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Chapter-2 Traya Upastambha The Three supportive pillars of Human life

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2 Chapter-2 Traya Upastambha The Three supportive pillars of Human life

3 TRAYA UPASTAMBHA (Three supportive pillars of human Life)
Aahara Brahmacharya Nidra 3

4 Traya Upastambha (Three supports)
1. Aahara (Diet) 2. Nidra (Sleep) 3. Brahmacharya (Chastity) 4


6 Definition of Aahara – The solid and liquid food swallowed and drunk through mouth and passed through esophagus is called Aahara. 6

7 - 3 Doshas (Vata, Pitta, Kapha)
IMPORTANCE OF AAHARA - 1 Importance of Aahara: - 3 Doshas (Vata, Pitta, Kapha) - 7 Dhatu (Rasa, Rakta, Mansa, Meda, Asthi, Majja, Shukra) - 3 Malas (Mutra, Purisha and Sweda) Are the roots of human body.

8 IMPORTANCE OF AAHARA - 2 As the roots of the plants give support to and nourish the plant, similarly Dosha-Dhatu-Mala support the body. - In this process, they need nourishment, which is supplied by appropriate Aahara. - Aahara keeps equilibrium of Dosh-Dhatu-Mala, which is necessary to prevent the disease.

9 Proper diet Improper diet Health Disease Diet 1. Solid 2. Semisolid
3. Liquid 9

10 1. Asheetam (Particles e.g. Rice)
Diet 1. Asheetam (Particles e.g. Rice) 2. Khadeetam (To cut e.g. Bread) 10

11 3. Pitam (To drink e.g. Soup)
4. Lidham (Apply on tongue e.g. Pickles) 11


13 Classification of Aahara (Diet)
On the basis of Classification Examples 1 Consistency of food Ghana (Solid) Alpa Ghana (Semisolid) Drava (Liquid) Almond Gruel 3) Milk 2 Nature of food Ashita Khadita Peeta Leedha Rice Bread Milk Jam 3 Potency of food Ushna (Hot) Sheeta (Cold) Black pepper Ghruta 4 Rasa (Taste) of food Madhura (Sweet) Amla (Sour) Lavana (Salt) Katu (Pungent) Tikta (Bitter) Kashaya (Astringent) Sugar Lemon Salt Ginger Fenu greek Coffee 5 Consistency – Mainly of original food items Dravadravya (Liquid) Annadravya (Solid) Water, Milk, Oil Grains,Beans, Vegetables 13

Varga Class of - Examples 1) Jala Varga Different varieties of water Rain water, Boiled water 2) Dugdha Varga Milk & Milk products Cow’s milk, Ghruta, Butter 3) Taila Varga Oils Sesame oil, Almond oil 4) Ikshu Varga Sugarcane products Sugar, Jaggery 5) Madya Varga Wine / Alcoholic beverages prepared from food Drakshasava, Kharjurasava 6) Mutra Varga Urine of Different animals Cow’s urine, Goat’s urine 14

Varga Class of - Examples 1) Shuka Dhanya Grains Rice, Wheat, Maize 2) Shimbi Dhanya Beans, Pulses Green gram, Lentil 3) Shaka Varga Vegetables Spinach, Red Pumpkin 4) Mansa Varga Meat Goat meat, Chicken 5) Haritaka Varga Condiments/ Spices Clove, Black pepper, cumin seeds 6) Krutanna Varga Receipes Moong Soup, Khichadi 15

16 One of the three supportive pillars of Human Life
Diet One of the three supportive pillars of Human Life Diet(Aahar) Sleep( Nidra) Celibacy ( Brahmacharya) Diet is the fuel of body machine. 16

17 Points to be considered regarding diet
a) Classification of diet b)   Proper time for having meals c)   Quantity of Diet d)    Qualities of food substances e)    Rules for taking diet f)    Utensils g)    Incompatibility 17

18 I) a. Proper time for having meals
Hunger is a natural urge When previous meal is completely and properly digested, one experiences intense hunger or appetite. Ayurved describes two ways for Deciding the time of having meals. The two ways are as follows : According to symptoms According to time span between two meals 18

19 Characteristic symptoms of complete digestion are –
1. Belching without bad smell & taste 2. Feels energetic 3. Evacuation of bowel and bladder without any discomfort 4. Feeling of lightness 5. Feeling of intense hunger and thirst If one feels above symptoms then and then only one must take a meal 19

20 I) b. Proper time for having meals
o    Duration between two meals should be minimum three hrs. and one should not starve for more than six hrs. o    For dinner – Timing should be as such that there should be a gap of 2 hrs between meal and bedtime 20

