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Active Shooter Awareness

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Presentation on theme: "Active Shooter Awareness"— Presentation transcript:

1 Active Shooter Awareness
Presented by: Safety Counselling, Inc. 3207 Matthew Ave NE Albuquerque, NM / 1

2 Topics of Discussion What is an Active Shooter
Types of Active Shooters Historical examples How to prepare What to do when faced with Law Enforcement response Dispatch’s role EMS response Techniques to reduce an escalating encounters and tips to avoid them PTSD,CISD, and the EAP

3 Part One: The Basics About Active Shooters

4 Active Shooter Definition
Active Shooter executes a random or systematic shooting spree The objective is mass murder rather than other criminal intent Difficult time for many people in these tough times

5 The Active Shooter’s Intent
Views the attack as attempting to correct a perceived wrong Usually has a “hit” list and will search victims out The Shooter often takes out targets of opportunity on the way

6 An Active Shooter Expects To Die
Not concerned with dying so has nothing to lose Moves throughout a building or area until either stopped by police commits suicide self suicide by cop stopped by others

7 Types of Active Shooters
This type of WPV can impact any industry or business  Increased media coverage on a long term problem Examples of Active Shooters have included angry customer patient’s family member mentally unstable individual disgruntled employee domestic violence spill over shooting(s) in the course of a robbery, especially a robbery gone bad but this is not our emphasis

8 Lt. Dan Marcou’s 5 Phases of the Active Shooter
Fantasy stage Planning stage Preparation stage Approach stage Implementation

9 Hunters versus Howlers
Organizations are often responsive to a howler and either unaware or overly-rationalizing for a hunter Calhoun and Weston’s theory “Howlers don’t hunt and Hunters don’t howl. When Howlers start to hunt, they are no longer Howlers.” Howlers make overt threats, draw attention, frighten others intentionally Hunters develop a hidden plan, acquire the tools to harm others, work in stealth, and attack with little or no warning

10 Historical Examples of Mass Shootings
Part Two: Historical Examples of Mass Shootings

11 Charles Whitman commits Texas Tower Massacre in 1966
Initially killed mother and wife Killed 15 people / wounded 31 around tower Passersby armed themselves to intervene Killed by 2 police officers Autopsy showed brain tumor and he knew something was wrong

12 James Hubberty commits Calif. McDonald’s Massacre July 1984
41 yr. old laid off 1 week before murders Killed 21 & wounded 19 Multiple weapons from a 9mm semi-auto uzi Killed by Sniper from SWAT Said he had killed 1,000s in Viet Nam but never served San Ysidro California McDonald’s Restaurant July 18, 1984 James Huberty 21- persons killed

13 Alb. Hollywood Videos Murders
Shane Harrison aged 28 and accomplice Esther Beckley Occurred March ’96 Armed robbery and kidnapping Killed 5, 2 after being abducted (3 were employees)

14 Larry Phillips/Emil Matasareanu N. Hollywood Bank Robbery 2/27/97
Failed robbery that changed what law enforcement standardly packs for heat Wounded 13: 9 PD & 4 bystanders Both suspects killed by SWAT after 44 minute shoot out on the street Shooters had body armour Armed with AK-47s

15 Columbine High School, Littleton Co. on April 20,1999
2 shooters: Harris and Klebold Vendetta: 2 angry teenagers killed as many students as possible after being bullied for years Killed 13 & Wounded 21 Suspects committed suicide Used guns, rifles, bombs Changed the way law enforcement responds

16 Ronald Taylor:Wilkinsburg, Pa. 2000
Hate Crime: All victims were white March 1, 2000 Ist killed carpenter who repaired door, then onto McDonalds & then Burger King 3 killed, 3 wounded Surrendered

17 Cho Seung-Hui commits Virginia Tech Massacre on 4-16-2007
History of mental illness Posted pictures before & mailed info. to NBC during 32 Dead, 23 Wounded Weapons: Glock 19, Walther P22 Committed suicide at scene Rationale: savior oppressed & rejected Romantic dispute? Teased about speech disorder

18 Von Maur Department Store, Dec. 2007
Robert Hawkins - 19 Omaha, Ne. Takes others out to be famous at his death after being fired 9 killed, 5 injured Death by suicide after murders

