2What is Genetics? Genetics is the study of heredity. Heredity is how traits are passed down from generation to generation.Gregor Mendel“Father of Genetics”.He studied the way characteristics are passed on in pea plants in the 1800’s.
3Mendel’s DiscoveryMendel discovered that a pea plant’s characteristics such as height, seed color and pod color are determined by an inheritance factor. He observed 14 different characteristicsThese inheritance factors where later called genes. Genes are a unit of heredity. They contain the instructions for a trait.A trait is a characteristic (color, height) coded for by two or more genes.
4Fourteen Traits of Pea Plants: Flower ColorPink FlowerWhite FlowerSeed ColorYellow SeedGreen SeedSeed ShapeRound SeedWrinkled SeedPod ColorGreen PodYellow PodPod ShapeSmooth PodWrinkled PodFlower PositionAlong StemAt the TipPlant SizeTall PlantShort Plant
5Types of Genes Allele: 2 forms of a gene Dominant: The gene that covers up the effect of the other one.Use a capital letter. Example “T” or “G”Recessive:The effect of the gene is hidden (unless two are present).Use a lower case letter. Example “t” or “g”
6Mendel developed true breeding plants for each trait because true bred plants always gave the same results every time.PUREPUREPUREHe found when breeding different pure forms of the same trait that one trait would always show up while the other one did not. It was for this reason that he labeled the trait that always showed up in these crosses DOMINANT and the trait that did not show up RECESSIVERECESSIVEPUREDOMINANTPUREAllDominantBut NOTPURE
7He tested many characteristics and found that this was true for all of the traits. They had a dominant trait and a recessive trait.He did his experiment again using the offspring from the first cross. His results were very strange. From two parents showing the dominant trait, he got offspring that showed the recessive trait.WEIRDNot PureNot Pure????Offspring from the Pink and White CrossThis proved that the parents and offspring have 2 genes for each trait. How else could the parents have offspring that showed different traits than the parents.
8Females are listed by XX. DNA makes up genes. Genes make up chromosomes.DNAGENESChromosomesThere are 23 pairs (46 total) chromosomes in each non-sex cell for humans. 23 chromosomes in sex cells.Females are listed by XX.Males are listed by XY.Genetic disorders:Tay-Sachs: Caused by a gene mutation on chromosome 15Down Syndrome: An extra copy of chromosome 21 is present.Look up other genetic disorders.
9Describing TraitsTraits are ways to describe living things.We are going to focus on human traits during genetics.Traits that we may discuss include: hair color, eye color, blood type.Phenotype: What the organism looks like. Its Physical makeup. Examples : Tall, Short, round or wrinkledGenotype: The genetic make-up of a trait. What 2-letter gene combination it is made from.Examples TT, Tt, tt
10Cross Pure Tall with Pure Short Punnett Square: Determine the probability that offspring will or will not have a given trait.Pure Tall plant ( T T ) crossed with a Pure Short Plant ( t t )Each parent can give one trait gene to the offspring so each offspring will get half their trait genes from each parents. The chances of any parent giving a particular trait gene are random. We always start off with what we know in a KEY:Then we show the cross:Key:T- Tall Plantt – Short PlantCross Pure Tall with Pure ShortT T X t tThe Pure Short parent can give a t or a tThe Pure Tall parent can give a T or a T.We put these on a grid and see what possible outcomes we can get…
11T T X t t t t t t t t T T T T T T T The Phenotype of the offspring is: One parent goes on the top of the box and the other goes on the sideT TT T X t ttTtTtYou fill in the squares with the appropriate letterThe possible offspring will appear in the boxesBy looking at these results, you can see that the offspring will all be Tall but not Pure Tall.They are all mixed. This is called Hybrid.TtTtThe Phenotype of the offspring is:100 % TALLThe Genotype of the offspring is:100% mixed… We call this HybridTt
12Describing GenesWhen we write genes we use one letter (G or g, T or t, etc.)Traits or characteristics are determined by one or more pair of genes.Half of your genes come from your mother and half of your genes come from your father.Purebred or Homozygous : Both genes are the same.Example: TT or tt are BOTH Homozygous. It doesn’t matter if they are dominant or recessive…just that they are the same.Hybrid or Heterozygous : Both genes are different.Example Tt is Heterozygous. Heterozygous offspring always show the dominant trait.
