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Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update Demand Technology Software 1020 Eighth Avenue South, Suite 6, Naples, FL.

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Presentation on theme: "Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update Demand Technology Software 1020 Eighth Avenue South, Suite 6, Naples, FL."— Presentation transcript:

1 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update Demand Technology Software 1020 Eighth Avenue South, Suite 6, Naples, FL phone: (941) fax: (941)

2 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 2 Windows 2000 No major changes in the way the OS works! Many minor, incremental improvements: Processor Memory File Cache I/O Networking

3 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 3 Windows NT evolution: new in Win2K

4 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 4 Windows NT evolution: new in Win2K

5 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 5 Windows NT evolution: new in Win2K

6 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 6 Windows NT evolution: new in Win2K

7 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 7 Microsoft Management Console

8 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 8 Windows 2000 System Monitor Most powerful, general-purpose tool bundled into Win2K by Microsoft real-time exceptions log data to a file can monitor machines remotely

9 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 9 Win2K System Monitor

10 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 10 Win2K System Monitor New in Windows 2000 Font support Logging of individual Counters by instance name Graphing options for summary statistics Separate GUI and collector (service) apps Legend is now a grid (sizable column; sort) y-axis can be labeled Some file management Multiple logging formats

11 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 11 Win2K System Monitor Unchanged in Windows 2000 Summary statistics still miscalculated Process that starts later cannot be selected no x-axis time scale No printer support etc.

12 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 12 Processor performance monitoring

13 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 13 Priority Queuing/ Preemptive Scheduling Win32 API supports six Process Base priority levels (SetPriorityClass): Realtime: Priority Level 24 High:Priority Level 13 Above Normal:Priority Level 10 Normal:Priority Level 8 Below Normal:Priority Level 6 Idle:Priority Level 4

14 Windows 2000

15 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 15 Priority Queuing/ Preemptive Scheduling Win2K Tuning parameter: Choose between the Workstation and Server default time slice

16 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 16 Priority Queuing/ Preemptive Scheduling Processor Time slice value: the quantum

17 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 17 Win32PrioritySeparation

18 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 18 Intel Multiprocessing Win2K further re-engineered for multiprocessing Queued spin locks reduce bus contention NT 5.0 scalability may approximate 90% or better Pentium III features 133 MHz memory bus; integrated L2 cache 16x and 32x multiprocessors planned

19 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 19

20 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 20 Intel Architecture (IA-32) Pentium II,III, and IV remain backward compatible with Pentium Pro Improved multiprocessing Improved graphics processing MMX SIMD in Pentium III

21 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 21 Intel 786 IA-64 architecture Itanium: 800 MHz and higher.013 micron fabrication process EPIC: Explicitly Parallel Instruction Execution Explicit parallelism Predication Speculation Massive Resources 10 GHz by 2010

22 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 22 Virtual Memory Manager Windows Address Windowing Extensions (AWE) Above 4 GB - Intel Pentium III, IV requires PSE36 Driver Real addresses only Addresses > 4 GB not backed on paging files – PTEs remain 32-bit User System 0000 bfff ffff 16 ffff ffff 16 Extended

23 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 23 Win64 Virtual Memory

24 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 24 Virtual Memory Manager Memory allocation Counters Available Bytes Available KBytes Available MBytes Pool non-paged Bytes, Pool Paged Resident Bytes, System Cache Resident Bytes, System Code Resident Bytes, System Driver Resident Bytes

25 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 25 Windows 2000 File cache 512 MB file cache, plus a 440 MB overflow area 960 MB total!