19 3 Murdered in City Hall Council Meeting in Kirkwood, Mo. Feb. 2008
Charles Lee "Cookie“ (52) Thornton had disrupted/arrested at 2 other council meetings Killed 6: 2 police officers, public works director & 2 council members, the mayor (intended victim) died later as result of injuries Wounded 1 reporter & shot at city attorney Suicide by cop 30 citizens were at the meeting

20 Denny’s Robbery Takeover Albuquerque 6-21-2009
Pablo Ortiz (32 top ) Marvin Lopez (22, middle) Francisco Melgar (bottom) , Restaurant robbery on Sat. 9:30AM breakfast-rush Teenage female employee was killed Automatic Weapons w Intervention: 2 arrested initially & other 2 apprehended

21 Binghamton, N. Y. : American Civic Assoc
Binghamton, N.Y.: American Civic Assoc. by Jiverly Wong at 10:30 AM on Aug.’09 13 or victims killed & 4 wounded Victims from China, Haiti, Pakistan, Vietnam, the Philippines, Iraq, Brazil, US Used 2 automatic pistols and wore body armor Shooter pinned his vehicle against back door to block escape Suspect shouted that he hated America

22 A.S. Major Nidal Malik Hasan: Fort Hood Texas on Nov. 2009
Palistinian born 39-year-old of American military parents U.S. Army psychiatrist Description by fellow workers: “paranoid, belligerent” Terrorist? or upset at scheduled be deployed to Afghanistan? Killed 13, Wounded 30 Arrested and imprisoned until trial in March 2012

23 Amy Bishop Anderson at University of Alabama, Huntsville on February 2010
A.S.: Amy Bishop (Harvard trained Professor was academic star) Involved in 3 previous police investigations: Acquitted of brother’s murder Pipe bomb Shoving another customer Police arrested her on the scene Vendetta: Denied tenure 3 killed, 3 wounded

24 Police Headquarters in Municipal Bldg. April 2010
29-year-old Patrick Gray Sharp was only casualty. No others injured. McKinney, Texas Drove truck loaded with ammo and bomb-making materials into the parking lot, set truck on fire Fired off more than 100 rounds at police Suicide by cop

25 A.S. Robert Reza: Emcore Murders in Albuquerque on July 2010 at 10AM
Vendetta: child custody battle Told nephew device implanted in his head by co. Shot 25 bullets reloading once 2 killed & 4 wounded Police arrived from Alb.along with surrounding sherrifs/PDs Shooter committed suicide on site

26 University Library Violence 2010
Gunman opens fire in library in Austin Texas, Sept. 2010 No one injured Shot and killed himself onsite

27 Jerad Loughner shoots Congress Woman Gabriel Giffords on Jan. 2011
A.S.: Jerad Loughner Safeway,Phoenix, Ariz. at Town Hall Meeting Vendetta: Gifford is Jewish and he may have been a member of an anti-semetic group: AmRen 6 killed & 19 wounded Loughner was overcome by crowd and arrested Bystander nearly shot one of good samaritans who overcame him

28 A.S. Cesar Dominguez-Garcia at UNM Hospital on Feb. 2011
Albuququerque, N.M. Vendetta: Girlfriend’s child was admitted to hospital. Suspect arrived, became angry and began striking girlfriend. Family intervened, suspect brandished gun and fired one round Police arrested

29 Senior Center Shooting in Suisan City, California July 2011
55-year-old Bernardo Ararao Rode bike to Center, dressed in camouflage Showed woman at the center gun & said he was "going on assignment" 911 called & repeatedly ordered to drop his gun He refused/shot by police

30 Construction Site Killing 2010
Centreville, Alabama October 2010 Firing over stolen copper Vendetta: Accusing electrician was continuing work on the site when fired employee shot and killed him

31 Construction Site Killing 2011
Miami Two employees showing off their weapons on a break at one worker’s truck . Gun accidentally went off killing other worker during exchange.

