Presentation on theme: "Objectives Analyse the nature and working of subjective experience"— Presentation transcript:
1 Objectives Analyse the nature and working of subjective experience Evaluate the impact of personal maps on human perception and behaviourAnalyse the experience of reframing and how to influence itUse communication skills to build rapport and reduce limiting beliefsExplore ways to use NLP techniques in a range of educational contexts
2 My Personal ViewMaking the simple complicated is commonplace; making thecomplicated simple, awesomely simple, that's creativity.Charles MingusWhen the confusions and complexities of life experiencesare examined, sorted and untangled, what remains is a setof behavioural elements and rules that aren’t too difficultto understand at all.(Dilts, 1980, p.5)
3 Education is a Creature of Fashion Traditional (3 RRR’s) Progressive Education - Back to Basics (Traditional)PBL - no longer ‘Sage on the Stage’ but ‘Guide on the Side’ (Constructivism)
4 So, we must be able to see.......the Wood from the Trees
6 Creative teachers can create moments of inspired learning – that’s what can turn students on to learning“A potent teacher will skilfully and gracefully create conditions and stage activities that inspire students to have a sustained and meaningful encounter with a subject…”(Intrator, 2003, p.7)
7 ActivityHave you ever experienced a ‘moment of inspired learning’ as a student/learner?What did the teacher do that brought this about for you?How did he/she do this?“gracefully create conditionsand stage activities…”What essential questions does this raise for you?
8 It’s in ‘The Experience’ As human being we are stuck in a process of Continuous Experience – even when sleepingWhen we have choice – we seek experiences that are pleasurable, pain reducing and novel – because they satisfy our needs
11 What is NLP?NLP …the study of the components of perception and behaviour which makes our experience possible(Dilts, 1980, p.1)NLP is the study of excellence, and modelling is the process used to specifically identify and ‘code’ excellence so that others can also achieve it(Adler, 1996, p.155)NLP is a set of principles, models and tools forlearning, communication and changeMolden, 2001, p.1)
12 Neuro-Linguistic Programming Refers to our thinking, or perception and the nervous system which forms the basis of any behaviour.Specifically, it refers to the neurological processes of sensing – seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting and smellingRefers to the language patterns which affect our understanding and upon which communication (verbal and non-verbal) is based.Refers to the way we organise and programme our thoughts, including feelings and beliefs, to bring about desired changes in behaviour and outcomes – much as we programme a computer for specific tasks with appropriate software
14 Naturally occurring internal chaos “Its really important to understand that mostpeople are very chaotically organised on theinside”(Bandler & Grinder, 1990, p.71)“We contain multiple personalities living inuneasy alliance under the same skin”(O’Connor & Seymour, 1995, p.13)The mind is a complex system composed of many interacting parts or mental modules – the really important point is that:“Behaviour…comes from an internal struggle among mental modules with differing agendas and goals”(Pinker, 2002, p.40)
15 Beliefs and Perception Beliefs act as major neurological filters that determine how weperceive external reality. In this way they provide the inner mapswe use to make sense of the world around us. When we believesomething, we act as though it is true. Beliefs also influence howwe feel about things – our psychological stateExternalWorldThe ‘Territory’InnerMapBeliefsSenses“We forget that beliefs are no more than perceptions, usually with a limited sell by date, yet we act as though they were concrete realities”(Adler, 1996)
16 The Map is not the Territory We do not knowreality exceptthrough our senseswhich are limited(b)We build ‘maps’ of reality throughinformation originating from:*sensory input from the environment*the recollection of past experiences*fancied constructions of reality(c)Our response to theworld is based on ourinternal maps not onexternal reality(d)People’s maps aredifferent dependingon their genetic makeup, societies cultureand personal histories(e)Our maps determine:*how we interpret, and react to,the world*the meaning we give to our experience(f)It is largely ourmaps of the world,rather than the worlditself, that limits usImplicationsIf we enrich our maps,we have more choicesin managing the samerealityKnowing otherpeople’s maps isuseful to communicatewith them effectively
17 The Magic of Maps“ The richer our map, the more accurate, adequate, and usefulour menu, the more choices. The more impoverished ourmodel, the fewer choices. The richer and fuller our linguisticmap, the richer our mind”“Maps induce states, and states govern perception andbehaviour”(L. Michael Hall, 2001, p )
19 1. Productively influence students by creating conflict between their existing beliefs and the present experience
