauses 5/3 Time Purpose Place Result
- Introduced by ‘where’/ ‘wherever’ E.g. When I retire, I will travel around the world. Where the fire had been, we saw nothing but rubble. Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

36 5 Adverbial clauses 5/4 Time Place Condition & concession
Reason or cause Circumstance Purpose Result Manner & Comparison Proportion & Preference - Conditional clauses state the dependence of one circumstance on another. - Introduced by if, unless, provided that, providing that… E.g. If you’re kind to her, she will do anything for you.

37 5 Adverbial clauses 5/5 Time Purpose Place Result
Condition & concession Manner & Comparison - Concessive clauses imply a contrast between two circumstances. - Introduced by though, although, while, whereas, even if E.g. Although he isn’t good-looking, people are still attracted to him. Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

38 5 Adverbial clauses 5/6 Clauses of condition or concession
Alternative conditional-concessive clauses Universal conditional-concessive clauses

39 5 Adverbial clauses 5/7 Clauses of condition
or concession Alternative conditional-concessive clauses Combine conditional meaning with subjunctive meaning E.g. Whether they beat us or we beat them, we’ll celebrate tonight.

40 5 Adverbial clauses 5/8 Clauses of condition
or concession Universal conditional-concessive clauses Indicate a free choice from among any number of conditions E.g. No matter how hard he tried, he could never summon enough courage to tell her the truth.

41 5 Adverbial clauses 5/9 - introduced by because, since, as
- I didn’t lend him the book because I needed it for my assignment. (adjunct) - They’ve lit a fire, because I can see smoke rising. (disjunct of reason) Time Purpose Place Result Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

42 5/10 5 Adverbial clauses - express a fulfilled condition/ a relation between a premise (in the subordinate clause) and the conclusion (in the main clause) - introduced by because, since, as, & seeing that E.g. Seeing that the weather has improved, we shall enjoy our game. = The weather having improved, we shall enjoy our game. Time Purpose Place Result Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

43 5 Adverbial clauses 5/11 Time Purpose - are adjuncts
- introduced by (in order) (for N) to, so as to, so that E.g. I tiptoed into the room so as not to wake the baby up. He tried to improve his English so that he could study abroad. - has ‘putative’ meaning (modal auxiliaries are used) Place Result Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

44 5 Adverbial clauses 5/12 Time Purpose Place Result
- are more factual than putative  may contain an ordinary verb form without a modal auxiliary - introduced by so that/so (informal) E.g. We planted many shrubs, so (that) the garden looked beautiful. Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

45 5 Adverbial clauses 5/13 Time Purpose Place Result
Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Clauses of manner – (exactly) as, (just) as (Just) as a moth is attracted by a light, (so) he was fascinated by her. Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

46 5 Adverbial clauses 5/14 Time Purpose Place Result
Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Clauses of comparison – as if, as though He looks as if he is going to faint. He treated me as though I were a child (unreal) Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

47 5/15 5 Adverbial clauses Clauses of proportion express a ‘proportionality’ or equivalence of tendency between two circumstances E.g. As he grew older, (so) his enthusiasm for the cause decreased. The more he went deeper into the forest, the more scared he felt. Time Purpose Place Result Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

48 5/16 5 Adverbial clauses Clauses of preference are introduced by rather than/ sooner than E.g. Rather than go there by air, I’d take the train. Rather than sitting here complaining, we should act. Rather than a new shirt, he bought a dictionary. Time Purpose Place Result Condition & concession Manner & Comparison Reason or cause Proportion & Preference Circumstance

49 Comparative & comment clauses
6/1 6 Comparative & comment clauses Comp-element S: More people eat at KFC than any other fastfood restaurant. Cs: I’m healthier than most people of my age. Od: She eats much more than me. Oi: Santa has brought more children joy than anybody else. A: She works harder than my brother.

50 Comparative & comment clauses
6/2 6 Comparative & comment clauses Ellipsis in Comparative Clause 1. Optional ellipsis James enjoyed the cake more than Susan enjoyed the cake. James enjoyed the cake more than Susan enjoyed it. James enjoyed the cake more than Susan did. James enjoyed the cake more than Susan. 2. Obligatory ellipsis (of object) - James enjoyed the cake more than Susan enjoyed. + James know more about the theatre than Susan knows.

51 Comparative & comment clauses
6/3 6 Comparative & comment clauses Ambiguity through ellipsis He loves the dog more than his wife. with ‘too’ & ‘enough’ He’s too ill to move.

52 Comparative & comment clauses
6/4 6 Comparative & comment clauses Comment Clauses Features Forms

53 Comparative & comment clauses
6/5 6 Comparative & comment clauses Comment Clauses Features - can be either disjuncts or conjuncts - may occur initially, finally, or medially - have a separate tone unit E.g. The Smiths, as you probably know, have been our neighbor for twenty years. Forms

54 Comparative & comment clauses
6/6 6 Comparative & comment clauses Comment Clauses Features Forms Like a main clause At that time, I believe, he didn’t understand a thing.

55 Comparative & comment clauses
6/7 6 Comparative & comment clauses Comment Clauses Features Forms (2) Like an adverbial clause (with as) I’m a perfectionist, as you may know.

56 Comparative & comment clauses
6/8 6 Comparative & comment clauses Comment Clauses Features Forms (3) Like a nominal relative clause as conjunct What is more, we lost all our hope and courage.

57 Comparative & comment clauses
6/9 6 Comparative & comment clauses Comment Clauses Features Forms (4) To-infinitive clause as style disjunct To be honest with you, I didn’t understand a thing he said.

58 Comparative & comment clauses
6/10 6 Comparative & comment clauses Comment Clauses Features Forms (5) –ing clause as style disjunct I’m concerned, speaking as a linguist, about the language of the young people today.

59 Comparative & comment clauses
6/11 6 Comparative & comment clauses Comment Clauses Features Forms (6) –ed clause as style disjunct Stated bluntly, he had no chance of winning.


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