6Definition of Aahara– The solid and liquid food swallowed and drunk through mouth and passed through esophagus is called Aahara.6
7- 3 Doshas (Vata, Pitta, Kapha) IMPORTANCE OF AAHARA - 1Importance of Aahara:- 3 Doshas (Vata, Pitta, Kapha)- 7 Dhatu (Rasa, Rakta, Mansa, Meda, Asthi, Majja, Shukra)- 3 Malas (Mutra, Purisha and Sweda)Are the roots of human body.
8IMPORTANCE OF AAHARA - 2As the roots of the plants give support to and nourish the plant, similarly Dosha-Dhatu-Mala support the body.- In this process, they need nourishment, which is supplied by appropriate Aahara.- Aahara keeps equilibrium of Dosh-Dhatu-Mala, which is necessary to prevent the disease.
13Classification of Aahara (Diet) On the basis ofClassificationExamples1Consistency of foodGhana (Solid)Alpa Ghana (Semisolid)Drava (Liquid)AlmondGruel3) Milk2Nature of foodAshitaKhaditaPeetaLeedhaRiceBreadMilkJam3Potency of foodUshna (Hot)Sheeta (Cold)Black pepperGhruta4Rasa (Taste) of foodMadhura (Sweet)Amla (Sour)Lavana (Salt)Katu (Pungent)Tikta (Bitter)Kashaya (Astringent)SugarLemonSaltGingerFenu greekCoffee5Consistency – Mainly of original food itemsDravadravya (Liquid)Annadravya (Solid)Water, Milk, OilGrains,Beans,Vegetables13
14CLASSIFICATION OF AAHARA (DIET) DRAVADRAVYA (LIQUID) VargaClass of -Examples1) Jala VargaDifferent varieties of waterRain water, Boiled water2) Dugdha VargaMilk & Milk productsCow’s milk, Ghruta, Butter3) Taila VargaOilsSesame oil, Almond oil4) Ikshu VargaSugarcane productsSugar, Jaggery5) Madya VargaWine / Alcoholic beverages prepared from foodDrakshasava, Kharjurasava6) Mutra VargaUrine of Different animalsCow’s urine, Goat’s urine14
15CLASSIFICATION OF AAHARA (DIET) GHANADRAVYA (SOLIDS) VargaClass of -Examples1) Shuka DhanyaGrainsRice, Wheat, Maize2) Shimbi DhanyaBeans, PulsesGreen gram, Lentil3) Shaka VargaVegetablesSpinach, Red Pumpkin4) Mansa VargaMeatGoat meat, Chicken5) Haritaka VargaCondiments/ SpicesClove, Black pepper, cumin seeds6) Krutanna VargaReceipesMoong Soup, Khichadi15
16One of the three supportive pillars of Human Life DietOne of the three supportive pillars of Human LifeDiet(Aahar)Sleep( Nidra)Celibacy ( Brahmacharya)Diet is the fuel of body machine.16
17Points to be considered regarding diet a) Classification of dietb) Proper time for having mealsc) Quantity of Dietd) Qualities of food substancese) Rules for taking dietf) Utensilsg) Incompatibility17
18I) a. Proper time for having meals Hunger is a natural urgeWhen previous meal is completely and properly digested, one experiences intense hunger or appetite.Ayurved describes two ways for Deciding the time of having meals.The two ways are as follows :According to symptomsAccording to time span between two meals18
19Characteristic symptoms of complete digestion are – 1. Belching without bad smell & taste2. Feels energetic3. Evacuation of bowel and bladder without any discomfort4. Feeling of lightness5. Feeling of intense hunger and thirstIf one feels above symptoms then and then only one must take a meal19
20 I) b. Proper time for having meals o Duration between two meals should be minimum three hrs. and one should not starve for more than six hrs.o For dinner – Timing should be as such that there should be a gap of 2 hrs between meal and bedtime20
21II) Quantity of diet Quantity should be proper Depends on one’s digestive capacity (Agni)Quantity also depends on properties of food substancesfor e.g.-Heavy substances should be taken in less quantity On an average - consider three parts of stomach1 Part for solid food1 Part for liquid food1 Part- should be kept empty for moments of Doshas21
22III) Qualities of Diet (Food substances) Qualities of food substances are dependent on dominance of Mahabhutas. e.g.- Heavy food articles -Predominant qualities of Prithvi ( Earth element)Intake should be 1/3 or 1/2 of the saturation point.Light food articles -Predominant qualities of Vayu (Air element) andAgni (Fire element)Intake should not exceed the saturation point forproper strength of Agni22
