Presentation on theme: "Exploring Resiliency Beyond the Individual"— Presentation transcript:
1Exploring Resiliency Beyond the Individual Theory, Framework, Programs and ApplicationPatricia Scott-JeoffroyParent Action on DrugsMarch, 2011
2Parent Action on Drugs www.parentactionondrugs.org began 30 years ago by parents in Ontarioinitiated peer education programming in 1985mandate is to address issues related to youth substance usedevelops and provides a growing bank of programs and resources for youth, professionals and parents and caregiversPAD is a member of HC LinkDiane will speak to this slide
3AgendaExploring resiliency beyond the individual Theory Framework Programs ApplicationMuch of the information currently being shared about resiliency has a focus on the individual. This presentation will review the definition of resiliency and expand the perspective to include environmental and societal influences
5Defining ResiliencyThe ability to bounce back from difficult situations and adversity to make healthier choices when coping with life’s strugglesUse this as our working definition of resiliency for the individual
6Importance of Resiliency Research shows that a resilient youth is less likely to become involved in problems such as substance use, gang participation, gambling or other anti-social behaviors
7The concept of resiliency is not new. It’s Not NewThe concept of resiliency is not new.Many researchers and clinicians have understood the role that resiliency plays in the lives of youth for many years.Began in the 1970’sBegan as a way to understand anti-social behaviours in youthNoticed that youth who had been exposed to ‘risk factors’ developed into healthy competent adults-researchers started looking at protective factors
8Dr. Wayne HammondThe capacity for resiliency develops and changes over timeWork is primarily focused on at risk youthRisk and protective factorsDeveloped a framework and assessment toolDr. Hammond is the president and executive director with Resiliency Initiatives in Calgary, Alberta. Over the past twenty years, he has primarily worked with high-risk youth and their families with a focus on co morbid, sexually acting out, substance abuse and violence issues as well as other related mental health concerns. He has served in clinical supervisory capacities, worked in a comprehensive residential treatment centre and has provided clinical services in an inpatient/outpatient forensic setting as well as an adolescent co morbidity program based in a hospital setting. He has published several scientific articles and has been an active lecturer with regards to various mental health concerns and the implications of strength-based practice related to working with adolescents and families as well as First Nation youth and their families
9Very familiar youth resiliency framework that identifies both internal variable and external influencesEmphasis on how the individual connects with the external variablesRisk and protective factors
10Michael Under Too Safe for Their Own Good: How Risk and Responsibility Help Teens ThriveHow much risk is too much risk?Are we keeping our kids too safe?Need to teach youth what is appropriate risk taking, how to assess risk and how to keep themselves safe rather than doing it for themStrength Based Counseling: with At-Risk YouthSix strategies for nurturing resiliencyThe hidden coping of disadvantaged youthTwo books with emphasis on parents and cousellorson working with youth to take appropriate risks as a form of learningEmphasis on strength based work rather than deficitAsks the questions of how do we define resiliency, western euro centric thinking,
11UnDer From a community perspective: in the environment in which teens are learning to be adults; has the community found the balance between keeping youth safe and allowing them the risk taking responsibilities of the maturing process?Example the merry-go-round spin around as fast as you can stand until you get dizzy or throw up. Indeed a dangerous apparatus that has been removed from most playgrounds. The opportunity the merry-go-round filled was to fulfill the thrill seeking need of youth. Removing an unsafe apparatus reduces risk, but did the community replace it with a safer risk-taking activity – not likely and the nature of kids will be to seek out thrill seeking and risk taking activities. By not allowing youth to have access to safer risk taking and thrill seeking opportunities provided by the community, they will find their own which a likely to be linked with what gets defined as ‘delinquent behaviour’Will get back to this later with GTA example
12Gordon Neufeld and Gabor Mate Hold onto your kids:Why parents matter more than peersEngaging parents in the development process of youth and addressing the ‘they just don’t listen’ issue for parentsApplied to a community understanding:the parent, community and broader society also speak to the youth growing up in the communityEmphasis importance to listening to the voice of youthDr. Gordon Neufeld is a Vancouver-based developmental psychologist who consults with parents and professionals regarding children and their problems. He brings to us his unique synthesis of the developmental literature and his exceptional ability to make children understandable. He has a widespread reputation for being able to make sense of difficult and complex problems and for opening doors for change.