26 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 26 Windows 2000 Cache Manager Sets the value of LargeSystemCache

27 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 27 Win2K Cache Manager LargeSystemCache sets the System working set size to RAM – 25%

28 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 28 Windows NT I/O Manager Layered driver model Conceptually, similar to the stack used in network processing Installable file systems supports both synchronous and asynchronous I/O Win2K:

29 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 29 Disk performance monitoring Diskperf – Win2K disk performance statistics Diskperf installed by default for Physical disk monitoring diskperf -yd Still requires a system restart to enable Logical Disk statistics (including % Free Space) diskperf -yv Instance names shows physical volumes included in a software RAID stripe set diskperf -yd diskperf -yv

30 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 30 Disk performance monitoring Idle time accumulates in diskperf when there are no outstanding requests! If no requests outstanding, set Idle Time clock, T 2 Idle Time = T 1 - T 2

31 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 31 Disk performance monitoring

32 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 32 Disk performance monitoring % Idle time accumulates in diskperf when there are no outstanding requests! Calculate % Disk busy = % Idle time Calculate Disk Service time = % Disk busy / Disk transfers/sec Calculate Disk Queue time = Avg. Disk secs/transfer - Disk service time

33 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 33 New Win2K per process I/O Counters

34 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 34

35 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 35 NTFS for Win2K For the first time, MS is developing applications that require NTFS new version of Index Server replaces FindFast new Change Journal use NTFS sparse file format NTFS for Win2K is not entirely backward-compatible with NT 4.0 Master File Directory entries reduced from 4K to 1K NT 4.0 SP4 has a new version of ntfs.sys

36 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 36 Diskeeper Lite built into Win2K

37 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 37 Windows 2000 networking Win2K contains standard TCP/IP protocol stack! NetBT (or NBT) NetBEUI over TCP/IP NDIS (Network Device Interface Specification) Standardized NIC driver support across Windows 9x and Windows NT/2000 ProcessorAffinityMask parameter confines interrupts to a single processor on SMPs NDIS miniport driver supplied by the Network Interface Card (NIC) adpater manufacturer

38 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 38 Windows 2000 networking

39 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 39 Ethernet measurements NIC sees all packets Destination address Source address Normally, only acts on broadcast packets and packets that match its MAC address Promiscuous mode Interrupts host for all packets Win2K Network Monitor driver hooks NDIS layer

40 Connection handshaking (Win2K defaults).

41 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 41 Ethernet performance Improving Ethernet performance Switched Ethernet dedicated link capacity 100 Mb Ethernet Utilize existing wiring Improved throughput Gigabit Ethernet Emerging technology: e.g., Win2K support for jumbo frames Good choice for high speed backbones Requires fiber!

42 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 42 Source: Alteon Computers

43 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 43 Gigabit Ethernet performance PC architecture PCI 2.1: 66 MHz * 64 bits = 528 MB/sec Servers built with multiple PCI bus Jumbo frames incompatible with other Ethernets Dedicated backbone Support for VLAN virtual LAN boundaries

44 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 44 Gigabit Ethernet performance Windows 2000 support PMTU: dynamic path MTU discovery Scalable Window: supports TCP windows sizes > 64K Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) NDIS miniport driver support Enable Jumbo Frames Set Jumbo Frame Size Allocate Buffer Queue etc.

45 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 45 Gigabit Ethernet performance Windows 2000 support HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\ MaximumFrameSize = 9014 /* use jumbo frames NumberOfReceiveBuffers = 100/* use memory if you need it NumberofTransmitBuffers = 100/* ditto MaxIRQperSec = 2500 /* interrupt coalescing /* and moderation

46 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 46 Job Object Will Job Object controls help in the future? Job Objects enforce various resource limits: % User time execution limits % static dispatching priorities Range of time-slice values But you must write a program to CreateJobObject, SetInformationJobObject, AssignProcessToJobObject, and monitor the execution of processes assigned to Jobs E.g., IIS launching CGI scripts

47 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 47 Win2K Job Object New APIs to define resource-limited Jobs and assign processes to Jobs. Resource tracking in new performance Objects. Designed for CGI scripts spawned as separate processes by IIS Poorly written scripts can loop, have memory leaks, etc.

48 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 48 Win2K file server performance improvements.

49 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 49 Win2K file server performance improvements.

50 Demand Technology Software, Inc. Windows 2000 Performance and Tuning: An Update 50 Where to get more information Microsoft Windows 2000 Resource Kit Inside Windows 2000 by David Solomon and Mark Russinovich TechNet or the Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) CD


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