23Happy life With Normalcy The Food TakenIn Proper QuantityProvides Certainly-StrengthComplexionHappy life With Normalcy23
24IV) Rules for taking healthy Diet - 1 1. All the six tastes should be included in the diet2. Food should be fresh, warm and moist3. One should not eat in a hurry or loitering4. One should not indulge in excessive laughing ortalking controversies, conflicts while enjoyingmeals.24
255. One should eat in a pleasant, favorable places IV) Rules for taking healthy Diet - 25. One should eat in a pleasant, favorable placesin good company.6. One should always know self constitution(Prakriti) and give due consideration tosuitability of food substances.7. One should be happy and joy’s mood whiletaking meals and should concentrate on it.8. Cleanliness and hygiene should be maintainedat the time of meals.25
26DIET WHICH IS BENEFICIAL IN GENERAL CerealsShashti-Shali (Rice), Godhuma (Wheat), Ragi (Red millet), Rakta shali (Red rice)PulsesMudga (Green gram), Makushthaka (Lentil)MeatGoat, Deer, Pigeon, Common quail, ChickenVegetablesPatola (Snake-gourd), Moolaka (Radish)FruitsAmalaki (Indian gooseberry), Dadima (Pomegranate), Draksha (Grapes)SugarPuran Guda (Old jaggery), Madhu (Honey)Milk-milk productsGodugdha (cow’s milk), Goghruta (Clarified-butter of cow’s milk)WaterClean and sterile rain-water.SaltSaindhava (Rock-salt)OilGroundnut oil, olive oilDry FruitsVatam (Almond), Akshot (Walnut), Angira (Fig)SpicesArdraka (Ginger), Hingu(Asafetida), Dhanyaka (Coriander), Jeeraka (Cumin seeds), Ela (cardamom)
27DIET WHICH SHOULD BE AVOIDED IN GENERAL:- CerealsYava (Barley), heavy preparation of flour, rice and flattened rice.PulsesMasha (Black gram)MeatPork, Beef, Buffalo meat, Fish, Dried meat, Meat of emaciated animalsVegetablesDried vegetables, Lotus tuber , stem; Leafy vegetables.FruitsNikucha (Wild jack fruit), unripe Kapithha (Raw wood apple)SugarKakvi (Boiled concentrated sugar cane juice)Milk-milk productsKurchika & Kilata (Milk products like Paneer),Mandaka Dadhi (Immature curds)WaterRiver water in rainy seasonSaltSaindhava ( rock-salt)OilSunflower oilSpicesChilly powder
288 Factors of Dietetics (Aahara) - 1 There are eight specific factors of dietetics such as nature, processing, combination, quantity, place, time, rules for use and consumer.Prakriti, svabhava (nature): The natural existence of properties like guru etc. in substances used as food and drugs, such as Black gram (heavy) and green gram (light); for nonvegetarians: pork (heavy) and meat of deer (light)Karana (processing): The making or refinement of natural products, which means imparting other properties. These properties are infused by contact of water and fire, cleansing, churning, place, time, infusing, sleeping etc. and also long duration, utensil etc.Samyoga (combination): A combination of two or more substances. This exhibits peculiarities, which are not seen in the case of individual substances such as combination of honey and ghee and that of honey, fish and milk.
298 Factors of Dietetics (Aahara) - 2 Rashi (Quantity): Rashi can be termed as quantity. It is again divided as sarvagraha (total count) and parigraha (individual amount), which ascertain the result of the food taken in proper and improper quantity. The accounting of the quantity of the entire food in totality is sarvaghraha while parighraha is that of the individual items in the food. Thus accounting of the entire is sarvgraha while that of all individual food items is parigraha.Desha (Place): Denotes place related to growth as well as distribution of the substances and also the suitability in respect of place.
308 Factors of Dietetics (Aahara) - 3 Kala (Time): Kala is eternally moving (time) as well as conditional. The conditional one is related to disorder while the eternally moving one to seasonal suitability.Upyogsamstha: This denotes the rules of dietetics.Upyokta : It is the person who consumes the food. On him depends the “ok-satmya’ (suitability developed by practice).