32 There Are All Types of Scenarios
Often happened in the AM Most usually is the result of a robbery but that is not our focus in this class Stay alert to surroundings and situations all the time Be mentally prepared for different violent scenarios armed individuals/bombs chemical, radiation, and biological threats verbal or written threats

33 Emergency Dispatch Services: 911
Part 3 Emergency Dispatch Services: 911

34 When You Call 911 Dispatch The phone may not ring right away.
Most important piece of information Call back number Dispatch does not go to the scene. 34

35 Information That Dispatch Gets When You Call 911
Landline Name Address Location address Wireless Phone number Cell phone carrier Location of caller City Hall/ PBX lines

36 Dispatch’s Role Job is to preserve life and facilitate safety
Multiple callers Each caller is a new witness May disconnect you due to call volume Will ask you the big 6: (Where/What/When/Who/How/Why)

37 Dispatcher Will Ask: Where
Location within a location Office number, room, building Hazards for those present and for responders Sounds (gun shots/explosions) Screams Injured Other dangers in/around location Safest approach

38 Dispatcher Will Ask: What and When
What is occurring? Are you hearing it or seeing it? First hand knowledge Just hearing chaos Is it just starting, in progress or over Information may save lives/minimize causalities What you ADD is helpful Avoid repeating

39 Dispatcher Will Ask: Who, How, & Why
Who is involved? Number of suspects Still present Know or recognize the AS Describe what they look like Physical features Clothing body armor Weapons / explosives Why is this happening?

40 A.S. Status vs Victim Status
Dispatch will ask about the shooter before asking for information regarding those injured How many are injured? Types of injuries? Dispatch can provide steps for treatment

41 Until Law Enforcement Arrives
If you cannot speak to 911 dispatcher, just leave the line open for the dispatcher to listen in. They are trained to do this

42 EMCORE 911 Tape

43 Part 4 Law Enforcement

44 Law Enforcement Intelligence From Dispatch On The Way To Site
Suspect(s) Actions Location Description Weapons Victim injuries and location Designate site representative to give officers intelligence

45 Arrival of Law Enforcement
Average response time for police to high priority calls in your area Safest place to stay is inside secure room The shooter will probably not flee when police arrive The shooters goal is to kill and injure, not negotiate or flee

46 Law Enforcement’s Modus Operandi
Most likely by a variety of officers Identified in some way generally. Could be officer already on site AS response is different 5 qualified officers enter immediately as a group Armed with a variety of weapons Won’t be aiding victims Designate a site representative

47 When Victims See Police Pass Through
If you are locked in a secure room, stay there Police will be shouting commands Everyone is a suspect May force people to ground Listen and follow instructions Do not approach, stop or speak to or hold onto officer(s) Avoid screaming or yelling Point in direction of shooter

48 When You See Police (cont.)
Hands Immediately raise hands Keep your hands visible Drop anything in your hands Do not move injured victims Officers attempting to apprehend the shooter will not stop to help injured victims

49 Emergency Medical Services
Part 5: Emergency Medical Services

50 Delayed Medical Entry with Active Shooter Scenes
Fire/EMS personnel will respond when dispatched Entry by medics will be delayed until police are in control of area and shooter is disarmed Be prepared to do trauma care until they enter

51 Victim Status Cards Okay Minor Injuries Life threatening Injuries
Extra or Missing Victim

52 Triage of Victims Sorting Coach injured to self-help
Who is most in need & savable Coach injured to self-help Administer to them Have them administer to others when injury is minor Get assistance from others who can help Show helpers how Be a coach

53 Protect Yourself Have a basic plan
Don’t attempt to render first aid if unsafe to do so Don’t show yourself to shooter Survey the scene Know where the first aid kit, AED and extinguishers are Blood borne pathogens Potentially infectious materials Take universal precautions Wear PPE Clean-up procedures

54 Victim Treatment Minor Injuries: minimal treatment or self help with instruction Life threatening Injuries Most serious injury dealt with first Examples: severe bleeding, not breathing, broken limbs, heart attack, seizure, asthma attack, shock Dead or not-savable injuries

55 Stop Bleeding Capillary bleeds only ooze Venous Flows steadily
Thick dressing / pressure Arterial Squirts under pressure Thick dressing / elevate / pressure Have helper perform once under control if there are other victims

