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How Meaning Takes Shape
the study of word formation, or how morphemes combine to form words (Soifer) morphology is to words what syntax is to sentences... the internal structure of words (Parker & Riley) the spelling-meaning connection (Templeton)
the smallest meaningful units in language (Moats) more or less constant meaning associated with more or less constant form (Parkey & Riley) a unit of grammar smaller than the word (Matthews) an indivisible unit of meaning (Ebbers)
defining morphemes morph form, shape eme minimal distinctive unit eme graphphonelexmorph not able to be further reduced without losing or changing its meaning not divisible into smaller morphemes
Orthography orthographic morphology is a term that refers to a conventional writing system specific to only one language by which those who know and speak the language represent its sense and meaning to themselves human thought made visible as text representing sense and meaning
Orthography representing sense and meaning phonology units of speech that construct meaning phonology units of speech that construct meaning etymology interrelation interrelation of sense and meaning etymology interrelation interrelation of sense and meaning human thought made visible as text orthographic morphology morphology structure and sequencing of meaning morphology structure and sequencing of meaning The other concepts, especially phonology, cannot be properly understood independently of morphological structure and framework. Orthographic phonology is subject to morphological boundaries.
Orthography orthographic morphology morphology structure and sequencing of meaning morphology structure and sequencing of meaning the organizing, delimiting and defining concept N o grapheme or other orthographic unit can cross or straddle a morphemic boundary. Morphological analysis is essential to all orthographic investigation.
A written morpheme is called an orthographic element An element is a basic or indivisible unit, a primary, unanalyzable constituent. written morphemes
written morphemes baseaffix elements Every word has a base element.
baseaffix freebound prefixsuffix elements lexicalgrammatical written morphemes Affixes are always bound. derivationalinflectional nounsverbsadjectivesadverbspronounsaux.verbsprepositionsconjunctionsarticles ......<(e)n>
synthetic word sums written morphemes + + + + +
analytic word sums written morphemes + + + < haphazard > + < mishap >
investigating word structure written morphemes + + + < art i fact >
baseaffix freebound connector prefixsuffix inflectionalderivational elements lexicalgrammatical A connector is a vowel letter that can connect a base or suffix to another base or suffix. written morphemes
A connector is a vowel letter that can connect a base or suffix to another base or suffix. written morphemes connector actual special linear evacuate equinox sacrifice dictatorial phonology geometry
Occams Razor Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily.Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily.
Occams Razor the lexical word matrix base element more bases connector vowel prefixes suffixes root: the historical origin of a word or morpheme
meaning taking shape geology geography geode epigeal biology biography biome amphibian autograph automobile autarchy autism scientist omniscience prescient conscious acted actor active reaction credit incredible credence credulous knows knowing unknown acknowledge Greek γ gē earth Greek βίος bios life Greek α τός autos self Latin scire to know Latin actus a doing, an act Latin credere to trust, believe Old English cnawan to know