21 II) Quantity of diet Quantity should be proper
Depends on one’s digestive capacity (Agni) Quantity also depends on properties of food substances for e.g.-Heavy substances should be taken in less quantity  On an average - consider three parts of stomach 1 Part for solid food 1 Part for liquid food 1 Part- should be kept empty for moments of Doshas 21

22 III) Qualities of Diet (Food substances)
Qualities of food substances are dependent on dominance of Mahabhutas.  e.g.- Heavy food articles - Predominant qualities of Prithvi ( Earth element) Intake should be 1/3 or 1/2 of the saturation point. Light food articles - Predominant qualities of Vayu (Air element) and Agni (Fire element) Intake should not exceed the saturation point for proper strength of Agni 22

23 Happy life With Normalcy
The Food Taken In Proper Quantity Provides Certainly- Strength Complexion Happy life With Normalcy 23

24 IV) Rules for taking healthy Diet - 1
1.  All the six tastes should be included in the diet 2.  Food should be fresh, warm and moist 3.  One should not eat in a hurry or loitering 4.  One should not indulge in excessive laughing or talking controversies, conflicts while enjoying meals. 24

25 5. One should eat in a pleasant, favorable places
IV) Rules for taking healthy Diet - 2 5. One should eat in a pleasant, favorable places in good company. 6. One should always know self constitution (Prakriti) and give due consideration to suitability of food substances. 7. One should be happy and joy’s mood while taking meals and should concentrate on it. 8. Cleanliness and hygiene should be maintained at the time of meals. 25

Cereals Shashti-Shali (Rice), Godhuma (Wheat), Ragi (Red millet), Rakta shali (Red rice) Pulses Mudga (Green gram), Makushthaka (Lentil) Meat Goat, Deer, Pigeon, Common quail, Chicken Vegetables Patola (Snake-gourd), Moolaka (Radish) Fruits Amalaki (Indian gooseberry), Dadima (Pomegranate), Draksha (Grapes) Sugar Puran Guda (Old jaggery), Madhu (Honey) Milk-milk products Godugdha (cow’s milk), Goghruta (Clarified-butter of cow’s milk) Water Clean and sterile rain-water. Salt Saindhava (Rock-salt) Oil Groundnut oil, olive oil Dry Fruits Vatam (Almond), Akshot (Walnut), Angira (Fig) Spices Ardraka (Ginger), Hingu(Asafetida), Dhanyaka (Coriander), Jeeraka (Cumin seeds), Ela (cardamom)

Cereals Yava (Barley), heavy preparation of flour, rice and flattened rice. Pulses Masha (Black gram) Meat Pork, Beef, Buffalo meat, Fish, Dried meat, Meat of emaciated animals Vegetables Dried vegetables, Lotus tuber , stem; Leafy vegetables. Fruits Nikucha (Wild jack fruit), unripe Kapithha (Raw wood apple) Sugar Kakvi (Boiled concentrated sugar cane juice) Milk-milk products Kurchika & Kilata (Milk products like Paneer), Mandaka Dadhi (Immature curds) Water River water in rainy season Salt Saindhava ( rock-salt) Oil Sunflower oil Spices Chilly powder

28 8 Factors of Dietetics (Aahara) - 1
There are eight specific factors of dietetics such as nature, processing, combination, quantity, place, time, rules for use and consumer. Prakriti, svabhava (nature): The natural existence of properties like guru etc. in substances used as food and drugs, such as Black gram (heavy) and green gram (light); for nonvegetarians: pork (heavy) and meat of deer (light) Karana (processing): The making or refinement of natural products, which means imparting other properties. These properties are infused by contact of water and fire, cleansing, churning, place, time, infusing, sleeping etc. and also long duration, utensil etc. Samyoga (combination): A combination of two or more substances. This exhibits peculiarities, which are not seen in the case of individual substances such as combination of honey and ghee and that of honey, fish and milk.

29 8 Factors of Dietetics (Aahara) - 2
Rashi (Quantity): Rashi can be termed as quantity. It is again divided as sarvagraha (total count) and parigraha (individual amount), which ascertain the result of the food taken in proper and improper quantity. The accounting of the quantity of the entire food in totality is sarvaghraha while parighraha is that of the individual items in the food. Thus accounting of the entire is sarvgraha while that of all individual food items is parigraha. Desha (Place): Denotes place related to growth as well as distribution of the substances and also the suitability in respect of place.