56 Tourniquet only if Bleeding To Death
Controversial & only as last resort as potentially dangerous For arterial bleeding & extremities Use a belt, strap, or other 1” wide material 2” above Tighten until bleeding stops Never loosen Note time applied Save amputation

57 Victim Is Not Breathing
CPR = CAB 15 Compressions Airway: open 2 Breaths Continue15-2 Not recommended in multi victim scene unless multiple trained first aiders

58 Broken Limbs Splint in position presented Use padding
If it is the forearm then support hand If it is the thigh or hip do not move them Do not draw attention to a mistake – correct it 58

59 Spinal Cord Injuries Do not move unless life threatening situation
Maintain alignment of head and spine when moving Support head and neck Secure them to a board

60 First Aid for Other Conditions
Psychogenic Shock Fainting Panic attack Vomiting Altered and difficult to control Byproduct of shock Due to anxiety Others brought on by stress of event Heart Attack Seizure Asthma Diabetic Attack

61 Seasoned EMT Don’ts Don’t panic or put yourself in danger
spend too much time on a non-savable victim attempt to plug a bullet-hole (use direct pressure) overly worry about infection (use what you can to stop bleeding)

62 Moving A Victim When to move victim In the path of a shooter
Other hazards How to move victim Walk them, be a human crutch, drag, scoot, carry them Spinal injuries Only if safe to do so

63 Update Your Training CPR/AED First Aid Conflict Resolution
Stress Management

64 Part 6: Choices You Have When You are A Victim at an Active shooter Scene

65 Plan For Survival Escape route plan
Locations of exits Possible pathways to exit Meeting place Perform drills as part of training. Emergency lighting Fire extinguishers

66 Timing in Active Shooter Situations
Evolve quickly Shooters are unpredictable Law Enforcement has historically been required to stop them Arrival of police and EMS on the scene is not immediate Be prepared mentally and physically to deal with the situation until help arrives

67 What Will Require Your Attention
Alerting others Others in and around area Authorities Be able to describe perp. The victims Providing first aid Moving to safety How you face the shooter(s) Assess Determine the odds

68 Try To Focus and Be Methodical
Try Not To Freak Out How To Calm Down Deep breaths How would your hero handle it? Staying Calm Helps Think more clearly Victims remain calm The situation requires a leader Prioritize Allocate tasks Need more than just you?

69 Communications To Get Help
Call 911 for outside help if you can safely do so leave line open if cannot talk Alert others onsite with: intercom, phone, page, or the code

70 Not In Line of Fire: Hide vs. Escape
Be quiet and remain calm. Silence your cell phone Take several deep breaths and review what to do Make the decision to hide or escape Then assess if you can help others while hiding or escaping

71 If Hiding Makes Sense Keep yourself safe Move to secure area
Lock door/barricade it Hide behind large furniture in a large wall vent in the bathroom Turn off sources of noise Close the blinds EMS will tell you not to intervene Question someone asking for entry

72 If Escape is Feasible Shooter will not stop until objectives are met or is engaged by police Is escape best option? Where is the shooter? Multiple shooters? Can you get out immediately undetected? Advise police of shooter or plain clothes police

73 If Escaping Evacuate area using designated exit path
Hug the wall Check around corners first Whether or not others agree to follow Leave all your belongings Only jump out a 1st or 2nd floor window Help others escape Alert others you come across

74 Helping Others You are part of a team Assist others in need
Help others escape with you Escape yourself even if they are too afraid to try

75 If You Are In The Line Of Fire
You have two choices if shooter is at close range: fight or comply We do not know how you will or should respond How you respond will be based on: The actual situation and what is possible, How many of you/they there are Your personality/background Victim camaraderie Feelings of moral responsibility It is your choice but keep in mind it will take time for police to arrive, assemble, and enter Your life is on the line

76 When Your Decision is to Comply
Do what the shooter says Keep your hands where they can be seen No sudden movements to draw attention or alarm AS Avoid eye contact unless you are being addressed Be quiet and remember your life may depend on being calm

77 Things to Consider Before Fighting Back
Chance of survival may be greater if you incapacitate the shooter but consider: How many shooters are there? How many of you are there? How many of you will commit to an attack? What objects do you have available to disable the person? Do any of you have military training or experience handling firearms? Does the group have a plan? Are your odds good?

