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Athletes are like race cars. They dont run their best on cheap gas or an empty tank.

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Presentation on theme: "Athletes are like race cars. They dont run their best on cheap gas or an empty tank."— Presentation transcript:


2 Athletes are like race cars. They dont run their best on cheap gas or an empty tank.

3 Topics for Today

4 Sports Nutrition Basics There are 3 macronutrients: 1.Carbohydrates 2.Protein 3.Fat Macronutrients are used in large amounts to fuel the body.

5 What Are Carbohydrates? A class of nutrients containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms Most are known as sugars, starches or dietary fibers There are two types – –simple (sugars) –complex (starches)

6 Simple Carbohydrates Comprised of single or double sugar molecules Are digested quickly Usually do not contain significant amounts of fiber or nutrients Examples: sugars (natural and refined), syrup, honey, molasses

7 Complex Carbohydrates Take longer to digest Usually packed with fiber, vitamins and minerals Examples: Vegetables, breads, cereals, legumes and pasta Whole grains are superior to refined grains –higher in fiber –higher in vitamins and minerals

8 Carbohydrates: Fuel The type of sugar that we may be most familiar with is glucose –Glucose is the major fuel of the body Glucose circulates freely in the blood Glucose is stored in the body as glycogen –Muscles –Liver

9 Glycogen Converts to Glucose Glycogen is broken down by the body when your blood sugar levels start to fall or when you are doing exercise In addition, the very organ that is allowing you to read and comprehend this show requires glucose for energy

10 Glycogen Storage The muscles store 2/3-3/4 of all glycogen The liver stores 1/4 to 1/3 A small amount is present in blood sugar

11 What Is Protein? Comprised of amino acids Essential components of muscle, skin, cell membranes, blood, hormones, antibodies, enzymes and genetic material –Amino acids are the building blocks of protein and they can be linked together to form thousands of various proteins. –Proteins have a role in almost all body tissues. –By weight, the body is approximately 18% protein and proteins are 75% of body solids.

12 Purposes of Protein Proteins are involved with: –Growth –Repair of tissues, ligaments, tendons and cells –New cell growth –Maintenance of a circulating protein pool –They are also utilized for digestion and transportation of enzymes –They help maintain fluid balance and are used in the blood to help maintain acid-base balance –Proper immune function

13 Protein Sources Dietary sources of protein include red meat, fish and seafood, poultry, eggs, beans, nuts, seeds, dairy products, and grains.

14 Does Eating A Lot of Protein Really Help You Build Muscles? It is a myth that eating a lot of protein helps you build muscles Weight training and being involved in weight bearing exercise helps you build muscle Typical intake of protein as 15 to 20% of your overall calorie intake more than covers your needs as an athlete Most Americans consume 2-3 times the RDA for protein

15 What Is Fat? Fat is one of the three macro- nutrients (along with protein and carbohydrates) that supplies calories to the body Fat provides 9 calories per gram, more than twice the number provided by carbohydrates or protein It is the best storage form for extra fuel Fat offers qualities that make food taste good.

16 Dietary Fat Facts Fat belongs to a group of substances called lipids Fats that are liquid at room temperature are composed mostly of unsaturated fatty acids Fats that are solid at room temperature are composed mostly of saturated fatty acids Saturated fat has been shown to raise cholesterol.

17 Fats Functions Fat is an important energy source For prolonged activity or exercise, the body depends on stored fat calories It helps insulate the body Healthy skin and hair are maintained by fat Fat helps in the absorption, transportation and storage of fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E and K A little fat is good but eating too much can lead to excess body fat stores.

18 Some Fatty Acids Are Essential Dietary fat provides essential omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids On a 2,000 calorie diet, the average person would need about –1-2 g of omega 3 –4-8 g of omega 6 These amounts can be found easily in 8-10% calories from fat on a healthful diet Essential fat must be attained by diet

19 Essential Fat Sources Omega 6 is found in fruits, vegetables, beans and whole grains Omega 3 is found in fatty fish – a 4-ounce portion twice a week would fulfill this requirement Canola oil contains both, while olive oil contains little of either

20 Proper Diet + Nutrition = Success in Sports Nutrition must fuel the workout and the recovery

21 Aerobic Exercise that causes the cells to utilize oxygen to produce energy It involves increased breathing and increased heart rate Pace is generally comfortable and can be sustained

22 Aerobic Exercise Cycling Cross country skiing Dancing Elliptical Jogging/running Rowing Skating Soccer Swimming Tennis Walking (brisk)

