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Done by bithun jith binoy k.v.pattom You must know and memorize the following. Pythagorean Identities: sin 2 x + cos 2 x = tan 2 x = sec 2 x 1 + cot 2 x = csc 2 x Reciprocal Identities: Tangent/Cotangent Identities: Cofunction Identities: sin 2 x = (sin x) 2

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11.3 Sum and Difference Formulas Objective: To use the sum and difference formulas for sine and cosine. sin ( + ) = sin cos + sin cos sin ( - ) = sin cos - sin cos 1. This can be used to find the sin 105. HOW? 2. Calculate the exact value of sin

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cos ( + ) = cos cos - sin sin cos ( - ) = cos cos + sin sin Note the similarities and differences to the sine properties. 3. This can be used to find the cos 285. HOW? 4. Calculate the exact value of cos 345.

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We will first look at the special angles called the quadrantal angles. The quadrantal angles are those angles that lie on the axis of the Cartesian coordinate system:,,, and.

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We also need to be able to recognize these angles when they are given to us in radian measure. Look at the smallest possible positive angle in standard position, other than 0, yet having the same terminal side as 0. This is a 360 angle which is equivalent to. radians If we look at half of that angle, we have Looking at the angle half-way between 180 and 360, we have 270 or radians which is of the total (360 or ). radians Moving all the way around from 0 to 360 completes the circle and and gives the 360 angle which is equal to radians. Looking at the angle half-way between 0 and 180 or, we have 90 or.

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We can count the quadrantal angles in terms of. 0 radians Notice that after counting these angles based on portions of the full circle, two of these angles reduce to radians with which we are familiar,. radians Add the equivalent degree measure to each of these quadrantal angles. We can approximate the radian measure of each angle to two decimal places. One of them, you already know,. It will probably be a good idea to memorize the others. Knowing all of these numbers allows you to quickly identify the location of any angle.

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We can find the trigonometric functions of the quadrantal angles using this definition. We will begin with the point (1, 0) on the x axis. (1, 0) 0 radians radians or As this line falls on top of the x axis, we can see that the length of r is 1. For the angle 0, we can see that x = 1 and y = 0. To visualize the length of r, think about the line of a 1 angle getting closer and closer to 0 at the point (1, 0). Remember the six trigonometric functions defined using a point (x, y) on the terminal side of an angle,.

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0 radians radians (1, 0) or Using the values, x = 1, y = 0, and r = 1, we list the six trig functions of 0. And of course, these values also apply to 0 radians, 360, 2 radians, etc. It will be just as easy to find the trig functions of the remaining quadrantal angles using the point (x, y) and the r value of 1.

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0 radians radians or (0, 1) (-1, 0) (0, -1)

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Now lets cut each quadrant in half, which basically gives us 8 equal sections. 0 The first angle, half way between 0 and would be. We can again count around the circle, but this time we will count in terms of radians. Counting we say: Then reduce appropriately. Since 0 to radians is 90, we know that is half of 90 or 45. Each successive angle is 45 more than the previous angle. Now we can name all of these special angles in degrees. It is much easier to construct this picture of angles in both degrees and radians than it is to memorize a table involving these angles (45 or reference angles,).

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45 The lengths of the legs of the 45 – 45 – 90 triangle are equal to each other because their corresponding angles are equal. If we let each leg have a length of 1, then we find the hypotenuse to be using the Pythagorean theorem. 1 1 You should memorize this triangle or at least be able to construct it. These angles will be used frequently. Next we will look at two special triangles: the 45 – 45 – 90 triangle and the 30 – 60 – 90 triangle. These triangles will allow us to easily find the trig functions of the special angles, 45, 30, and 60.

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Using the definition of the trigonometric functions as the ratios of the sides of a right triangle, we can now list all six trig functions for a angle.

