Presentation on theme: "Chapter Nine Pricing: Understanding and Capturing Customer Value."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Nine Pricing: Understanding and Capturing Customer Value
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-2 What Is a Price? Narrowly, price is the amount of money charged for a product or service. Broadly, price is the sum of all the values that consumers exchange for the benefits of having or using the product or service. Dynamic Pricing: charging different prices depending on individual customers and situations.
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-3 Rent Fee Rate Commission Assessment Tuition Fare Toll Premium Retainer Bribe Bribe Salary Salary Wage Wage Interest Interest Tax Tax Price Has Many Names Price Has Many Names ice?
9-4 Dynamic Pricing The Internet is ushering in a new era of fluid pricing. is an independent site that provides price comparisons and guides, and searches all airline and hotel sites for the best prices.www.travelocity
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-6 Customer Value Perceptions Value-based pricing : Involves understanding how much value consumers place on the benefits they receive from the product and setting a price that captures that value. Uses buyers perceptions of value, not the sellers cost, as the key to pricing. –Good value pricing –Value-added pricing
Copyright 2007, Prentice-Hall, Inc.9-7 Value-Based Pricing Vs. Cost-Based Pricing
GOOD VALUE PRICING Offering just the right combination of quality and good service at a fair price. –McDonalds offer value menus –EDLP Strategies of Wal-Mart etc VALUE ADDED PRICING Attaching value added features and services to differentiate a marketing offer and support higher prices, rather than cutting prices to match competitors. Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-8
GOOD VALUE PRICING Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-9
Copyright 2007, Prentice-Hall, Inc Value-Added Pricing Caterpillar offers dealers a wide range of value-added services, including training, investment advice, and guaranteed parts delivery. These services justify charging a higher price.
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-11 Company and Product Costs: –Fixed Costs: Costs that do not vary with production or sales level. –Salary, room rent etc –Variable Costs: Costs that vary directly with the level of production. –Sales commission, raw material cost etc
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-12 Cost-Based Pricing Cost-plus pricing –The simplest pricing model every where used –Adding a standard markup to the cost of the product Example –Fixed cost- 100 Baht/ unit –Variable cost- 50 Baht / Unit Total cost- 150 Baht –Profit margin – 50 Baht/ unit –Selling price – 200 Baht / Unit
Break Even Analysis Break-even pricing –Setting price to break even on the costs of making and marketing a product or setting price to make a target profit Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-13
Copyright 2007, Prentice-Hall, Inc.9-14 Break-Even Chart for Determining Price
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-15 Internal Factors Affecting Pricing Decisions Marketing Objectives: –Company must decide on its strategy for the product. –General pricing objectives: Survival Current profit maximization Market share leadership Product quality leadership
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-16 Internal Factors Affecting Pricing Decisions Marketing Mix Strategy: –Price decisions must be coordinated with product design, distribution, and promotion decisions to form a consistent and effective marketing program. –Target costing: Pricing that starts with an ideal selling price, then targets costs that will ensure that the price is met.
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-18 Internal Factors Affecting Pricing Decisions Organizational Considerations: –Must decide who within the organization should set prices. –This will vary depending on the size and type of company.
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-19 External Factors Affecting Pricing Decisions The Market and Demand: –Costs set the lower limit of prices while the market and demand set the upper limit. –Pricing in different types of markets: Pure competition Monopolistic competition Oligopolistic competition Pure monopoly –Analyzing the price-demand relationship –The price elasticity of demand
Monopoly Only one company selling product in the market The seller may be a government monopoly or a private regulated monopoly. Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-20
Oligopoly The market consists of a few sellers who are highly sensitive to each others pricing and other marketing strategies. The product can be uniform (steel, aluminum etc) or non uniform (cars, computers etc). Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-21
monopolistic competition Under monopolistic competition, the market consists of many buyers and sellers who trade over a range of prices rather than a single market price. A range of prices occurs because sellers can differentiate their offers to buyers. Any physical product can be varied in quality, features, or style or the accompanying services can be varied. Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-22
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-23
Pure competition Under pure competition, the market consists of many buyers and sellers trading in a uniform commodity such as wheat, copper, or financial securities such as stocks or bonds. No single buyer or seller has much effect on the going market place. Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-24
Perfect Competition Many sellers offer many buyers an identical (homogeneous) product; no seller can influence price
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-26 New-Product Pricing Strategies Market Skimming: –Set a high price for a new product toskim revenues layer by layer from the market. –Company makes fewer, but more profitable sales.