23 Importance of Diet and Nutrition for Aerobic Exercise Body primarily relies on carbohydrates for energy If exercise is of greater duration than 30 minutes the body will shift its dependence from mostly carbohydrate to a mixture of carbohydrate and fat for energy The amount of fat burned at rest is greater in a highly-trained athlete versus a sedentary individual

24 Importance of Diet and Nutrition for Aerobic Exercise Carbohydrate stores in the body are limited Stored fat is much greater The goal is to maximize the carbohydrate storage and to train the body to rely a little more on fat for energy during exercise and rest The fitter you are, the more efficiently your muscles use fat and the longer you can work out

25 Anaerobic Exercise that utilizes energy for short-term bursts of power output Anaerobic exercise breaks down glucose without the use of oxygen

26 Anaerobic Exercise Football line play Lifting weights Serving in tennis Sprinting Resistance training: –sit ups –push ups –pull ups –stomach crunches

27 Importance of Nutrition for Anaerobic Exercise Anaerobic exercise uses mostly glucose (blood sugar) Lactic acid, phosphates, creatine and other related compounds are also used Availability of these compounds is greatly limited and exhausted quickly during exercise

28 Optimal Eating Plan Optimal ratios of the macronutrients: –55 to 70% carbohydrate with at least 40% of the complex variety, you may go higher closer to the event –15 to 20% protein –10 to 30% fat Examples of foods that meet this profile: French toast with fruit Fruit and yogurt parfait Oatmeal with skim milk Spaghetti with lean meat sauce Baked potato with light margarine and fat-free sour cream Lowfat chili with rice Chicken teriyaki with rice and vegetables

29 What should you eat/drink before a race or performance? Make sure that you have a high- carbohydrate meal the night before Eat early the night before an early morning event 1-2 cups of fluid the hour before – preferably a carbohydrate fluid It is important to eat something small (a few hundred calories of foods that you are comfortable with) 90 to 120 minutes prior to the event

30 What should you eat/drink after a race or performance? Post exercise should be a carbohydrate/protein combination in a shake, drink, bar or food Recent research has indicated that a carbohydrate/protein combination drink after exercise enhances muscle protein synthesis rates as well as promotes greater glycogen storage

31 Sports Drinks During – 6% carbohydrate beverage: –For the most part, sports beverages are for the endurance athlete or events of more than one hour –Drink them while you are exercising in order to spare glycogen so you can exercise longer After – higher carbohydrate foods and beverages

32 Sports Bars Most sports bars contain up to three or four times the amount of calories as the sports drink Good source of energy for long distance endurance events (triathlon, cycling) Also useful for the athlete who cannot eat enough to meet their metabolic demands, although whole foods offer a better nutritional profile

33 Sports Gels The sports gel is perfect during long events such as triathlons, cycling and running It easily ingested and does not cause stomach upset during exercise The sports gel does not really fit into the diet outside of the endurance event because foods offer a better nutrition profile

34 What about hydration? Dehydration adversely affects muscle contractions, heart rate, blood pressure, thermoregulation, mental acuity and much more Every pound of weight lost during exercise should be replaced post- exercise by two cups of fluid This helps ensure normal hydration Aim to drink 4-8 ounces every 20 minutes

35 Practice Practice the use of drinks, bars and gels during training Dont wait until the day of your race or athletic event to try something new

36 Hyponatremia This dangerous condition occurs when blood sodium levels fall too low It results in swelling of the brain; can be fatal Causes: –Excessive drinking of water – drink more than lost in sweat (before, during, after exercise) –Excessive loss of salt in sweat –Athletes who drink too much before and during prolonged exercise in warm, humid climates are at risk of developing hyponatremia –Anti-inflammatories (like ibuprofen)– alters kidney metabolism which causes an increase in salt excretion – very dangerous

37 Hyponatremia Symptoms: –gastrointestinal discomfort –nausea and vomiting –throbbing headache –restlessness –swollen hands and feet –lethargy –confusion –wheezing –seizures

38 Hyponatremia Prevention: –Stay hydrated, but do not over-hydrate –If you are engaging in prolonged exercise (more than 1 hour), especially in a humid climate, use sports beverages with salt/electrolytes and take electrolyte supplements as needed Do not over-hydrate before the event Do not rely on water as your sole fluid Consume 4-8 ounces of fluid every 20 minutes Eat salty foods like pretzels as needed

39 What About Supplements? Basic: –Multivitamin/mineral Good eating, adequate hydration and REST are more important than taking supplements

40 Review

41 We distinguish the excellent man from the common man by saying that the former is the one who makes great demands upon himself, and the latter who makes no demands on himself. Jose Ortega y Gasset ( )

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