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By bithun jith maths project

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**Done by bithun jith binoy k.v.pattom**

You must know and memorize the following. Pythagorean Identities: Tangent/Cotangent Identities: sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 1 + tan2 x = sec2 x 1 + cot2 x = csc2 x Reciprocal Identities: Cofunction Identities: sin2 x = (sin x)2

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**11.3 Sum and Difference Formulas**

Objective: To use the sum and difference formulas for sine and cosine. sin ( + ) = sin a cos b + sin b cos a sin ( - ) = sin a cos b - sin b cos a 30 60 45 1. This can be used to find the sin 105 HOW? 2. Calculate the exact value of sin 375.

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**cos ( + ) = cos a cos b - sin a sin b**

Note the similarities and differences to the sine properties. 3. This can be used to find the cos 285 HOW? 4. Calculate the exact value of cos 345.

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**We will first look at the special angles called the quadrantal angles.**

The quadrantal angles are those angles that lie on the axis of the Cartesian coordinate system: , , , and

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**If we look at half of that angle, we have**

We also need to be able to recognize these angles when they are given to us in radian measure. Look at the smallest possible positive angle in standard position, other than 0 , yet having the same terminal side as 0 . This is a 360 angle which is equivalent to radians If we look at half of that angle, we have Looking at the angle half-way between 0 and 180 or , we have 90 or . Moving all the way around from 0 to 360 completes the circle and and gives the 360 angle which is equal to radians. Looking at the angle half-way between 180 and 360 , we have 270 or radians which is of the total (360 or ). radians

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**We can count the quadrantal angles in terms of .**

Notice that after counting these angles based on portions of the full circle, two of these angles reduce to radians with which we are familiar, 0 radians Add the equivalent degree measure to each of these quadrantal angles. radians We can approximate the radian measure of each angle to two decimal places. One of them, you already know, It will probably be a good idea to memorize the others. Knowing all of these numbers allows you to quickly identify the location of any angle.

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We can find the trigonometric functions of the quadrantal angles using this definition. We will begin with the point (1, 0) on the x axis. Remember the six trigonometric functions defined using a point (x, y) on the terminal side of an angle, . 0 radians radians or (1, 0) For the angle 0 , we can see that x = 1 and y = 0. To visualize the length of r, think about the line of a 1 angle getting closer and closer to 0 at the point (1, 0). As this line falls on top of the x axis, we can see that the length of r is 1.

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Using the values, x = 1, y = 0, and r = 1, we list the six trig functions of 0. And of course, these values also apply to 0 radians, 360 , 2 radians, etc. 0 radians radians (1, 0) or It will be just as easy to find the trig functions of the remaining quadrantal angles using the point (x, y) and the r value of 1.

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(0, 1) 0 radians radians or (-1, 0) (0, -1)

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**Now let’s cut each quadrant in half, which basically gives us 8 equal sections.**

The first angle, half way between 0 and would be We can again count around the circle, but this time we will count in terms of radians. Counting we say: Then reduce appropriately. Since 0 to radians is 90 , we know that is half of 90 or 45. Each successive angle is 45 more than the previous angle. Now we can name all of these special angles in degrees. It is much easier to construct this picture of angles in both degrees and radians than it is to memorize a table involving these angles (45 or reference angles,).

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Next we will look at two special triangles: the 45 – 45 – 90 triangle and the 30 – 60 – 90 triangle. These triangles will allow us to easily find the trig functions of the special angles, 45 , 30 , and 60 . The lengths of the legs of the 45 – 45 – 90 triangle are equal to each other because their corresponding angles are equal. 45 1 If we let each leg have a length of 1, then we find the hypotenuse to be using the Pythagorean theorem. You should memorize this triangle or at least be able to construct it. These angles will be used frequently.