31Various metallic and nonmetallic utensils are used- For cooking V) UtensilsVarious metallic and nonmetallic utensils are used-For cookingFor servingFor storage. Utensils does have desired or undesired effects onfood substances which are cooked in them.31
33Utensils & their Effects on body Type of UtensilBeneficial effect on the BodyGoldBest from medicinal point of viewSilverPromotes Liver FunctionsZincImproves Intelligence & AppetiteBrassPromotes Vata and Agni but cures KaphaSteelUseful in JaundiceGlassCooling effectPlates made from plant leavesAntidote against poison.33
34Specific Use of Utensils for various foods Name of the Food itemType of utensil best for storageGheeSteel vesselCurd preparationsStone utensilsJuices and fruit syrupsGlass and crystal wareFruits and confectionaryLeavesBoiled and cooled milkCopper vesselsWines, BeveragesEarthen potsPeyas (Porridge), Edible fluidsSilver bowl34
35Incompatibility/ Antagonistic (Viruddha -Aahara) - 1Definition :Substances which are contrary to physiological tissues, behave with antagonism to them are called Antagonistic or incompatible (Viruddha- Aahara).35
36Food Incompatibility - 2 (Viruddha Aahara) The substances which are contrary to physiological tissues (Deha Dhatus) or behave with antagonism to them are called antagonistic or incompatible. (Viruddha Ahara)This antagonism may be in terms of properties, combination, processing, place, time, Dosha etc. or natural composition.Many food combinations are given in the texts as incompatible with proper explanation For e.g.1) One should not take fish along with milk because this combination is Abhishyandi (great obstructer for channels), it vitiates blood.2) After eating raddish, garlic, basil one should not take milk because of the risk of skin disorders.3) All sour liquids are antagonistic to milk.4) Hot honey taken by a person induces toxicity and lead to death.5) Likewise honey and ghee in equal quantity, hot water after taking honey are antagonistic.
37Food Incompatibility - 3 The diet which is antagonistic with respect toPlaceTimeAgniDoseSuitabilityDoshaProcessingPotencyBowelsHealth conditionsOrderContra-indicationCookingCombinationPalatabilityRichness (in properties)Rules of eatingis not wholesome for the person.
38Food Incompatibility - 4 Examples of Incompatibility/ Antagonistic (Viruddha -Aahara)1) Veerya viruddha- (potency incompatibility)-Fish + milk2) Sanskar viruddha- (Processing incompatibility) Heated Honey3) Matra viruddha- (dose incompatibility) - Honey + Cow’s ghee - mixed in equal proportion.4) Krama viruddha - Hot water after taking honey5) Kala viruddha- (Time incompatibility) Pungent substance in summer & Cold substances in winter6) Krama viruddha-(Order incompatibility)-Consuming curd at night.7) Samyoga viruddha- (Combination incompatibility)- Fruit Salad / Milk+ Banana8) Parihar viruddha (contraindication incompatibility)-Consuming cold water immediately after having hot tea or Coffee.
39If one consumes above kind of Incompatible diet- Frequently &In excess quantityone definitely suffers from -Blood DisordersSkin DisordersDigestive Disorders39
41Nidra – (Sleep) Definition When srotas of the body obstructed by Kapha Dosha,When the body fatigued by exertion,When the sense organs (Indriya)- notfunctioning due to exertion,sleep manifests in the body.41
42Merits & Demerits Happiness and Misery Nourishment and Emaciation Strength and WeaknessPotency and ImpotencyKnowledge and IgnoranceLife and DeathDepend on Sleep.42
43One of the 14 Adharaniya Vegas Nidra (Sleep)One of the 14 Adharaniya Vegas(Natural Urges)of the bodyBeing an Adharniya Vega(Natural urge which should not be controlled)- Should not be controlled when manifests- Should not be taken forcefully when notmanifested.43
44Abnormal patterns (modes) of the Nidra (Sleep) Atinidra (Excess Sleep) Anidra (Less Sleep) Deewaswapa (Day Sleep)Akalanidra (Not on appropriate time)- Leads to diseases if followed regularly44
46Brahmacharya (Celibacy) Brahmacharya or Celibacy’ - a topic which is not much or is adversely discussed.Definition - Brahmacharya or celibacy, means abstinence from physical relationship.This statement seems very stern and unrealistic in ordinance with reality. Well, as the myth goes, this word is generally defined in an incorrect manner.46
47Ayurved defines the word ‘Brahmacharya’ with much greater depth. Brahmacharya is composed of two words -‘Brahma’ & ‘Charya’Brahma = Optimum knowledgeand Charya = The behavior.Brahma also means ‘Tapa’, which means ‘Dedicated devotion’.47
48Importance of Brahmacharya Brahmacharya norms help to maintaining a good healthmaintaining a satisfied mindkeeping in level with the spiritual development thus maintaining the health of the society.48