13Punnett Squares practice We looked at green seeds and yellow seeds. If both plants are homozygous, what are their genotypes?Key: G – Green seedsg – Yellow seedPlant 1 (green) = GGPlant 2 (yellow) = ggIdentify the genes that are present in each plants’ sex cells.GGggGGgg
14We are now going to determine the possible genotypes and We are now going to determine the possible genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring using a Punnett Square.GG x ggGenotypegggg =0/4 = 0%Gg =4/4 = 100%GgGgGGG =0/4 = 0%PhenotypeGgGgGGreen =4/4 = 100%Yellow =0/4 = 0%
15GG Gg Gg gg G g G g Parents = Gg X Gg Determine the genotype and phenotype probabilities for a cross between two heterozygous plants from the previous problem.Parents = Gg X GgGenotypeGggg =1/4 = 25%Gg =2/4 = 50%GGGgGGG =1/4 = 25%PhenotypeGreen =3/4 = 75%GgggYellow =1/4 = 25%g
16When you look closely at it, there are only six crosses that deal with two alleles. They are: (using G and g as example traits)GG x GG Pure Dominant x Pure DominantGG x Gg Pure Dominant x HybridGG x gg Pure Dominant x Pure RecessiveGg x Gg Hybrid x HybridGg x gg Hybrid x Pure Recessivegg x gg Pure Recessive x Pure RecessiveIf you can memorize these six crosses and their phenotype and genotype ratios, you will never see a genetics problem you can’t solve.Also remember that anything crossed with a Pure Recessive is a Test Cross. It is a control to show what recessive traits you may have.
17Practice ProblemMendel also studied the heights of pea plants during his experiments.He determined that tall pea plants were dominant over short pea plants.Step 1: Create a key. Pick a letter to represent genes.Dominant = Tall (T)Recessive = short (t)Use the key to help you answer the following questions:1. Determine the phenotype of a plant that is Tt.2. Determine the genotype of a homozygous small plant.3. Would a heterozygous plant show the dominant or recessive trait?
18Dominant = Tall (T) Recessive = short (t) Determine the phenotype of a plant that is Tt.Phenotype means what it looks like. It will be tall because it has one dominant gene (T).2. Determine the genotype of a homozygous small plant.Genotype means genetic make-up. Homozygous means the same and small is recessive (small letter).The answer is tt.3. Would a heterozygous plant show the dominant or recessive trait?Heterozygous means different. (Tt) The answer is dominant because there is at least one big T. To show recessive you have to have two small t’s.
19Vocabulary Practice Problems 1. Brown hair is dominant over blonde.A. Create a key for the traits.B. What would the genotype for a blonde be?C. What would the phenotype be for a person that isheterozygous?2. Freckles is dominant over non-freckles. Mom is purebred for freckles. Dad is heterozygous for freckles.B. Determine the genotypes for Mom and Dad.C. Could any of their children NOT have freckles? Explain your answer.
20Maybe Baby Directions 1. Determine baby’s gender: Female: XX Male: XYDad determines gender by flipping a coin:Heads: X Tails: Y2. Name the child. (Use father’s last name)3. Determine genes for the childEach partner flips a coin.Heads: 1st allele (A or L1) Tails: 2nd allele (a or L2)Circle all your results on data sheetYou must flip the coin multiple times when there is more than one letter for a trait!!! Ex. Eye and hair colorThree different letters means you flip three times!!!!!
21Maybe Baby Directions4. You now have to record the genotypes and phenotypes for the alleles you determined yesterday.Make sure you read carefully. Not all traits are going to be seen. Put NA in the genotype and phenotype box if that trait is not visible for your child.5. Get your data sheet signed by the teacher after you sketch the characteristics.6. Begin drawing your child as a teenager. USE PENCIL!!!! You need to draw front view and side view of your child. Your drawing must include:Your child’s name on the front.All 30 characteristics between the two drawings.Your name and your partner’s name on the back.Star your name on the back!!!!
221A. Key: B = brown = dominant b = blonde = recessive1B. Blonde is recessive. “bb”1C. Heterozygous means different.Phenotype means what it looks like.“Brown hair”2A. Key: F = freckles = dominantf = non-freckles = recessive2B. Mom = FF Dad = Ff2C. There is no possibility that any of their children could not have freckles. Mom has two big F genes, which means she will always give her children a F. Therefore all of the children will have freckles. You need two little f’s for non-freckles.
23Pedigree ChartFollows the passing of a trait from generation to generation. Looks like a family tree.= male= femaleShaded shape means that the recessive trait is expressed.Half shaded shape means that they are a carrier of the trait.Carriers have one gene but do not express or show the trait.