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Using the definition of the trigonometric functions as the ratios of the sides of a right triangle, we can now list all six trig functions for a angle. 45 1

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**WARM-UP Does sin (A + B) = Sin A + Sin B**

The expressions sin (A + B) and cos (A + B) occur frequently enough in math that it is necessary to find expressions equivalent to them that involve sines and cosines of single angles. So…. Does sin (A + B) = Sin A + Sin B Try letting A = 30 and B = 60

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For the 30 – 60 – 90 triangle, we will construct an equilateral triangle (a triangle with 3 equal angles of each, which guarantees 3 equal sides). If we let each side be a length of 2, then cutting the triangle in half will give us a right triangle with a base of 1 and a hypotenuse of 2. This smaller triangle now has angles of 30, 60, and 90 . 1 2 We find the length of the other leg to be , using the Pythagorean theorem. You should memorize this triangle or at least be able to construct it. These angles, also, will be used frequently.

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Again, using the definition of the trigonometric functions as the ratios of the sides of a right triangle, we can now list all the trig functions for a 30 angle and a 60 angle. 1 2

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1 2 45 1 Either memorizing or learning how to construct these triangles is much easier than memorizing tables for the 45 , 30 , and 60 angles. These angles are used frequently and often you need exact function values rather than rounded values. You cannot get exact values on your calculator.

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**All I Sine II Tangent Cosine**

45 1 1 2 Knowing these triangles, understanding the use of reference angles, and remembering how to get the proper sign of a function enables us to find exact values of these special angles. All I Sine II III Tangent IV Cosine A good way to remember this chart is that ASTC stands for All Students Take Calculus.

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**A S T C Example 1: Find the six trig functions of 330 .**

First draw the 330 degree angle. Second, find the reference angle, = 30 To compute the trig functions of the 30 angle, draw the “special” triangle. y x 1 2 Determine the correct sign for the trig functions of Only the cosine and the secant are “+”. A S T C 330 30

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**A S T C Example 1 Continued: The six trig functions of 330 are: 30 330**

y x 1 2 A S T C 330 30

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**Example 2: Find the six trig functions of . (Slide 1)**

First determine the location of With a denominator of 3, the distance from 0 to radians is cut into thirds. Count around the Cartesian coordinate system beginning at 0 until we get to y x We can see that the reference angle is , which is the same as Therefore, we will compute the trig functions of using the 60 angle of the special triangle. 1 2

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**A S T C Example 2: Find the six trig functions of . (Slide 2)**

Before we write the functions, we need to determine the signs for each function. Remember “All Students Take Calculus”. Since the angle, , is located in the 3rd quadrant, only the tangent and cotangent are positive. All the other functions are negative.. y x A S T C 1 2

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**A S T C Example 3: Find the exact value of cos .**

We will first draw the angle to determine the quadrant. We see that the angle is located in the 2nd quadrant and the cos is negative in the 2nd quadrant. 0 radians A S T C Note that the reference angle is . We know that is the same as 45 , so the reference angle is Using the special triangle we can see that the cos of 45 or is . 45 1 cos =

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**Key For The Practice Exercises**

sec 360 = 1 tan 420 = sin = tan 270 is undefined csc = cot (-225 ) = -1 sin = cos = cos(- ) = -1 sec = Problems 3 and 7 have solution explanations following this key.

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**A S T C Problem 3: Find the sin .**

We will first draw the angle by counting in a negative direction in units of . 0 radians A S T C We can see that is the reference angle and we know that is the same as So we will draw our 30 triangle and see that the sin 30 is . All that’s left is to find the correct sign. 1 2 And we can see that the correct sign is “-”, since the sin is always “-” in the 3rd quadrant. Answer: sin =

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**11.1 - Basic Trigonometry Identities**

Objective: to be able to verify basic trig identities You must know and memorize the following. Pythagorean Identities: Tangent/Cotangent Identities: sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 1 + tan2 x = sec2 x 1 + cot2 x = csc2 x Reciprocal Identities: Cofunction Identities: sin2 x = (sin x)2

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**A S T C Problem 7: Find the exact value of cos .**

We will first draw the angle to determine the quadrant. We see that the angle is located in the 3rd quadrant and the cos is negative in the 3rd quadrant. 0 radians A S T C Note that the reference angle is . We know that is the same as 45 , so the reference angle is Using the special triangle we can see that the cos of 45 or is . 45 1 cos =

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