30 8 Factors of Dietetics (Aahara) - 3
Kala (Time): Kala is eternally moving (time) as well as conditional. The conditional one is related to disorder while the eternally moving one to seasonal suitability. Upyogsamstha: This denotes the rules of dietetics. Upyokta : It is the person who consumes the food. On him depends the “ok-satmya’ (suitability developed by practice).

31 Various metallic and nonmetallic utensils are used- For cooking
V) Utensils Various metallic and nonmetallic utensils are used- For cooking For serving For storage.   Utensils does have desired or undesired effects on food substances which are cooked in them. 31

32 Utensils

33 Utensils & their Effects on body
Type of Utensil Beneficial effect on the Body Gold Best from medicinal point of view Silver Promotes Liver Functions Zinc Improves Intelligence & Appetite Brass Promotes Vata and Agni but cures Kapha Steel Useful in Jaundice Glass Cooling effect Plates made from plant leaves Antidote against poison. 33

34 Specific Use of Utensils for various foods
Name of the Food item Type of utensil best for storage Ghee Steel vessel Curd preparations Stone utensils Juices and fruit syrups Glass and crystal ware Fruits and confectionary Leaves Boiled and cooled milk Copper vessels Wines, Beverages Earthen pots Peyas (Porridge), Edible fluids Silver bowl 34

35 Incompatibility/ Antagonistic
(Viruddha -Aahara) - 1 Definition : Substances which are contrary to physiological tissues, behave with antagonism to them are called Antagonistic or incompatible (Viruddha- Aahara). 35

36 Food Incompatibility - 2 (Viruddha Aahara)
The substances which are contrary to physiological tissues (Deha Dhatus) or behave with antagonism to them are called antagonistic or incompatible. (Viruddha Ahara) This antagonism may be in terms of properties, combination, processing, place, time, Dosha etc. or natural composition. Many food combinations are given in the texts as incompatible with proper explanation For e.g. 1) One should not take fish along with milk because this combination is Abhishyandi (great obstructer for channels), it vitiates blood. 2) After eating raddish, garlic, basil one should not take milk because of the risk of skin disorders. 3) All sour liquids are antagonistic to milk. 4) Hot honey taken by a person induces toxicity and lead to death. 5) Likewise honey and ghee in equal quantity, hot water after taking honey are antagonistic.

37 Food Incompatibility - 3
The diet which is antagonistic with respect to Place Time Agni Dose Suitability Dosha Processing Potency Bowels Health conditions Order Contra-indication Cooking Combination Palatability Richness (in properties) Rules of eating is not wholesome for the person.

38 Food Incompatibility - 4
Examples of Incompatibility/ Antagonistic (Viruddha -Aahara) 1) Veerya viruddha- (potency incompatibility)-Fish + milk 2) Sanskar viruddha- (Processing incompatibility) Heated Honey 3) Matra viruddha- (dose incompatibility) - Honey + Cow’s ghee - mixed in equal proportion. 4) Krama viruddha - Hot water after taking honey 5) Kala viruddha- (Time incompatibility) Pungent substance in summer & Cold substances in winter 6) Krama viruddha-(Order incompatibility)-Consuming curd at night. 7) Samyoga viruddha- (Combination incompatibility)- Fruit Salad / Milk+ Banana 8) Parihar viruddha (contraindication incompatibility)-Consuming cold water immediately after having hot tea or Coffee.

39 If one consumes above kind of Incompatible diet-
Frequently & In excess quantity one definitely suffers from - Blood Disorders Skin Disorders Digestive Disorders 39


41 Nidra – (Sleep) Definition When srotas of the body obstructed by
Kapha Dosha, When the body fatigued by exertion, When the sense organs (Indriya)- not functioning due to exertion, sleep manifests in the body. 41

42 Merits & Demerits Happiness and Misery Nourishment and Emaciation
Strength and Weakness Potency and Impotency Knowledge and Ignorance Life and Death Depend on Sleep. 42

43 One of the 14 Adharaniya Vegas
Nidra (Sleep) One of the 14 Adharaniya Vegas (Natural Urges) of the body Being an Adharniya Vega (Natural urge which should not be controlled) - Should not be controlled when manifests - Should not be taken forcefully when not manifested. 43

44 Abnormal patterns (modes) of the Nidra (Sleep)
Atinidra (Excess Sleep)      Anidra (Less Sleep)      Deewaswapa (Day Sleep) Akalanidra (Not on appropriate time) - Leads to diseases if followed regularly 44

45 Brahmacharya (Celibacy)

46 Brahmacharya (Celibacy)
Brahmacharya or Celibacy’ - a topic which is not much or is adversely discussed. Definition - Brahmacharya or celibacy, means abstinence from physical relationship. This statement seems very stern and unrealistic in ordinance with reality. Well, as the myth goes, this word is generally defined in an incorrect manner. 46