24marriage Generation 1 parents Generation 2 children Oldest child to the leftYoungest child to the rightNumber of rows = number of generationsCount from the top to the bottom
25Normal skin is dominant over albino skin. How many males?How many females?How many generations?How many marriages?512634581097116Nn4Nn3NnN_NnnnNormal skin is dominant over albino skin.Key:Normal = N = dominantAlbino = n = recessiveRecessive trait is colored in!NnnnnnN_nn
26Page 6 in Packet N = normal vision = dominant n = nearsighted = recessiveShaded = recessive trait12nnN_43Nnnn98675nnnnNnnnNn111210Page 6 in PacketnnNnNn
27Green seeds are dominant over yellow seeds Green seeds are dominant over yellow seeds. A homozygous recessive plant (1) is mated with a homozygous dominant plant (2).Make a key.Determine the genotypes of the two plants.Determine the phenotype of the two plants.Could their offspring have yellow seeds? Explain.What is a trait?How many chromosomes do human sex cells have?
28More Pedigree Practice Dimples are dominant over non-dimplesShaded areas represent the recessive trait.Make a key!How many males?How many females?How many generations?How many marriages?How many children did the parents in the first generation have?How many males have dimples?How many females do not have dimples?
31Pedigree Chart Practice Widow’s peak is dominant over non-widow’s peakMake a key What is the dominant trait?Determine genotypes for all. 5. How many males have a widow’s peak?How many generations are there? 6. How many marriages are shown?
32I II III IV Key: W= widow’s peak = dominant w = non- peak = recessive c) 4 generationsd) Having the widow’s peak is dominant.e) 5 males have a widow’s peak.f) 4 marriagesWw
33Vocabulary QuizFree (unattached) earlobes are dominant over attached earlobes. Mom is heterozygous and Dad is homozygous recessive. Use this information to answer the questions below.Make a key.Determine the genotypes:Mom = Dad =Determine the phenotypes:Is it possible for their children to have attached earlobes? Why or why not?What is the difference between a gene and a trait?
34Make a key.How many marriages are present?How many generations are shown?How many males are albino?How many females are normal?How many children did 3 and 4 have in the first generation?
35Genetics Vocabulary Problem Red flowers are dominant over white flowers. A heterozygous plant (1) is crossed with a homozygous dominant plant (2).Make a key.What are the phenotypes of both plants?What are the genotypes of both plants?Is it possible for the new plants to have white flowers? Explain.What is the trait being studied?Who is Gregor Mendel? Why is he important?
36Cell Division Mitosis: Occurs in body cells. One cell divides into two.Both cells have the same genetic material as the parent cell.Four chromosomesFour chromosomes copiedFour chromosomes go into each cell during divisionFour chromosomes in each identical cell
37Cell Division Meiosis: Occurs in sex cells (egg and sperm). One cell divides into four.The four daughter cells have ½ the genetic material as the parent cell.Stage 1:Stage 2:
38Pedigree Chart Quiz Questions Make a key.Determine the genotypes for each person using your key.How many males are there?How many females are there?How many marriages are present?How many generations are shown?How many males are PTC non-tasters?How many females are PTC tasters?How many children did 1 and 2 from the first generation have?
39Tt tt tt Tt T t t t Parents = Tt X tt Determine the genotype and phenotype probabilities for a cross between a heterozygous plant and a short plant. The trait we are studying is plant height. Tall is dominant over short.Parents = Tt X ttT = tall = dominantt = short = recessiveGenotypeTtTT =0/4 = 0%Tt =2/4 = 50%tTttttt =2/4 = 50%PhenotypeTall =2/4 = 50%tttTtShort =2/4 = 50%
40Punnett Square Practice Problems Normal skin pigment is dominant over albino. Show a cross of an albino man with a heterozygous normal woman.Brown eyes are dominant over blue eyes. Using a Punnett Square, determine the probability that the offspring will be homozygous recessive if both parents are heterozygous dominant.Determine the genotypes for the individuals in the pedigree chart below. Widow’s peak is dominant over non-peak.Make a keyDetermine genotypesDetermine number of generationsWhat is the dominant trait?How many males have peak?How many marriages?
41n n Nn N Nn n nn nn 1. Key: N = normal = dominant n = albino = recessiveParents: Male = nn Female = NnnnGenotypeNN=0/4 = 0%NnNn =2/4 = 50%NNnnn =2/4 = 50%Phenotypenormal =2/4 = 50%nnnnnalbino =2/4 = 50%
42B b Bb B BB b Bb bb 2. Key: B = brown = dominant b = blue = recessive Parents: Male = Bb Female = BbBbGenotypeBB=1/4 = 25%BbBb =2/4 = 50%BBBbb =1/4 = 25%Phenotypebrown =3/4 = 75%bBbbbblue =1/4 = 25%
44Red flowers is dominant over white flowers. A plant (1) is homozygous dominant is crossed with a heterozygous plant (2). Use a Punnett Square to determine the probability that the offspring will be white.Use a Punnett Square to determine the probability the offspring will be white if two heterozygous plants were crossed.A homozygous dominant plant (3) is crossed with a homozygous recessive plant (4). Determine the probability the offspring will be red using a Punnett Square.
