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1 Welcome! We’ll be starting the Live Broadcast shortly.
During The Live Broadcast The presenter’s voice will be broadcast through your computer’s speakers, so please make sure your computer’s volume is on. The presentation will last about 15 minutes, and the rest of the time will be reserved for your questions. To ask questions, please type them at any time in the Chat box on the left of this screen. After the Live Broadcast We will post the slides and the recording of this presentation on our blog and will you the link to it. We will be happy to field any of your further questions at or 1

2 How Meaning Takes Shape
English Morphology How Meaning Takes Shape

3 defining morphology

4 defining morphology “the study of word formation, or how morphemes combine to form words” (Soifer) “morphology is to words what syntax is to sentences the internal structure of words” (Parker & Riley) “the spelling-meaning connection” (Templeton)

5 defining morphemes

6 defining morphemes “the smallest meaningful units in language” (Moats)
“more or less constant meaning associated with more or less constant form” (Parkey & Riley) “a unit of grammar smaller than the word” (Matthews) “an indivisible unit of meaning” (Ebbers)

7 ‘not divisible into smaller morphemes’
defining morphemes morph eme eme ‘minimal distinctive unit’ ‘form, shape’ morph graph phone lex ‘not able to be further reduced without losing or changing its meaning’ ‘not divisible into smaller morphemes’

8 orthographic morphology

9 orthographic morphology
Orthography representing sense and meaning is a term that refers to a conventional writing system specific to only one language by which those who know and speak the language represent its sense and meaning to themselves human thought made visible as text

10 morphology structure and sequencing
orthographic morphology Orthography representing sense and meaning morphology structure and sequencing of meaning etymology interrelation of sense and meaning phonology units of speech that construct meaning The other concepts, especially phonology, cannot be properly understood independently of morphological structure and framework. Orthographic phonology is subject to morphological boundaries. human thought made visible as text

11 morphology structure and sequencing
orthographic morphology Orthography morphology structure and sequencing of meaning the organizing, delimiting and defining concept No grapheme or other orthographic unit can cross or straddle a morphemic boundary. Morphological analysis is essential to all orthographic investigation.

12 written morphemes

13 written morphemes A written morpheme is called an orthographic element
An element is a basic or indivisible unit, a primary, unanalyzable constituent.

14 Every word has a base element.
written morphemes Every word has a base element. elements base affix There are two categories of elements: [CLICK] bases, and [CLICK] affixes. [CLICK] Every word has a base element. Many words are comprised only of a single base element. And many words have affixes, or more than one base, or both.

15 written morphemes elements base affix Affixes are always bound. free
Okay, so what we just saw in those examples included bases, and affixes. The affixes we saw included prefixes [CLICK] -- like <mis> and <un> -- and suffixes [CLICK] -- like <ing> and <ed>. We’ll talk more about these in a moment. The bases we saw -- <spell> and <check>, are free. [CLICK] Free bases are words all by themselves, can stand alone. They may be further grouped into two types [CLICK]: lexical and grammatical. (Briefly define -- lexical carries meaning all by itself; grammatical carries relational meaning). We’ll return to this distinction later. There is also, however, another kind of base element. They carry lexical meaning, but they cannot stand on their own. They are [CLICK] bound. Affixes [CLICK] are always bound. Just as free bases can be grammatical or lexical, English suffixes can carry [CLICK] grammatical--or inflectional--information, or lexical--or derivational--information. Inflectional affixes are a closed class, and they apply to whole words – either free bases or stems. Derivational suffixes vary: some may affix to bound or free bases or stems. Create a whole new ‘word’. [CLICK] to diffuse balloon free bound prefix suffix lexical grammatical derivational inflectional nouns verbs adjectives adverbs pronouns aux.verbs prepositions conjunctions articles <ness> <ment> <ion> <ful> <ly> <ic> . . . <s> <ing> <ed> <(e)n> <er> <est>

16 written morphemes synthetic word sums
<spell> + <check> → <spellcheck> <mis> + <spell> + <ing> → <misspelling> <un> + <check> + <ed> → <unchecked>

17 written morphemes analytic word sums <haphazard>
<mishap> → <mis> + <hap> <unhappy> → <un> + <hap> + <y> <haphazard> → <hap> + <hazard>

18 investigating word structure
written morphemes investigating word structure <artist> → <art> + <ist> <artfully> → <art> + <ful> + <ly> <artifact> → <art> + <i> + <fact>

19 written morphemes elements base affix free bound prefix connector
suffix lexical grammatical inflectional derivational A connector is a vowel letter that can connect a base or suffix to another base or suffix.

20 written morphemes actual special linear evacuate equinox sacrifice
connector actual special linear evacuate equinox sacrifice dictatorial phonology geometry A connector is a vowel letter that can connect a base or suffix to another base or suffix. Do word sums here.

21 “Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily.”
Occam’s Razor William Ockham created a theory, that later was designate as: Ockham’s razor. The theory is in latin: «pluralitas non est ponenda sine necessitate». When there are several explications for some phenomenon, you have to choose the simplest and easiest explication (although it isn’t always correct, you don’t have to create more explanations). The principle states "Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily."  Sometimes it is quoted in one of its original Latin forms to give it an air of authenticity: "Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate" English: "plurality should not be posited without necessity." “Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily.”

22 Occam’s Razor

23 the lexical word matrix
Occam’s Razor the lexical word matrix suffixes prefixes more bases base element connector vowel root: the historical origin of a word or morpheme

24 meaning taking shape Greek γῆ gē ‘earth’ βίος bios ‘life’ αὐτός autos
<sci> <act> <crede> <laugh> geology geography geode epigeal biology biography biome amphibian autograph automobile autarchy autism scientist omniscience prescient conscious acted actor active reaction credit incredible credence credulous knows knowing unknown acknowledge Greek γῆ ‘earth’ βίος bios ‘life’ αὐτός autos ‘self’ Latin scire ‘to know’ actus ‘a doing, an act’ credere ‘to trust, believe’ Old English cnawan

25 How Meaning Takes Shape
English Morphology How Meaning Takes Shape


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