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© Kenneth L. Davis, Pegasus International: Coaching Connection, March 14, 2011 Emotional Foundations of Personality
© Kenneth L. Davis, Pegasus International: Coaching Connection, March 14, 2011
McCrae & Costa (1989)
© Kenneth L. Davis, Pegasus International: Coaching Connection, March 14, 2011 Davis, Panksepp, & Normansell (2003)
© Kenneth L. Davis, Pegasus International: Coaching Connection, March 14, 2011 ANGER The ANGER system is activated by frustration defined as the loss or threatened loss of valued resources. This system is also activated by restraining freedom of action. Functionally, pure ANGER is in some respects the opposite of SEEKING. The SEEKING system involves the acquisition of desired objects while ANGER involves defending resources. In adult humans, ANGER is typically observed in milder reactions that might be described as irritation or frustration. As was cited previously in the work of Walter Hess, ANGER and full blown ANGER attacks can be elicited subcortically. The subcortical nature of ANGER is shown by medial amygdala elicitation of ANGER being dependent upon an intact medial hypothalamus, which is in turn dependent upon even lower brain sites in the periaqueductal gray. Using subcortical electrical stimulation, it is also possible to behaviorally distinguish ANGER attacks from predatory attacks since the first type of stimulation mediates 'punishment' and the second 'reward' (Panksepp, 1971). Substance P, a neuropeptide, is a key agonist for this system. Glutamate also activates the system, and opioids inhibit it, although both glutamate and opioids are involved in many other emotional responses as well.
© Kenneth L. Davis, Pegasus International: Coaching Connection, March 14, 2011 FEAR The FEAR system functions to reduce pain and avoid physical harm. At low FEAR levels, a freezing response is typical, while more intense levels lead to fleeing, a pattern that can be replicated with electrical stimulation of subcortical FEAR nuclei. Humans receiving stimulation to the same areas report a free-floating anxiety that is not linked to any specific event. Benzodiazepines (BZ) are the main clinical inhibitors of the FEAR system. BZ receptors are concentrated from the central amygdala down through the anterior and medial hypothalamus to the substantia nigra and periaqueductal gray. Chlordiazepoxide (a BZ with the tradename of Librium) reduced escape responses induced by brain stimulation to the FEAR system. BZs reduce fear by increasing gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the brain including the FEAR circuit. Neuropeptide Y (antagonist) and Corticotrophin Releasing Factor (agonist) are more specific chemistries associated with the FEAR circuit.
© Kenneth L. Davis, Pegasus International: Coaching Connection, March 14, 2011 SADNESS The mammalian infant is totally dependent on parental care. As such, young mammals have a powerful emotional care soliciting brain system to signal their need for care. While the need for care could initially reflect a variety of discomforts, soon after birth most mammals start making separation distress calls when simply separated from caregivers or left alone. These separation calls are inhibited by opioids, oxytocin, and prolactin, which are major social bonding chemistries in the mammalian brain. The separation distress brain system has been mapped in several mammals yielding remarkably similar results. The system seems to originate in the periaqueductal gray close to physical pain sites and courses up to the cingulate gyrus. The close relationship to pain is also reflected in the human language use of pain descriptors when describing social rejection. Eisenberger, et al. (2003) has furthermore shown that human adult social exclusion activates brain areas associated with pain perception systems in the anterior cingulate cortex of the SADNESS circuit.
© Kenneth L. Davis, Pegasus International: Coaching Connection, March 14, 2011 PLAY Social PLAY may be the consummate mammalian brain emotion system. While there are descriptions of play, usually object-play in many other species, even in turtle (Burghardt, 2005), practically all mammals from rats to humans exhibit robust social play patterns. Even though the chasing, wrestling, and rough and tumble activities that typify play can seem aggressive, it is positive affect that is characteristic of the PLAY system. The play shrieks of human children would suggest they are experiencing intense social joy. During play, rats make a 50 kHz chirping sound that resembles human laughter (Panksepp, 2007), and the subcortical circuits that mediate human laughter and play-induced chirping in rats are similar. Young children and rat pups exhibit another PLAY system commonality: they both like to be tickled. The children laugh, and the rat pups emit play chirps. Further evidence that the chirps reflect positive affect comes from rat pups returning to the human hand that tickled them for more tickling and continue to make play chirps when being tickled. A negative affect is accompanied by 22 kHz squeals, and whenever something causes the rat pups to emit a 22 kHz complaint vocalization, play ceases.