13Barry Duncan The Heroic Client What is Right with You Approaching problems in life with anegative self perception predisposes you to failure.Your personal strength allows you to manage the inevitable changes that life will offer.Applied to the community: does the environment view youth as a potential problem or opportunity and what do the policies developed reflect?His two books:What’s Right with You?Heroic clientBuilding self esteem and positive self worth will allow youth to attain positive outcomesFrom the community: are the challenges of youth issues viewed as problems? Are the outcomes of programs to eliminate the problem or empower, develop and support the youth to be a positive member of society?Example: town curfew – bi-laws that indicate with youth cannot do rather than what they can do. For example: community centre rules: no access to the weight room under the age of 16. Ability to sign out library books under that age of 12 only with parental supervision
15Approaches to Youth Resiliency Traditional understanding of the youth address the internal variables:the ‘nature’ of the youththe individualApproaches focus on building self-esteem, optimism and independence of the individual almost in isolation of the external environmentWe tend to overestimate that internal / personal variables and underestimate the influence of the environment
16What is the impact?Emphasis on the internal variables of the youth are important however can be limiting By also addressing the context of the community and the environment in which the youth lives broadens the impact of resiliency programs.Moves the perspective from what the individual needs to do to build personal resiliency to what the community can do to create an environment where resiliency is possible
17Ecological ApproachExamines the context of the individual’s existence: family, peers, school, neighbours and larger societyExplores the role of the environment in building resiliencyReverses the lens from the individual’s resiliency to the perspective of the environmentMichael Unger did some of his initial work in this context: Dalhousie University 2004
18Ecological ApproachHow the youth feels and sees themselves, is influences by the broader community, including friends, family and neighbourhood.These are directly shaped by national policies, global economic climate, terrorism and the mediaMental Health Foundation of Australia
19Ecological ApproachSuggests that viewing resiliency as a component of just the individual is a limited approachRather, resiliency is an attribute of communities, schools and families.Attention to the risk factors should be done only to identify development of protective factorsMental Health Foundation of AustraliaThis is lifted directly from the web …I need to translate it into common languageThere is a universal human tendency to over-estimate the importance of internal, personality factors and under-estimate the impact of the environment in explaining people's behaviour. This has been referred to as the 'fundamental attribution error'. In the context of resiliency, this error is reflected in a tendency to see the good or poor functioning of a child as due to the child's 'nature' rather than their context or circumstances. However, resiliency research has increasingly embraced an ecological model, in which the child's functioning and behaviour is viewed within the context of a web of bi-directional relationships, including family, school, peers, neighbourhood and the wider society. Whilst genetic factors do play a role in resiliency, ultimately much more important is the quality of inter-personal relationships and the availability of networks of support. Programs that target the cognitive underpinnings of resiliency - optimism, self-esteem, autonomy and so forth - are important. However, the ecological perspective suggests that treating children as isolated units of cognitive functioning is a limited approach. Ultimately resiliency is not an attribute of any single individual; it is an attribute of communities, schools and families.