Price Skimming When to Use: –Products quality and image must support its higher price. –Costs of low volume cannot be so high they cancel the advantage of charging more. –Competitors should not be able to enter market easily and undercut the price. Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-27
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-28 New-Product Pricing Strategies When to Use: –Market is highly price sensitive so a low price produces more growth. –Costs must fall as sales volume increases. –Need to keep competition out or effects are only temporary. Market Penetration: –Set a low initial price in order topenetrate the market quickly and deeply. –Can attract a large number of buyers quickly and win a large market share.
Copyright 2007, Prentice-Hall, Inc Product Line Pricing Sets price steps between various items in a product line based on: –Cost differences between products –Customer evaluations of different features –Competitors prices
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-31 Optional- and Captive- Product Pricing Optional-Product –Pricing optional or accessory products sold with the main product (e.g., ice maker with the refrigerator). Captive-Product –Pricing products that must be used with the main product (e.g., replacement cartridges for Gillette razors).
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-32 By-Product and Product Bundle Pricing Strategies By-Product Pricing –Pricing low-value by-products to get rid of them (e.g., animal manure from zoo). Product Bundle Pricing –Pricing bundles of products sold together (software, monitor, PC, and printer).
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-33
Copyright 2007, Prentice-Hall, Inc Product-Bundle Pricing Travelers who book flight, hotel, and car together can save on average $ from Expedia.comExpedia.com Marketing in Action
Copyright 2007, Prentice-Hall, Inc Discounts and Allowances Discounts –Cash –Quantity –Seasonal Allowances –Trade-in –Promotional Christmas cards purchased out of season, such as in March or July, are often sold at a discount.
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-37 Segmented Pricing Selling a product or service at two or more prices, where the difference in prices is not based on differences in costs. Types: 1. Customer-segment 2. Product-form 3. Location pricing 4. Time pricing
Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-38 Psychological Pricing Considers the psychology of prices and not simply the economics. Consumers usually perceive higher- priced products as having higher quality. Consumers use price less when they can judge the quality of a product by examining it or recalling experiences.
Copyright 2007, Prentice-Hall, Inc Promotional Pricing Companies offer promotional pricing to create excitement and a sense of urgency.
FOB-origin pricing This practice means that the goods are placed free on board a carrier. At that point the title and responsibility pass to the customer, who pays the freight from the factory to the destination. Free On Boardbuyers Free On Board means it is the buyers responsibility to select the mode of transportation, choose the specific carrier, handle any damage claims, and pay all shipping charges Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-41
Uniform-delivered pricing Uniform delivered pricing is the opposite of FOB pricing. Here the company charges the same price plus freight to all customers, regardless of their location. The freight charge is set at the average freight cost. Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-42
Zone pricing Zone pricing falls between FOB origin pricing and uniform delivered pricing. The company sets two or more zones. All customers within a given zone pay a single total price, the more distant the zone, the higher the price. Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-43
Basing-point pricing Using the basing point pricing, the seller selects a given city as basing point and charges all customers the freight cost from that city to the customer location regardless of the city from which the goods are actually shipped. Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-44
Customer pays $120 Base Mill X Mill Y Mill Z Product Price = $100 $20 Actual Freight $30 Actual Freight $10 Actual Freight $10 Freight Absorption $10 Phantom Freight Adopted from: Monroe (1990), Pricing: Making Profitable Decisions, 2 ed., New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. Basing-Point Pricing System
Freight-absorption pricing Using this strategy, the seller absorbs all or part of the actual freight charges in order to get the desired business Copyright 2007, Prentice Hall, Inc.9-46