78 When Your Decision is to Fight
Never attempt to wrestle a gun away from someone pointing it at you The closer you are to the shooter the better the chances of overcoming them s Chance of survival is greater when you are behind or out of vision of shooter incapacitate the shooter improvise a weapon throw heavy, blunt or sharp object hit shooter with something heavy use cart to shove them down or door open jump on them stab them with letter opener, scissors, or exacto

79 When Your Decision Is To Mass Attack
Use the code if you know victims or try to preplan during Opportunity may be obvious to incapacitate and overcome AS Go for the gun if you are not in the line of fire Try to knock them down & then Try to get on them Go for hands, eyes, personals You must COMMIT 100%

80 Do Not Enter A.S. Scene Viewed/Heard From A Distance
Not always completely aware of situation Need to be absolutely sure who the shooter is In the Gabby Gifford shooting, a guy mistook a hero for the shooter

81 The “Hostage Corridor” Phase
You will be detained Wait for instructions Call 1 family member Do not talk with the media. Able witnesses are moved Interviews Post event debriefing. This phase will take hours Do not interrupt proceedings unless medically necessary Drink water/eat something

82 Part 7: How To Deal With Volatile Situations Before They Become Violent Situations
This is a header slide for this next section. Tell class that we will now examine how to deal with a variety of volatile situations in the next few slides 82

83 Get Help with Coworker Escalating Behavior That is Getting Worse
Approach if comfortable/offer help Report it if repetitive and talking doesn’t help Get guidance from pros Avoid discussing with other coworkers, family or friends File a police report Call 911 for immediate threat Don’t let escalating behavior go unchecked 83

84 The De-Escalation Process
Let them vent Encourage talking & listening Repeat back Break problems down Be very clear about what is going to happen timelines Give them choices Focus on issue/refocus when necessary Use comfort/delay tactics as they deescalate Follow up

85 Don’ts For The De-escalation Process
Don’t bargain with threatening individual if their behavior is not threatening. Don’t make false promises. Don’t downplay seriousness of situation Keep it simple Don’t take sides or agree with distortions

86 Verbal Communication to Deescalate Anger
Speak slowly but confidently Keep your voice down, especially if they are raising theirs Communicate respect Keep it simple Repeat back for clarity Do not interrupt Be respectful Project calmness maintain a relaxed posture Keep your voice down Move and speak slowly but confidently Let them vent Be an empathetic listener and form some bond Acknowledge the person's feelings. Indicate that you see the person is upset. You can validate the feeling without condoning negative acts. (I understand you feel______, and it's not ok to _______) Use delaying tactics encourage the person to talk and listen carefully and patiently (this can be hard when a person is ranting). Focus your attention on the person to help person calm down. (Offer a drink of water in a paper cup) Be reassuring and point out choices. Break problems into smaller, more manageable pieces Form some bond/connection Follow up 86

87 Body Language That Helps Deescalate an Angry Individual
Maintain your space Don’t put up barriers but don’t isolate yourself Project calmness Show concern and empathy Don’t appear challenging Keep you hands in sight Avoid sudden movements

88 Avoid Altercations Do not take sides
Do not get involved in workplace altercations Do not try to break up arguments or fights or you may get in trouble yourself Notify your supervisor immediately

89 Do Not Condone Bullying at Work
As a supervisor Review policy Only 1 warning As the victim Be assertive and refuse to be a victim Label it Tell them to stop Keep a factual journal Report it Label it Make the choice not to be a victim Be assertive with your body language and your words Enlist support from people who are not co-workers: MD, counsellor esp EAP, contact HR Keep a factual journal See a doctor Talk to HR Reframe the way you see your job 89

90 Dealing With Angry Customers
Imminent danger then push panic button or call 911 If comfortable doing so ask them to lower their voice and listen to them vent – empathize Explain the process Get them to the right person Report issues to supervisor Always follow up 90

91 Ways To Cope with your Emotions Long Term Before YOU Become Violent
Acknowledge the problem Take time to gain perspective Get help HR/EAP See a counselor Talk to a spiritual advisor - 91