45Tall is dominant over short. Recessive trait is shaded. 1 9131415162435678101112Make a key How many males are tall?Determine the genotypes. 5. How many females are short?How many marriages. 6. How many generations?
46Vocabulary QuizFree earlobes are dominant over attached earlobes. Mom is heterozygous and Dad is homozygous recessive. Use this information to answer the questions below.Make a key.Determine the genotypes:Mom = Dad =Determine the phenotypes:Is it possible for their children to have attached earlobes? Why or why not?What is the difference between a gene and a trait?
47Sex-linked traitsSex-linked traits are caused by genes found on the X chromosome.Sex-linked traits are recessive.Fewer females are afflicted with these traits because they have two X chromosomes and the other is usually normal.Males only have one X chromosome, so when they inherit the sex-linked gene, they display the trait.Examples: color-blindness, hemophiliaXXXX-X-X-XYX-YNormalfemaleCarrierfemaleAfflictedfemaleNormalmaleAfflictedmale
48Sex-linked traits practice problems A man normal for blood clotting marries a woman who is a carrier for hemophilia. What are the chances they will have a child with hemophilia? Use a Punnett Square to prove your answer.What is the probability that a woman with normal vision who marries a color-blind man will have a color-blind child?A man with normal vision and a woman with normal vision have three sons. Two of the sons have normal vision and one of them is color-blind. What are the probable genotypes of the parents?
49Intermediate Inheritance Not all traits are either dominant or recessive.For some traits, heterozygous individuals are different than both homozygous parents.CodominanceIncomplete DominanceBoth alleles are blended in heterozygous offspringBoth are different capital lettersBoth alleles are expressed in heterozygous offspringBoth alleles are dominantBoth are different capital lettersRed flowers = RRWhite flowers = WWPink flowers = RWRed coat = CR CRWhite coat = CW CWRoan coat = CR CW(both red and white are seen)
50Multiple Alleles: Phenotype Genotype(s) A IA IA , IA i B IB IB, IB i When there are more than 2 (multiple) alleles for a trait.Examples: Human blood groups have 3 alleles. (A, B, O)A and B are both dominant, O is recessiveThe possible combinations of these blood alleles are:PhenotypeGenotype(s)AIA IA , IA iBIB IB, IB iABIA IBOii
51Dihybrid Crosses Study two traits at the same time. Determine the outcome for both traits together.A pure tall plant with blue flowers is mated with a short plant with white flowers. Determine the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring. Tall and blue flowers are both dominant traits.TTBBXttbbParents:T =tallttbbTTBBt =shorttbtbTBTBB =blueb =white
52Genotype Phenotype Tall and blue = 100% TtBb = 100% TtBb TtBb TtBb
53Now mate two of the offspring to determine the possible genotypes and phenotypes. EXTRA CREDIT!!!You must show ALL possiblegenotypes and phenotypes!GenotypeTtBb X TtBbttbb= 1/16 = 6.25%ttBb= 2/16 = 12.5%TBTbTBTbtBtbttBB= 1/16 = 6.25%Ttbb= 2/16 = 12.5%tBtbTBTTBBTTBbTtBBTtBbTtBb= 4/16 = 25%TtBB= 2/16 =12.5%TbTTBbTTbbTtBbTtbbTTbb= 1/16 = 6.25%TBTTBb= 2/16 = 12.5%TTBB= 1/16 = 6.25%TbtBTtBBTtBbttBBttBbPhenotypeTall, blue = 9/16 (56.25%)Short, blue = 3/16 (18.75%)Tall, white = 3/16 (18.75%)Short, white = 1/16 (6.25%)tBtbTtBbTtbbttBbttbbtb
54Incomplete dominance & Codominance When a mouse with black fur is crossed with a mouse with white fur, all F1 generation offspring have gray fur. What are the probable genotypes and phenotypes for the F2 generation? Is this an example of codominance or incomplete dominance?What would the possible genotypes and phenotypes be for a cross between a roan-coated cow (CR CW) and a red-coated cow (CR CR)? Is this an example of codominance or incomplete dominance?
55Blood Type ProblemsA couple preparing for marriage have their blood typed. They are both AB. They are curious about the possible blood types their children might have. What are the possible phenotypes of their children?A type A person marries a type A person. Their firstborn has type O blood. What are the genotypes of the parents and the child?A wealthy elderly couple die together in an accident. Soon a man shows up to claim their fortune, claiming he is their long lost son. Other relatives dispute the claim. Hospital records show that the deceased couple were blood types AB and O. The person claiming to be their son is type O. Do you think this man is an impostor? Explain why.