20‘Fundamental Attribution Error’ a tendency to see the good or poor functioning of a youth as due to the youth’s ‘nature' rather than their context or circumstancesMental Health Foundation of Australia
21Meso-system /exosystem MacrosystemMeso-system /exosystemMicro-systemsIndividualMuch research conducted with children exposed to war , trauma (Mary Harvey – Harvard Medical School)Individual:genetic predispositionage, gender, faithMicrosystems: child-family and child-school relationshipsreligious practiceMesosystme/ExosystemFamily-school relationshipNeighbourhood, religious institutionsMacrosystemPolitical, economic religious cultural contextResearch on children exposed to armed conflict: in addition to individual resiliency key influences on how the larger community views mental health and healingBetancourt and KhanHarvard School of Public Health 2008
22Mental Health Foundation of Australia Less academic but similar perspective of the previous slideAs the diagram above illustrates, resiliency is a function of a network of bi-directional influences which embrace the individual's inner world of thoughts and feelings, his or her family, school and the immediate neighbourhood, and ultimately the wider world, where factors such as national mental health policies, global economic climate, terrorism, and the media come into play.Mental Health Foundationof Australia
23Best Practice for Resiliency Programs A focus on identifying and developing protective factorsTargeting of ‘at risk’ childrenTargeting at times of transition and stressA strong research or evidence baseA focus on fostering supportive environmentsa preference for systemic interventionEvaluation built into the programEmbracethefuture.org
24Best Practice Mission: frame goals in positive terms Models: include positive predictors and outcome in models of changeMeasures: assess the positive ways as well as the negativeMethods: consider multiply strategies based on resilient needsRisk-based approachesAsset-focused strategiesProcess-oriented designsMissionOften goals are often set “to eliminate a negative’ rather than develop a positive. To reduce the number of youth hanging out on the streets after school’ could be positively reshaped to be ‘to increase the number of youth utilizing the new skate board park’Modelsshould include notions of health and competence as well as dysfunction. Focus on normal development factors and acknowledge protective as well as risk factorsOutcomes should be measured on positive outcomes rather than just the absence of problemsMeasures:Using the previous example: measure if there is a reduction in number of youth hanging our after school, however also measure the skill development of the skateboarders (social skills, physical development, interest in team sports etcMethods:Masten and Powell 2003:Risk-based approaches: aim to reduce adversityAsset-focused strategies: improve or add assets in the lives of childrenProcess-oriented designs: attempt to mobilise children's’ adaptive capacities
25Ann Masten and Jennifer Powell When designing programs focus on the positive resources, health and competence‘Programs’ mission, goals, measures and methods should all reflect a focus on positive adaption and the natural human capacity for healthy adaptation.’Most programs tend to focus on the absence of the negative rather than the development of positiveChallenge of funding which is set on a deficit model rather than strength model
27OPHAIn February 2009, OPHA received Health Canada funding to lead a provincial Youth Engagement (YE) Project. Working closely with six pilot sites throughout Ontario, OPHA assisted with local youth engagement initiatives and developed tools and resources for organizations to use when working with youthD
28OPHA Youth Engagement Project The project will run from February 2009 – June 2011.The goal of this project is to increase the application of knowledge and skills among public health professionals working with grades 6, 7 and 8 students to increase youth engagement in activities that enhance protective factors and resilience against illicit drug use and risk taking behaviours among this age group.
29Parent Action on Drugs Increase positive parenting practices Strengthening Families Programsaims to increase family cooperation, communication and organization through participation in an eight-week skills- building family change programIncrease positive parenting practicesIncrease overall family strengths and resilienceIncrease social skills in youth (cooperation, responsibility and self-control)
30Strengthening Families Programs an active curriculum of skills-building designed specifically to increase protective factors, such as parent-child communication and empathy, consistent parental monitoring and positive discipline and strategies to improve family organization and cohesion. Sessions for youth are designed specifically with youth in mind; to be fun, active and helpful in relation to both parents and peers.