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WARM-UP The expressions sin (A + B) and cos (A + B) occur frequently enough in math that it is necessary to find expressions equivalent to them that involve sines and cosines of single angles. So…. Does sin (A + B) = Sin A + Sin B Try letting A = 30 and B = 60

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For the 30 – 60 – 90 triangle, we will construct an equilateral triangle (a triangle with 3 equal angles of each, which guarantees 3 equal sides). If we let each side be a length of 2, then cutting the triangle in half will give us a right triangle with a base of 1 and a hypotenuse of 2. This smaller triangle now has angles of 30, 60, and 90. We find the length of the other leg to be, using the Pythagorean theorem. 1 2 You should memorize this triangle or at least be able to construct it. These angles, also, will be used frequently.

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1 2 Again, using the definition of the trigonometric functions as the ratios of the sides of a right triangle, we can now list all the trig functions for a 30 angle and a 60 angle.

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Either memorizing or learning how to construct these triangles is much easier than memorizing tables for the 45, 30, and 60 angles. These angles are used frequently and often you need exact function values rather than rounded values. You cannot get exact values on your calculator.

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Knowing these triangles, understanding the use of reference angles, and remembering how to get the proper sign of a function enables us to find exact values of these special angles. A ll I S ine II III T angent IV C osine A good way to remember this chart is that ASTC stands for All Students Take Calculus.

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y x Example 1: Find the six trig functions of 330. Second, find the reference angle, = 30 First draw the 330 degree angle. To compute the trig functions of the 30 angle, draw the special triangle. 1 2 Determine the correct sign for the trig functions of 330. Only the cosine and the secant are +. A S TC

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y x A S TC Example 1 Continued: The six trig functions of 330 are: 30

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y x Example 2: Find the six trig functions of. (Slide 1) 1 2 First determine the location of. With a denominator of 3, the distance from 0 to radians is cut into thirds. Count around the Cartesian coordinate system beginning at 0 until we get to. We can see that the reference angle is, which is the same as 60. Therefore, we will compute the trig functions of using the 60 angle of the special triangle.

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1 2 A S TC Example 2: Find the six trig functions of. (Slide 2) y x Before we write the functions, we need to determine the signs for each function. Remember All Students Take Calculus. Since the angle,, is located in the 3 rd quadrant, only the tangent and cotangent are positive. All the other functions are negative..

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0 radians Example 3: Find the exact value of cos. We will first draw the angle to determine the quadrant. We see that the angle is located in the 2 nd quadrant and the cos is negative in the 2 nd quadrant. A S TC We know that is the same as 45, so the reference angle is 45. Using the special triangle we can see that the cos of 45 or is. Note that the reference angle is. cos =

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Key For The Practice Exercises 1.sec 360 = 1 2.tan 420 = 3.sin = 4.tan 270 is undefined 5.csc = 6.cot (-225 ) = -1 7.sin = 8.cos = 9.cos(- ) = sec 315 = Problems 3 and 7 have solution explanations following this key.

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0 radians Problem 3: Find the sin. All thats left is to find the correct sign. And we can see that the correct sign is -, since the sin is always - in the 3 rd quadrant. A S TC We will first draw the angle by counting in a negative direction in units of. We can see that is the reference angle and we know that is the same as 30. So we will draw our 30 triangle and see that the sin 30 is. 1 2 Answer: sin =

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Basic Trigonometry Identities Objective:to be able to verify basic trig identities You must know and memorize the following. Pythagorean Identities: sin 2 x + cos 2 x = tan 2 x = sec 2 x 1 + cot 2 x = csc 2 x Reciprocal Identities: Tangent/Cotangent Identities: Cofunction Identities: sin 2 x = (sin x) 2

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0 radians Problem 7: Find the exact value of cos. We will first draw the angle to determine the quadrant. A S TC We know that is the same as 45, so the reference angle is 45. Using the special triangle we can see that the cos of 45 or is. Note that the reference angle is. We see that the angle is located in the 3rd quadrant and the cos is negative in the 3 rd quadrant. cos =

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