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© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Lecture © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1 Part 1: Introduction to Earth Geography and Science Earth Systems Earth and the Solar System The Geographic Grid – Latitude and Longitude
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Geography and Science Figure 1-1: The elements of geography can be grouped into 2 broad categories. Physical geography primarily involves the study of natural science, whereas cultural geography primarily entails the study of social science.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Geography and Science The scientific method –Observe phenomena –Formulate a hypothesis –Design an experiment to test the hypothesis –Predict the outcome of the experiment –Conduct the experiment –Draw conclusions Scientific proof Establishment of scientific theory
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Earth Systems Closed systems – those contained from outside influence Open – energy & matter free to be exchanged across systems Equilibrium – systems are in balance (input = output) Interconnected systems – change in one system affects another Feedback loops, positive versus negative Figure 1-6: A simplified view of a glacier as an open system. The primary material inputs of a glacier include show, ice, and rock, whereas its outputs include meltwater, water vapor, and rock transported by the flowing ice. The energy interchange includes incoming solar radiation and the exchange of latent heat between ice, liquid water, and water vapor.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Earth and the Solar System Origins – the big bang Formation of the solar system –The Milky Way –Formed 4.5 to 5 billion years ago Figure 1-7: The structure of the Milky Way Galaxy showing the approximate location of our Sun on one of the spiral arms. Figure 1-8: The birth of our solar system. (1) diffuse gas cloud, or nebula, begins to contract inward. (2) Cloud flattens into nebular disk as it spins faster around a central axis. (3) Particles in the outer parts of the disk collide with each other to form protoplanets. (4) Protoplanets coalesce into planets and settle into orbits around the hot center. (5) The final product: a central Sun surrounded by eight orbiting planets. The original nebular disk was much larger than our final solar system.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Earth and the Solar System Formation of the solar system –Eight planets revolve around the Sun in elliptical orbits –Four terrestrial planets –Four gas giants –Earth is the third planet Figure 1-9: The solar system. The Sun is not exactly at the center of the solar system – the planets revolve around the Sun in elliptical orbits. The Kuiper Belt, which includes dwarf planets such as Pluto, begins beyond Neptune.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Earths Physical Characteristics Maximum relief Figure 1-10: Earth is large relative to the size of its surface features. Earths maximum relief (the difference in elevation between the highest and lowest points) is 19,883 meters (65,233 feet) or about 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the top of Mount Everest to the bottom of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Earths Physical Characteristics Imperfect sphere –Equatorial diameter ~ 12,756 km –Polar diameter ~ 12,714 km Circumference of 40,000 km Figure 1-11: Earth is not quite a perfect sphere. Its surface flattens slightly at the North Pole and the South Pole and bulges our slightly around the equator. Thus, a cross section through the poles, shown in (a), has a diameter slightly less than the diameter through the equator, shown in (b).
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Geographic Grid – Latitude and Longitude Location on Earth –Need an accurate location on Earth to describe geographic features –Use Earths rotation axis to base location on the surface –North Pole and South Pole –Plane of the equator Figure 1-12: An example of a grid system. The location of point X can be described as 2B or B2; the location of Y is 3D or D3. Figure 1-13: Earth spins around its rotation axis, an imaginary line that passes through the North Pole and the South Pole. An imaginary plane bisecting Earth midway between the 2 poles defines the equator.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Great Circles Circles that bisect a sphere and pass through the spheres center Identify the shortest distance between two points on a spheregreat circle distance Plane of the equator is a great circle Small circles Fig 1-14: Comparison of great and small circles. (a) A Great circle results from the intersection of Earths surface with any plane that passes through Earths center. (b) A small circle results from the intersection of Earths surface with any plane that does not pass through Earths center.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Geographic Grid – Latitude Graticule Latitudes – Angle north or south of the equator – Parallels – Fig 1-15: Measuring latitude. An imaginary line from Kuji, Japan, to Earths center makes an angle of 40 with the equator. Therefore, Kujis latitude is 40 ° N. An imaginary line from Bowen, Australia, to Earths center makes an angle of 20, giving this city a latitude of 20 ° S. Fig 1-16: Lines of latitude indicate north-south location. They are called parallels because they are always parallel to each other.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Seven Important Latitudes Latitudes – Seven important latitudes – Latitude zones Figure 1-17: Seven important parallels. As we will see when we discuss the seasons, these latitudes represent special locations where rays from the Sun strike Earths surface on certain days of the year. Figure 1-18: The tropic of Capricorn; like all other parallels of latitude, is an imaginary line. As a significant parallels, however, its location is often commemorated by a sign.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Geographic Grid –Longitude Longitudes – Angular description of east–west direction – Meridians Figure 1-19: Lines of longitude, or meridians, indicate east-west and all converge at the poles. Figure 1-21: The meridians that mark longitude are defined by intersecting imaginary planes passing through the poles. Shown hear are the planes for the prime meridian through Greenwich, England, and the meridian through Freetown, Sierra Leone, at 13 ° W longitude.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Important Longitudes Longitudes – Important longitudes – Convergence at poles Figure 1-20: The prime meridian of the world, longitude 0 ° at Greenwich, England, which is about 8 km (5 miles) from the heart of London. Figure 1-22: A polar view of meridians radiating from the North Pole. Think of each line as the top edge of an imaginary plane passing through both poles. All the planes are perpendicular to the plane of the page.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Graticule Location on the graticule based on latitude and longitude Figure 1-23: The complete grid system of latitude and longitude – the graticule. Because the meridians converge at the poles, the distance of 1 ° of longitude is greatest at the equator and diminishes to zero at the poles, whereas the distance of 1 ° of latitude varies only slightly (due to the slight flattening of Earth at the poles).
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