47 Ayurved defines the word ‘Brahmacharya’ with much greater depth.
Brahmacharya is composed of two words -‘Brahma’ & ‘Charya’ Brahma = Optimum knowledge and Charya = The behavior. Brahma also means ‘Tapa’, which means ‘Dedicated devotion’. 47

48 Importance of Brahmacharya Brahmacharya norms help to
maintaining a good health maintaining a satisfied mind keeping in level with the spiritual development thus maintaining the health of the society. 48

49 Phases of Life Four phases of human life – Brahmacharyashram Gruhasthashram  Vanaprasthashram Sanyasashram The concept of Brahmacharya passes through these phases with varying descriptions. 49

50 1. Brahmacharyashram phase
Brahmacharya means dedication towards acquiring knowledge. The education or knowledge required by a person to attain his future means e.g a job, business, trade etc., needs to be pursued during this phase. Here abstinence from any other distractions is defined as Bramhacharya. 50

51 Marriage and family life
2. Gruhasthashram phase Marriage and family life Here abstinence from any partner, other than your own spouse is considered within Brahmacharya. 51

52 Important rules to maintain in Gruhasthashram
Coitus should be done with one’s own wife. Nowadays there is a trend to enjoy a multi-partner relationship. Abstinence from such is suggested. Coitus should be preferred at night. There is natural coolness and quietness at night, which helps to relax the mind naturally. 52

53 Coitus should not be done in the morning, afternoon and past midnight
Coitus should not be done in the morning, afternoon and past midnight. Morning - a prime work time. There should not be distractions during it. Afternoons - are warmer, and it is the Pitta Kala. Past midnight - also the Pitta Kala, besides the time to rest for revival. Body heat during the Pitta Kala is higher, while heat is not as much favorable for survival of the sperms, it can also make conception difficult. 53

54 Important rules to maintain in Gruhasthashram
Do not have coitus while menstruation, while ill , during pregnancy, a partner other than your spouse. This is said so, as to avoid infections. Failing which one suffers from sexually transmitted diseases. AIDS being very predominant today. Abnormal, awkward positions should be avoided. Other than causing strain, it could also hamper conception. 54

55 Important rules to maintain in Gruhasthashram
Coitus must not be done while suppressing the natural urges of defecation or urination, while hungry, when either partner does not have the desire etc. Suppression leads to the elevation of the Vata Dosha, which can not only cause dryness, pain, also disturbs the harmony between the other Doshas. 55

56 In accordance with the seasons
Important rules to maintain in Gruhasthashram In accordance with the seasons Hemant and Shishir rutu - One can have a relation more frequently. Hemant and Shishir are winter months. Climate is cool, pleasant. Mind is relaxed and the health is at optimum. 56

57 Important rules to maintain in Gruhasthashram
In accordance with the seasons Vasant and Sharad rutu - Frequency should be 2-3 times a week. The climate starts getting warmer. Varsha and Grishma rutu - Abstinence, for about 15 days needs to be maintained. The climate is very hot, humid and stuffy. Health is not so sound, so frequency can cause weakness. 57

58 Regime after having coitus
After coitus, clean the genital organs. Cleaning is for a good hygiene. Have milk or milk products. Milk helps to revive the energy. Use cool and scented herbs. Cool herbs give solace to the mind. 58

59 Point to ponder Total abstinence may also cause mental stress, and physical illness. Like any others, this too is a natural urge. Thus one must keep a realistic approach. These rules about Brahmacharya, have been framed, keeping in mind the natural requirements of the Gruhasthashram phase. Following these gives absolute safety, at the same time one can enjoy the fullness of life. It rewards in better health of the individual and also the entire society. These are basically simple norms, which have been very thoughtfully framed in interest of the society. 59

60 The age factor has progressed, the family duties are quite fulfilled.
3. Vanaprasthashram The age factor has progressed, the family duties are quite fulfilled. Here one should learn to slowly detach oneself from family bonds, emotional attachments, physical requirements etc. 60

61 4. Sanyasashram One is now prepared to totally abstain from all enticements of life. It includes both physical & emotional attachments. One is in a totally detached state from the worldly pleasures and seeks enlightenment, about the almighty, as he prepares for Moksha. 61

62 The untoward effects of changing trends
The trend to choose a multi-partner relationship. Not just an individual threat, but a threat to the entire society. The occurrence of diseases like AIDS perked up. Transmission of this disease from mother to the foetus. We can therefore conclude that such liberal activities not only harm the current generation, as well as the next generation. The society by and large is affected. 62


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