Presentation on theme: "Evidence Based Practices for Autism in the Early Childhood Classroom"— Presentation transcript:
1Evidence Based Practices for Autism in the Early Childhood Classroom Kathy Oehler –Autism ConsultantandMary Roth – Lead Ally, Autism Society of Indiana
2What are “Evidence Based Practices”? An evidence-based practice can be defined as an instructional strategy, intervention, or teaching program that has resulted in consistent positive results when experimentally tested (Mesibov & Shea, 2011; Simpson, 2005).
3Evolution of Evidence Based Practice in Early Childhood Education Late 1980’s: ‘Developmentally Appropriate Practices’ (NAEYC)Early 1990’s: ‘Recommended Practices ‘(DEC)Late 1990’s: ‘Revised Recommended Practices’ (DEC)2006 +: ‘Practice Based Research Synthesis’ (Research & Training Center for Early Childhood Development)2008: 24 Evidence Based Practices for students with ASD (National Standards Project)
4Evidence Based Practices for Children with ASD http://autismpdc. fpg
5Using Evidence Based Practices (EBP) at School and at Home
6Behavior and Learning Prompting Evidence Based Practices:PromptingReinforcement / Differential ReinforcementTask AnalysisFunctional Communication TrainingDiscrete Trial TrainingFunctional Behavior AssessmentNaturalistic SettingVisual SupportsStructured Work Systems
7EBP: Prompting How do I do it EBP: Prompting How do I do it? If the child doesn’t respond within 2 – 3 seconds, use a prompt.Full Physical Prompt:Hand over Hand Prompt:Partial Prompt:Visual Prompt / Cue:Verbal Prompt:
8EBP: PromptingPrompting keeps students engaged (and reduces ‘tune out time’Prompting reduces frustration (and reduces negative behavior!)Prompting increases rate of learning (by insuring a correct answer EVERY time)
9Prompt FadingIt is essential to NOT have children become dependent on prompts. Any prompts used are gradually removed as the child becomes successful until he can respond correctly with no prompts
11Rules for reinforcement - 1 Avoid use of escape as the reinforcer . Don’t say, “If you do this, then you get to go play!”Instead, give the reinforcer more often, for smaller tasks. Help the child see that doing the task itself is a way to get something good.
12Rules for reinforcement:2 Last behavior reinforced is the behavior that will emerge againSO……Do not end a session with non-compliant behavior
13Rules of Reinforcement 3: Two Critical Components:Pair yourself with the reinforcer, so YOU are the source of good things.Talk less! Pair the reinforcer with Compliant Behavior, rather than repeatedly giving verbal directions.
14Rules of Reinforcement 4: A child should never gain access to a reinforcer with negative behaviorDo not give attention to trantruming behaviorNever allow the child to escape or avoid a demand (adult can change the demand)
15Schedules of Reinforcement How often do I reinforce? FOR NEW BEHAVIORSContinuous: positive reinforcement after EVERY correct response. But mix it up – praise, tickle, cuddle, give a treat. Make sure the child knows he has done something good.
16Schedules of Reinforcement: For established behaviors (like hanging up backpack / coat)Intermittent: Praise and reinforce, but not every time. Intermittent reinforcement is very effective in maintaining established behaviors
17EBP: Task Analysis How do I do it? Every task consists of many little steps. It is essential that we recognize and teach each step.Example: Wash your handsTurn on waterPut your hands in waterPut soap on your handsRub your hands togetherRinse your handsTurn off waterDry your handsGo back to your seatTask analysis is in their packet.Use a white board or easel to have the group expand or contract the steps of the task analysis to meet specific student needs. A task can be broken into very minute steps or can be one step in a chain of actions.
18EBP: Task AnalysisAfter you break the task down, make a picture schedule of each step.
19“Bad” behavior is communication! EBP: Functional Communication TrainingBehavior is a form of communication for children. If they can’t “talk it out”, they will “act it out”.“Bad” behavior is communication!
20EBP: Functional Communication Training How do I do it? Teach a replacement behavior. Teach the child a different way to tell you what he wants.For example:If he bites his hand when he doesn’t get to watch TV,Teach him to sign or give you a picture of the TV. Teach the new communication when you can reinforce it by turning on the TV. Practice / reinforce; Practice / reinforce!
21EBP: Discrete Trial Training How do I do it? Teach everything in small chunks. Prompt for success every time. Praise and reinforce every time. Review and practice 1000 times a day, in many different settings!