20 “Mum, Mum, you don’t have to buy eggs anymore coz I’m laying them” Magic Eggs - Story“Mum, Mum, you don’t have to buy eggs anymore coz I’m laying them”
21 which creates a perception that… Cognitive DissonanceNew experience,which creates a perception that…I’m laying eggsExistingBeliefsCognitive DissonanceChickens lay eggsI am not a chicken
22 which creates a perception that… Cognitive DissonanceNew experience,which creates a perception that…Feels ok to meExistingBeliefsCognitive DissonanceTeachers are boringI don’t like chemistry
23 you are free to see things from any perspective you wish” Reframing“How your perceive something makes all the difference, andyou are free to see things from any perspective you wish”(Adler, 1996, p.145)In NLP reframing refers to putting things in different contexts (frames orreference), thus giving them different meanings. Reframing is the essenceof creative thinkingTo shift to a different frame will typically reframe one’s perspective andtherefore, one’s meaning. And when we do this, our very world changes,which changes the sensory experience, hence how we feel
24 Reframing students - how it works Perception of meaningConstructingProductiveSubjectiveExperienceEffectivelearningStudents decide to participatein the classroom experienceChange in beliefs &psychological stateReframingEngagement
25 2. Build Rapport and ‘influence’ people “Rapport is the ultimate tool for gettingresults with other people”(Robbins, 2001, ‘Unlimited Power’, p.231)“..it is teachers using particular teaching methods, teachers with high expectations for all students, and teachers who have created positive student-teacher relationships that are more likely to have the above average effects on student achievement”(Hattie, 2009, p.126)“…in our experiences of co-facilitation over several years, we wereinitially surprised but ultimately delighted to find that there appearsto be a number of generic principles and practices that facilitaterapport and effective learning irrespective of cultural and ethnic contexts”(Sale & Mukerji, 2005, p. 1)
26 ActivityThink of people in your life with whom you have great rapport –Family members, friends, whoeverThink of people with whom you have very little rapport; peoplewhose attempts to communicate with you leave you confused,annoyed, frustrated or simply indifferent.Now compare and contrast the two – what are the differences andwhat is significance about these differences?
27 What is Rapport?Rapport is the good feeling you get when you are in the company ofsomeone you like. It is bonding at an unconscious level.“Rapport is long lasting, elegant respectful, and acknowledging in nature.Rapport connects emotional centres together and creates enjoyable bondsbetween people. Rapport is the intelligent approach to influencing,regardless of positional power, whereas power and authority are defaultsfor people in positions of power who have poor interpersonal skills andlittle flexibility”Molden, 2001, p.72
28 Activity What do they do that makes them so effective? Think of 2 people you know who seem to be able to getgood rapport with most people. Try to identify:What do they do that makes them so effective?In what different ways do they do it?How do they do it – what resources & strategies do they use?
29 “The meaning of your communication isthe response you get”(Bandler & Grinder, 1990, p.61)“It is our behaviour that directly connects to results, even though our thinking may be responsible for generating the behaviour”(Molden, 2001, p.59)
30 Sensory AcuitySensory Acuity refers to the ability to notice, to monitor, and to makesense of the external cues from other people. We do this through evaluatingthe result of any behaviour.Skill in recognising patterns in body language and voice characteristicshelps to understand others, states of mind. It is then possible to work atputting them into more productive statesWhen communicating with others, this means noticing the small but crucialsignals that let you know how they are respondingLearning to perceive the difference makes the difference
31 The Power of Questions“Questions are the primary way we learn virtually everything”“Thinking itself is nothing but the process of asking andanswering questions”“Questions immediately change what we focus on and,therefore, how we feel”(Anthony Robbins, 2001, pp.179-8)
32 NLP emphasizes the Power of Language Read the two versions below and identify what different meanings arecommunicated. How might this lead to different patterns of rapport?You did a good job at (X), but I think youcould improve (X) by doing (Y), andyour Z will be great – well done!You did a good job at (X), and I think you
33 Language and Creativity Ellen Langer at Harvard University has shown how a teacher’s choice oflanguage makes a big difference to students’ creativity. She taught twogroups the same idea about how cities grow, except for one group she said‘This is how it happens’, while the other group she told ‘This could behow it happens.’The groups learnt the information equally fast, but when they were askedto use the information in a new way, the ‘could be’ group easilyoutperformed the ‘is’ group.