© Kenneth L. Davis, Pegasus International: Coaching Connection, March 14, 2011 CARE The CARE system is an area in which mammals stand out in the animal kingdom. Mammalian infants would not survive without extended, devoted care from their mothers. Mammalian fathers are often involved as well but usually experience weaker CARE urges compared to females. Indeed, only the mammalian female can nurse the newborn, and in most mammals, the female is more responsive to infant distress than the male (Pettijohn, 1977). Mammalian maternal nurturing instincts are activated prior to giving birth by increasing estrogen, prolactin, and oxytocin along with decreasing progesterone. These maternal chemistries are complex. However, maternal behavior can be induced in virgin females that have been primed with estrogen before receiving oxytocin infusions into the brain. Oxytocin receptor antagonists can also inhibit maternal behavior in rats following delivery (Van Leengoed, et al., 1987). The tender responses induced by the CARE system confer stress resistance in offspring as another indicator of the complexities of the mammalian parent-infant relationship (Francis, et al., 1999; Weaver et al., 2004).
© Kenneth L. Davis, Pegasus International: Coaching Connection, March 14, 2011 SEEKING The SEEKING system is a 'reward-expectant' appetitive system. It may be the most fundamental emotional system, and its motivational properties are probably essential for the effective functioning of the other emotional primes. The sense of anticipatory excitement is the affect of the SEEKING system and as such its appetitive pleasure must be distinguished from consummatory pleasure. It is about 'wanting' as opposed to 'liking' as highlighted by Berridge, et al., (2009). It induces animals to explore their worlds and excites them when they are about to get what they are desiring, which could be any of the resources needed for survival: water, food, warmth, coolness, and also enthusiasm for "drugs and sex, etc. It is a general-purpose system for appetitive 'energy'/euphoria. The SEEKING system corresponds to the classic brain self-stimulation system coursing from the midbrain up to the medial frontal cortex. Animals readily choose the rapid activation of this system through direct electrical or chemical stimulation (via an implanted electrode or cannula) or through the intake of drugs such as cocaine or amphetamine. These dopamine agonists are addictive, and dopamine brain circuits are closely associated with practically all varieties of drug addiction (Panksepp, 2010a; Robinson & Berridge, 2003). Dopamine brain circuits can also energize higher brain areas that mediate planning and promote apparent purpose in both humans and animals (Alcaro, et al., 2007).
© Kenneth L. Davis, Pegasus International: Coaching Connection, March 14, 2011 High percentage of coaching cases exhibit derailing anger may encompass high levels criticism as well as overt anger When feeling the heat rising, asking why or how may give the manager time to become recentered and begin processing information and problem solving versus reacting Goal is to get back into the neocortex and actively regulating the initial reaction Coaching ANGER
© Kenneth L. Davis, Pegasus International: Coaching Connection, March 14, 2011 Fair percentage of coaching cases exhibit rejection sensitivity may include failing to speak up in meetings, failing to make difficult phone calls or later rumination about failings and what should have done Difficult problem that may require small steps recognize rumination and engage in alternate activity physical exercise generate social support practice small steps in meetings like raising a concern Goal is social re-engagement Coaching SADNESS/rejection
© Kenneth L. Davis, Pegasus International: Coaching Connection, March 14, 2011 Fair percentage of coaching cases worry about inadequacies may include perceived skill levels, overall ability, social problems interacting with a difficult person many cases include people who have actually achieved a great deal May need to start with basic relaxation methods May need to reconnect with past successes Reality testing and increasing positive thinking Goal is clear thinking not clouded by unrealistic anxieties Coaching FEAR/worry
© Kenneth L. Davis, Pegasus International: Coaching Connection, March 14, 2011 Fair percentage of coaching cases have difficulty motivating others may need to understand anticipatory versus consummatory motivation -- wanting vs. liking Case involved solving all problems and giving all employees a structured blueprint of how to accomplish tasks (but not micro-managing) converted all employees into assembly line workers when could have had creative, motivated engineers Goal is to motivate employees by allowing them to re-engage in the problem solving process Coaching SEEKING
© Kenneth L. Davis, Pegasus International: Coaching Connection, March 14, 2011 High percentage of coaching cases provide too little development feedback to direct reports developing others can be reframed as nurturing parental behavior that takes pleasure in the growth and successes of others often applies to shifting from a technical to a general management role Increase parental feelings towards employees; identify developmental goals and opportunities for each employee and increase delegation Goal is to enhance group through developing individual employees Coaching CARING
© Kenneth L. Davis, Pegasus International: Coaching Connection, March 14, 2011 Fair percentage of coaching cases are over focused on work could be personal work-life balance issues could be low group morale due to too little social fun May need to reframe fun as Energizing and Positively Motivating May need to reframe fun in terms of Teambuilding or Social Bonding May need to relearn play from young people Goal is to increase motivation with teambuilding and a more balanced approach to work Coaching PLAY
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