22EBP: Discrete Trial Training Include Computer Aided Instruction:iPad app: ABC Tracer (Lite version is free for ABC and 1,2,3; full version $2)Teaches top to bottom letter formation with dotted lines to follow. Reinforcing sounds when kids stay in the lines. Other literacy activities included.
23EBP: Functional Behavior Assessment How do I do it? Antecedent: what happened right before the behavior.Behavior: what was the behaviorConsequence: what happened right after the behaviorWhat was the function of the behavior? What was the child trying to get: attention? Escape? A desired item?What’s the new plan?- may involve changing the environment, timing, or task demand. May involve teaching a new way to ask or protest.
24EBP: Functional Behavior Assessment Set the child up for success EBP: Functional Behavior Assessment Set the child up for success. Have him do sensory motor exercises BEFORE he works.1. Rub My Hands On My Legs-10 times. 2. Push My Hands Together & Release 10 times. 3. Open and close Fingers 10 times.4. Place my hands on the chair seat, thenraise my bottom off the seat 10 times.5. Deep Breathe in slowly through mynose, then blow out through my lips.Repeat 5 times.
25EBP: Functional Behavior Assessment Documentation: Your data is your friend. It doesn’t have to be fancy, but it needs to be kept daily.What is the target behavior?What’s the baseline?How many responses did the child give?How many were right?
26EBP: Naturalistic Interventions How do I do it?Generalize across environments: Work on each skill in a variety of settings, not just at the table. If you are working on a new skill, practice it in different rooms, during different activities, at different times of the day, etc.
27EBP: Naturalistic Interventions How do I do it?Generalize across people: Make sure the skill is taught and practiced with lots of different people – especially with peers.
28EBP: Visual Supports How do I do it? A picture is worth a thousand words. Talk less!Examples:
29EBP: Visual Supports How do I do it? Examples: Visit the Visual Supports section at:http://www.iidc.indiana.edu/index.php?pageId=3613.
30EBP: Structured Work Systems How do I do it?Use pictures. Make sure the child can see:What do I need to do? (a job)What do I do when I am finished? (a reinforcer)
31EBP: Structured Work Systems Always work toward independent task completion.
32If it’s not working, ask yourself: Setting (sensory): Is the room noisy? Is there clutter in his workspace?Seating (motor): Is he uncomfortable? Does he need a different place to work?Task (organization): Is the task too big? Do you need to break it down into smaller chunks?
33If it’s not working, continued: Timing (organization): Is the wait time too long between directive / writing / reinforcement?Directions (language): Was there too much talking? Does he need a prompt?Attention (sensory): Did you get his attention before giving the task?
34The most important Evidence Based Practice is…… The home / school connection. Our children benefit when everyone works together.
35Challenges for Families Parents blame themselvesSociety blames parentsProfessionals blamed parents through the 1970’sGrandparents don’t understandSiblings feel left out, carted around, responsibleFinancial burdenStress on marriageEmbarrassment – don’t want to tell anyone or ask for help
36Understanding Parents The parent is raising a whole child and is responsible for every aspect of that child’s lifeThe student’s behavior may be very different at homeIt is easy to lose sight of the “big picture” during everyday strugglesIt is hard for us to imagine our children with disabilities as adults
37Don’t Wake Up Mama BearIt is instinctive to protect one’s children, particularly if they seem vulnerablePeople cannot think clearly when they are emotionalParents may take your comments as an indictment of their parenting
38Teaching Parents Ask, “How are things going at home?” Try to show parents how a strategy (visual support, reinforcement) you are using in the classroom can be used at homeExplain what the real-world significance will be to the student as an adultAs resources allow, provide visual supports for home and community (church, etc) use
39Additional ResourcesSuggest a computer lab where caregivers can make visual supportsHANDS in Autism will mail basic visual supports (www.handsinautism.org)Social StoriesTM and social narrativesLending libraries
40The Autism Resource Network of Indiana (ARNI) Brought to you by the Indiana Inter-Agency Autism Coordinating Council (IIACC), which Autism Society of Indiana leadsFind Local Resources to find providers in your areaSuperSearch feature for information, providersView several topics from the home pageEvent CalendarLegislative and other NewsAutism Society of Indiana
41The Autism Resource Network of Indiana (ARNI) Resource Map to find providers in your areaSuperSearch feature for information, providersTopics from the home pageEvent CalendarLegislative and other NewsIIACCAutism Society of Indiana
42Autism Society of Indiana Allies help parents, educators, and other providerseNewsletterTeacher’s ToolboxResources for Educators on ARNIAutism Society of Indiana
43Contact UsKathy’s contact informationMary RothAutism Society of Indianaext 22