34 Identity and Sensory Acuity In an experiment conduct by Ellen Langer at Harvard, subjects wereinvited to ‘become’ air force pilots for an afternoon. They were dressedappropriately and given the chance to pilot a plane on a simulator. Theireyes were tested before the experiment. During the simulation, they werepresented with markings on the wings of other planes that were lettersfrom an equivalent eye chart to the one they were tested on earlier.It was found that the vision of nearly half of the ‘pilots’ had improvedsignificantly. By changing the conception of self, there may becorresponding changes in sensory acuity – perhaps both for positive andnegative identitiesE. Langer, 1991, Mindfulness: Choice and Control in Everyday Life. London: Harvill
35 Representational Systems We use our senses outwardly to perceive the world, andinwardly to ‘re-present’ experience to ourselves. In NLP theways we take in, store and code information in our minds –seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting and smelling – are known asrepresentational systemsOne skill shared by outstanding performers in any field is tobe able to move easily through all the representationalsystems and use the most appropriate one for the task in hand.
36 Predicates that reveal Representational Systems Visual PredicatesAuditory PredicatesKinesthetic PredicatesImagineFocusLook atPoint outSeeing itShow itBlind toIn a flashAn eyefulBright as dayDark as nightDrawing a blankTalk throughTune inListen toRings a bellExplains itDeaf toCrashing downHear me outA little voiceLowering the toneHarmonyHold onPut finger onStrikes meGet a grip ofClose fistedTinglingNo stomach for itHanging onIn touch withA handfulTouched me
37 NLP has developed techniques and models to observe and describepeoples thinking abilitiesthe result ofthis analysisin order to establish howtheir brains (neuro) functionallows one tobyanalysing‘model’excellentabilitiestransfertheseabilities“Effective thinking strategies can bemodelled and utilized by any individualwho wishes to do so”(Dilts, 1990, P.193)language(linguisticpatterns/forms/expressionsnon-verbalcommunications/behavioursand
38 3. Model highly effective performers and derive the underlying Syntax of the performance Results of Highly Effective TeachersBuild goodrapportGain attention quicklywhen desiredMake learningrelevantand meaningfulImbue positive beliefs andpsychological states
39 Importance of these Results Its biologically impossible to learn anything that you’re not paying attention to; the attentional mechanism drives the whole learning and memory process” (Robert Sylwester, 1998)“Rapport is the ultimate tool for producing results with other people” (Anthony Robbins, 2001)“If you think you can or think you can’t, you’re right” (Henry Ford)“The difference between acting badly or brilliantly is not based on your ability, but on the state of your mind…” (Anthony Robbins, 2001)“The more we make school learning like real life, the more the brain, with its rich capabilities, will sort it out” (Eric Jensen, 1997)
40 How Creative Teachers get these Results - (SHAPE) Stories told to provide context, understanding and emotional anchorsHumour used to achieve rapport and provide noveltyActivities provided to integrate, apply and consolidate learningPresentation style employed (e.g., words, tone, body language – as well as observation and listening) to provide clarity, meaning and influence student attention, beliefs and psychological statesExamples used to illustrate facts, concepts, principles, procedures…and use these Resources Creatively
42 The Power of SHAPE“We understand everything in human life through stories”(Jean-Paul Sartre)“Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain” (Edward De Bono)“Learning activities are the best and most productive wayto learn” (Lambert and Coombs)“The meaning of your communication is the response that you get”(Bandler & Grinder)“A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing theirconcentration and effort” (Wlodkowski)
43 Metaphor for Creative Teaching Total PedagogyCREATIVE TEACHING COMPETENCEStrategiesPHEASCORE PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
44 Want to know more about NLP The following books are informative and reader friendly (those with * are very good):Adler, H. (1996) NLP for Managers. Judy Piatkus: London.Bandler, R & Grinder, J. (1990) Frogs into Princes: the introduction to Neuro-Linguistic Programming. Eden Grove Editions: Middlesex.Bodenhamer, B. G. & Hall, L. M. (1999) The User’s Manual for the Brain. Crown House Publishing: Carmarthen, Wales.Dilts, R. et al. (1980) Neurolinguistic programming Vol. 1: The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience. Meta Publications: California.* Molden, D. (2001) NLP Business Masterclass. Pearson Education Ltd: London.* O’Connor, J. & Seymour, J. (1995) Introducing Neuro-Linguistic Programming. Thorsons: San FranciscoVisit dennissale.com if you are interested in creative teaching