49Phases of LifeFour phases of human life – Brahmacharyashram Gruhasthashram Vanaprasthashram SanyasashramThe concept of Brahmacharya passes through these phases with varying descriptions.49
501. Brahmacharyashram phase Brahmacharya means dedication towards acquiring knowledge.The education or knowledge required by a person to attain his future means e.g a job, business, trade etc., needs to be pursued during this phase.Here abstinence from any other distractions is defined as Bramhacharya.50
51Marriage and family life 2. Gruhasthashram phaseMarriage and family lifeHere abstinence from any partner, other than your own spouse is considered within Brahmacharya.51
52Important rules to maintain in Gruhasthashram Coitus should be done with one’s own wife. Nowadays there is a trend to enjoy a multi-partner relationship. Abstinence from such is suggested.Coitus should be preferred at night.There is natural coolness and quietness at night, which helps to relax the mind naturally.52
53Coitus should not be done in the morning, afternoon and past midnight Coitus should not be done in the morning, afternoon and past midnight. Morning - a prime work time. There should not be distractions during it. Afternoons - are warmer, and it is the Pitta Kala. Past midnight - also the Pitta Kala, besides the time to rest for revival.Body heat during the Pitta Kala is higher, while heat is not as much favorable for survival of the sperms, it can also make conception difficult.53
54Important rules to maintain in Gruhasthashram Do not have coitus while menstruation, while ill , during pregnancy, a partner other than your spouse.This is said so, as to avoid infections. Failing which one suffers from sexually transmitted diseases. AIDS being very predominant today.Abnormal, awkward positions should be avoided. Other than causing strain, it could also hamper conception.54
55Important rules to maintain in Gruhasthashram Coitus must not be done while suppressing the natural urges of defecation or urination, while hungry, when either partner does not have the desire etc.Suppression leads to the elevation of the Vata Dosha, which can not only cause dryness, pain, also disturbs the harmony between the other Doshas.55
56In accordance with the seasons Important rules to maintain in GruhasthashramIn accordance with the seasonsHemant and Shishir rutu - One can have a relation more frequently.Hemant and Shishir are winter months. Climate is cool, pleasant. Mind is relaxed and the health is at optimum.56
57Important rules to maintain in Gruhasthashram In accordance with the seasonsVasant and Sharad rutu - Frequency should be 2-3 times a week.The climate starts getting warmer.Varsha and Grishma rutu - Abstinence, for about 15 days needs to be maintained.The climate is very hot, humid and stuffy. Health is not so sound, so frequency can cause weakness.57
58Regime after having coitus After coitus, clean the genital organs. Cleaning is for a good hygiene.Have milk or milk products. Milk helps to revive the energy.Use cool and scented herbs. Cool herbs give solace to the mind.58
59Point to ponderTotal abstinence may also cause mental stress, and physical illness.Like any others, this too is a natural urge. Thus one must keep a realistic approach.These rules about Brahmacharya, have been framed, keeping in mind the natural requirements of the Gruhasthashram phase.Following these gives absolute safety, at the same time one can enjoy the fullness of life.It rewards in better health of the individual and also the entire society.These are basically simple norms, which have been very thoughtfully framed in interest of the society.59
60The age factor has progressed, the family duties are quite fulfilled. 3. VanaprasthashramThe age factor has progressed, the family duties are quite fulfilled.Here one should learn to slowly detach oneself from family bonds, emotional attachments, physical requirements etc.60
614. SanyasashramOne is now prepared to totally abstain from all enticements of life. It includes both physical & emotional attachments.One is in a totally detached state from the worldly pleasures and seeks enlightenment, about the almighty, as he prepares for Moksha.61
62The untoward effects of changing trends The trend to choose a multi-partner relationship. Not just an individual threat, but a threat to the entire society.The occurrence of diseases like AIDS perked up. Transmission of this disease from mother to the foetus.We can therefore conclude that such liberal activities not only harm the current generation, as well as the next generation. The society by and large is affected.62