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SOIL COMPOSITION - Ms Ikmalzatul CE1303 – Engineering Material Properties

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods The nature of Soil Soil is defined as a collection of mineral particles that was formed due to the weathering process of igneous rock and mixed with organic matter. The void between particles is filled with water and gas. Cementation among the particles is weak and is due to carbonation and oxidation between particles and or organic matter. Characteristics of soil in general are greatly influenced by the process of the soil formation. The structural arrangement of the particle may be loose, medium dense or dense depending on the packing of material.

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Soil: A 3-Phase Material Solid Water Air

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods The Mineral Skeleton Volume Solid Particles Voids (air or water)

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Three Phase Diagram Solid Air Water Mineral Skeleton Idealization: Three Phase Diagram

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Fully Saturated Soils Fully Saturated Water Solid Mineral Skeleton

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Dry Soils Mineral Skeleton Dry Soil Air Solid

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Partly Saturated Soils Solid Air Water Mineral SkeletonPartly Saturated Soils

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Three Phase System Volume Weight Solid Air Water WTWT WsWs WwWw W a ~0 VsVs VaVa VwVw VvVv VTVT

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Weight Relationships Weight Components: Weight of Solids = W s Weight of Water = W w Weight of Air ~ 0

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Volumetric Relationships Volume Components: Volume of Solids = V s Volume of Water = V w Volume of Air = V a Volume of Voids = V a + V w = V v

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Volumetric Relationships Volume Components: Volume of Solids = V s Volume of Water = V w Volume of Air = V a Volume of Voids = V a + V w = V v

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Specific Gravity Unit weight of Water, w w = 1.0 g/cm 3 (strictly accurate at 4° C) w = 62.4 pcf w = 9.81 kN/m 3

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Specific Gravity Iron7.86 Aluminum Lead11.34 Mercury Granite2.69 Marble2.69 Quartz2.60 Feldspar

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Specific Gravity, G s

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Soil Unit weight (kN/m 3 ) Bulk (or Total) Unit weight = W T / V T Dry unit weight d = W s / V T Buoyant (submerged) unit weight b = - w

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Typical Unit weights

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Example: Volumetric Ratios Determine void ratio, porosity and degree of saturation of a soil core sample Data: Weight of soil sample = 1013g Vol. of soil sample = 585.0cm 3 Specific Gravity, G s = 2.65 Dry weight of soil = 904.0g

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods Solid Air Water W a ~0 Volumes Weights g 585.0cm g s = g 341.1cm cm cm cm 3 W =1.00 Example

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CE 1203 : Geotechnical Properties and Construction Methods 585.0cm 3 Solid Air Water Volumes s = cm cm cm cm 3 W =1.00 Example

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