92 If You Feel Like You Are About to Become Violent Right Now
Take a deep breath Think about consequences Imagine looking back Is there an expedient solution? Talk to your supervisor, HR, or EAP immediately Go to the ER -Take a deep breath -Is there an expedient solution vs long term solution -Go to the ER -Contact CRR’s EAP immediately -Think about the consequences to yourself, family and loved ones -Imagine yourself looking back 3 years from now when you are in a happier place -Talk to your supervisor and explain the situation and what you think could help 92

93 Part 7 Critical Incident Stress Debriefing

94 Signs of Post Traumatic Stress
Sleeplessness/nightmares Anti-social behavior Withdrawal Paranoia Emotional outbursts Nervous behavior Distracted Loss of concentration Pacing and restlessness Loss of interest in hobbies Substance abuse

95 Get Help Early On If you suspect PTSD or emotional distress; notify management. Assistance will be provided to help the employee deal with issues.

96 Company EAPs Free, confidential counseling program assists employees with anything they perceive to be a problem Brief solutions counseling If you require additional services, counselors will help you access your mental health benefits, community resources, self-help groups or other services Employee Assistance Program CRR’s EAP is Th The EAP is a free, professional and confidential counseling program designed to assist employees with anything they perceive to be a problem Brief solutions counselling: -The intent is to problem solve within the number of sessions allowed by your EAP benefit If the issues require additional services beyond 6 sessions, our counselors will help you access your mental health benefits, community resources, self-help groups or other services quickly and efficiently 96

97 When There Is a Problem The EAP Is a Good Place To Start
Workplace issues Feeling stressed to the point where you might harm yourself or others PTSD & CISD Drug and alcohol abuse Anxiety & depression Family challenges Conflict resolution Grief and loss Relationship issues Other concerns PTSD "...if you've gone through one of these situations, you may be experiencing Withdrawal, pacing & restlessness, emotional outbursts (etc...  all the things on Ray's slide).  This is known as Post Tramatic Stress Disorder "PTSD" and the EAP is a good place to begin the process of healing from it. Also...when something like this happens, often a Department or an Organization can call The Solutions Group and ask for a Critical Incident Stress Debriefing to occur on-site.    Here's some wording about CISD's from the internet: A "critical incident" is any event that causes an unusually intense stress reaction.  The distress people experience after a critical incident limits their ability to cope, impairs their ability to adjust, and negatively impacts the work environment.  Examples of traumatic events that produce such reactions include: A coworker's or student's death or serious illness Suicide A violent or threatening incident in the work setting Natural or manmade disaster that affects the workers' ability to function in the workplace Critical Incident Stress Debriefing is a process that prevents or limits the development of post-traumatic stress in people exposed to critical incidents.  Professionally conducted debriefings help people cope with, and recover from an incident's aftereffects.  CISD enables participants to understand that they are not alone in their reactions to a distressing event, and provides them with an opportunity to discuss their thoughts and feelings in a controlled, safe environment. Other concerns like gambling Gambling and other concerns 97

98 How An EAP Works For employees and immediate family in household
Benefit may be prepaid by your company Your company pays set amount monthly to EAP The company does not receive bill with employee’s name on it EAP services are confidential Information may only be released with your written permission In a crisis or an emergency, counselors are available by phone 24 / 7 In imminent danger always call 911 first Employees and their immediate family members living in the household can all use the EAP The benefit is prepaid by CRR All EAP services are strictly confidential If written information needs to be released, your written permission is required To access your EAP call Call to talk with an EAP counselor on the phone??? If you have a crisis or an emergency, counselors are available by phone after hours 98

99 Would You Be Prepared If It Happened To You?
Have you thought about it? Discuss it No single definitive strategy will ever be appropriate This class includes possible options but only you know how you will respond and your response will be based on many factors 99

100 Your Employer Wants to Protect You
Look to the future with coworker conflicts Be proactive with customers Use information in this class to protect yourself, coworkers and work environment

101 The Goal Of This Course Is To Keep Employees Alive
The End

102 Ex LA/NY Policeman’s New Book
Tool to improve performance Advantages: resiliency, profitability, safety About power of people connected online and using electronic tools to collaborate to solve problems

103 City of Rio Rancho’s EAP
The Solutions Group To access your EAP call for R.R. & Alb. Call if out of town


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