Presentation on theme: "Phonetics COMD Taylor English Words and Sentences: Words in Connected Speech."— Presentation transcript:
Phonetics COMD Taylor English Words and Sentences: Words in Connected Speech
Transcription Practice 1.[ə ˈ d ʒʌ st] 2.[ ˈ b ʊ k ɪ ŋ] 3.[ ɡɪˈ ta ɹ ] 4.[tə ˈɹ e ɪ n] [t ɚˈ e ɪ n] 5.[ ˈ ð ɛɹ f ɔɹ ] 6.[ ˈ l ɪ sn ̩ ] 7.[ ˈ fa ʊ ntn ̩ ] 8.[ ˈ pitsa] 9.[ ɪ m ˈ pl ɔɪ ] 10.[ ˈ fæntm ̩ ] 11.[ ˈ luz ɚ ] 12.[ ˈ k ɑ fi] 13.[ ˈ k ɔ fi] 14.[ ˈ st ɹʌ k ʃɚ ] 15.[ ˈʃ t ɹʌ k ʃɚ ]
Word form and phonetic reduction Citation (reading lists) – at least one stressed syllable (full form) Connected speech – sometimes no syllable in a particular word is stressed (all sounds are reduced) – degree of reduction (variance from full form) depends on degree of emphasis – Q: what sorts of things get emphasized in conversation? (topics, e.g.) How does this sound?
Closed-class words and reduction Strong form when emphasized Weak form when not emphasized CC words (determiners, conjunctions, prepositions, verb auxiliaries, etc.) – are rarely emphasized – than, the, an, can gonna / gon
Other common phonetic processes Deletion – 'last time' [læst ta ɪ m] or [læs ta ɪ m] ? – 'most boys' [mo ʊ st b ɔɪ z] or [mo ʊ s b ɔɪ z] ? Assimilation – Anticipatory 'ten bucks' [t ɛ m b ʌ ks] – Perseverative 'it is' 'it's' [ ɪ t ɪ z] [ ɪ ts]
Stress Word stress varies depending on occurrence – Citation form vs connected speech – Examples? Would you? THATS my umbrella. vs thats MY umbrella! Stress is a relative concept – Why do we say that?
How do we determine stress? From speaker's point of view: – usually results from additional muscular effort, respiratory energy Hard to define from listener's point of view – usually higher pitch (but not always) – vowel is usually longer in duration In practical terms: tap it out
What does stress do in English? emphasizes/contrasts can define parts of speech – 'record', 'incline', etc. – BUT: 'market' vs Marquette distinguishes compound nouns from adjective and noun – 'blackboard' vs. 'black board' distinguishes prefixes and suffixes from roots – 'implore', etc. – 'rewrite'?
Degrees of stress Longer words at the end of utterances and in citation form may seem to have more than one stressed syllable – primary vs secondary stress? 'exploration' – result of non-reduced vowels? 'rodeo'
Sentence rhythm As a rule, English does not allow stresses too close together in an utterance – stresses tend to occur at regular intervals – affects stress within individual words 'The ancient building hadn't been destroyed.'
Intonation Intonation = pattern of pitch changes Pitch variation within an utterance is normal – try saying a sentence without changing pitch – degree depends on a number of factors – the syllable that carries the highest pitch bears the tonic accent
Intonation units do not necessarily coincide with grammar are defined by natural breaks in spoken conversation do not have a set rule for determination
IUs Example (H)... I would like to.. talk to you about these three items I have here, (H) some ice in a pan, (H) water in this glass, and steam rising from this pot (H).. Now= I would like to ask you, how these three things Tell me please (H) How are they all alike (H) These three things.
Sentence intonation varies with meaning – The postman always rings twice. Say it straight, say it as a wisenheimer lol is used in English to indicate – Y/N questions – end of a turn