31CAMHGrowing up resilient: Ways to build resilience in children and youth Tatyana Barankin and Nazilla KhanlouHow people cope with the challenges they face in different life stages is influenced by their sense of who they are, how they relate to the world and others around them, and how well they manage the various parts of their lives.Guide book for parents with tips for how to build resiliency in youthInclude tips from the book to assist parents
33What can we do?No two communities will be the same or require the same supports and developmentsAll aspects of the local community as well as the wider society (Global economic conditions, political unrest, violence etc.) will fluctuateSeek to be aware of the environment created through public policy and actions which have an influence on resiliency
34Community ResilienceThe strength of the social capital available for the individual to draw upon in times of adversityThe strength of the social network that supports members of the communityCommunity resilience can be assessed in multiple ways:1.Crisis such as new Orleans, Haiti2.Repeated oppression such as the native communityLarger society has influence in both ways : ie issue of homeless teens, community may be resilient due to avaiable youth shelter and housing and might also be resilient in absence of the shelters if couch surfingAlso need to consider economic environment: what opportunities exist for youth to gain meaningful employment or access to education to provide income for sustainable housing? Larger issue of world economics etc
35A Local ExampleNew High School built to accommodate increasing population in GTA communitySchool is built facing north side of 4 lane roadNo side walk in front of school on north side of the streetPizza, sub and chicken shop on south side of the street, bus stop and cross walk are on the North side approx 500 yards to the west with no connecting side walk
37Environmental Resiliency Whereas youth in their high school years are developing independence and assessing risk taking, the environment created by the lack of sidewalk inhibited appropriate opportunities.Youth began crossing the 4 lane highway in the midst of traffic
38Community ResponseA sidewalk was built in front of the school to allow for safe passage to the intersection and south side of the streetAssessing youth resiliency from the individual perspective would evaluate what was wrong with the youth that they would be running across 4 lanes of traffic and not acknowledge that the community has created an environment that inhibited building resiliencyResponse could have been to increase the education for safe street crossing.
39Ecological Responseevaluate environment in which the youth is making decisionsthe missing sidewalk is a variable beyond the internal ‘nature’ of the individualtherefore by building the sidewalk, the community is playing a positive role to develop the independence of the youth and supporting the development resiliencyYouth can now make decision about lunch options, can safely access transportation, can decide to stay later after the busses leave school to participate in school programs etc.
40Another Community Example A GTA community has a growing population, and is a commuter town for the City of TorontoWith this develops a community of families with most housing geared toward two income single family homesThe result is many parents absent from the family home after school (generally between 2:30-6:00pm)As many of us working with youth identify, this period of ‘free time’ creates a potential for risk for youth
41Investing in YouthNew developers in partnership with the town and a youth advisory council construct a skate-board park in the middle of the new development.Refocus on traditional approach to children’s playground.Allows space for youth who have outgrown the playground
42Community ResponseProvides affordable access to local community centers for swimming, skating, hockey and art clubsProvides youth drop-in programs between 3:00-5:00pm at various community locationsProvides ‘in-training’ programs for youth who are underage for employmentFee for use access at the community center is $2.00 or there is a student monthly rateSkateboard park developed with a youth advisory councilDrop in programs include video games, movies, and sports -shinny hockey, basketball etc.In-training such as counsellor in training for summer camp and life guard in training prep coursesMany of these initiatives involved the school, community, local regional and provincial levels of government and policy development
43Ecological ResponsePrioritizing youth in the community allowed for the recognition of positive attributes of youthPublic policy allowed for programming to support youth through social, recreational and academic opportunitiesCreates a community of resilience rather than a community of youth without structured opportunities
44Leonard Sax Boys Adrift, Girls on the Edge Assessment of gender differences in risk taking behaviorBoys overestimate their ability and underestimate the risksGirls underestimate their ability and overestimate the risksWhen planning programs it is important to note that there are gender differences and very specific strategies to motivate and empower.
45Resources Parent Action on Drugs www.parentactionondrugs.org Resiliency Initiatives : Dr. Wayne HammondResiliency Research Center: Michael UngerMental Health Foundation of Australia
46ConclusionBy strengthening individual resiliency you also can work towards building a stronger safer communityResiliency can be developed within the individual.Resiliency is also a product of the environment, community and social context of the individualPartnership potentials exist within the community and programs designed to address both offer the best opportunities for youth
47On behalf of Parent Action on Drugs, Thank you for participating in the Resiliency Webinar