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1 LGB&T History Month Prepared by Gloria Wallace, Fellow of Suffolk New College 1 February 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "1 LGB&T History Month Prepared by Gloria Wallace, Fellow of Suffolk New College 1 February 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 LGB&T History Month Prepared by Gloria Wallace, Fellow of Suffolk New College 1 February 2011

2 LGB&T History LESBIAN, GAY, BYSEXUAL & TRANSGENDERLGB&T Prepared by Gloria Wallace 1 st February 2011

3 Homosexual The word homosexual literally means "same sex", being a hybrid from Greek and Latin. The word "lesbian" is derived from the name of the Greek island Lesbos. The poet Sappho wrote her famous love poems to young women, providing the inspiration for the word lesbian. Lesbianism refers only to female homosexuality. The Greek word homos literally translated means "same. (not related to the Latin homo, 'man', as in Homo sapiens) The Medieval Latin word sexualis (from Classical Latin sexus) means "sexual. Homosexual relates to relationships between members of the same sex, including lesbianism. Sappho of Lesbos, depicted in an 1904 painting by John William Godward 3

4 Gay. Cartoon from Punch magazine in 1857 illustrating the use of "gay" as a euphemism for being a prostitute. One woman says to the other (who looks glum), "How long have you been gay?" The word "gay" arrived in English during the 12th century from Old French gai, in English, the word's primary meaning was "joyful and "carefree. The word Gay had started to acquire associations of immorality by 1637, the Oxford English Dictionary gives one meaning as "addicted to social pleasures and dissipations. The poster on the wall is for La Traviata, an opera about a courtesan. By the late 17th century A gay woman was a prostitute A gay man was a womanizer A gay house was a brothel 4

5 Through the mid 20th century, the term "gay" commonly referred to "carefree", as illustrated in the Astaire and Rogers film The Gay Divorcee. The 1890s are still often referred to as the Gay Nineties. The use of gay to mean "homosexual" was originally merely an extension of the word's sexualised connotation of "carefree and uninhibited", a willingness to disregard conventional sexual values. It was apparently not until the 20th century that the word Gay began to be used to mean specifically "homosexual. It has nevertheless been claimed that gay stands for "Good As You", but there is no evidence for this. Good As You 5

6 Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum believed to be the first recorded same-sex couple in history. Illustration from photograph ©1999 Greg Reeder Listed as "royal confidants" in their joint tomb where they were buried together much like a married couple. 509 BC – The Roman Republic is founded. Homosexuality, is widespread and legalized from the Republic to the Empire. 338 BC – The Sacred Band of Thebes, (Ancient Greek) an elite battalion was made up entirely of one hundred and fifty gay couples. They shared the title of Overseer of the Manicurists in the Palace of King Niuserre during the Fifth Dynasty of Egyptian pharaohs, circa 2400 BCE. 27 BC – The Roman Empire begins with the reign of Augustus. The first recorded same-sex marriages occur during this period. Romans, like the Greeks, tolerated love and sex amongst men. Two Roman Emperors publicly married men, some had gay lovers themselves, and homosexual prostitution was taxed. 6

7 Timeline 966 –The Republic of Poland was established, homosexuality was never criminalized throughout its history. An eleventh century Byzantine treaty clarifies that homosexual unions are known and legal within the Byzantine society. 1250–1300 – Homosexual activity radically passes from being completely legal in the most of Europe to incurring the death penalty in most European states. John Rykener, was a 14th-century transvestite prostitute working mainly in London. He was arrested in 1395 for cross-dressing and interrogated. The only surviving legal records from that age which mentions same-sex intercourse. Rykener claimed to have had many clients including priests and monks, he revealed that one Franciscan friar had given him a gold ring – The Spanish Inquisition begins. Sodomites were stoned, castrated, and burned. Between 1540 and 1700, more than 1,600 people were prosecuted for sodomy. 7

8 Transgender 1654 Queen Christina of Sweden (often considered bisexual) abdicated the thrown, dressed in men's clothing and renamed herself Count Dohna French explorers Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette came into contact with the Illini Indians in 1673, and were astonished to discover a subset of Illini men who dressed and acted out the social role of women Male to Female transsexual Abbe Francois Timoleon de Choisy attended Papal inaugural ball in female dress. His memoirs, published post-mortem, offer the first written testimony of cross-dressing King Henry III of France frequently cross dressed and while dressed as a woman was referred to as her majesty by his courtiers. Even his male clothes were considered outrageous despite the flamboyant standards of 16th-century France. 8

9 Clap's Molly House A Molly House is a 18 th century English term for a tavern or private room, where homosexual and cross-dressing men could meet. Molly houses were found in most of the larger cities, a precursor to the modern gay bar. In 18th century England, a "molly" referred to an effeminate male. Unlike other molly houses it was not a brothel, Clap's intentions may have been based more upon pleasure than profit, judging by her goodwill towards her customers. Margaret Clap better known as Mother Clap, ran a coffee house from 1724 to 1726 that served as a molly house for the underground gay community in Holborn, London 9

10 Sodomy 1785 – Jeremy Bentham is one of the first people to argue for the decriminalization of sodomy in England – Catherina Margaretha Linck lesbian is beheaded for female sodomy in Germany. The last known execution for lesbianism in Europe. Sodomy in law is the act of "unnatural" sex, whether heterosexual or homosexual. John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, was hanged for sodomy under a law that he had helped to institute; his proctor John Childe was also hanged. Anonymous pamphlet, – Revolutionary France becomes the first West European country to decriminalize homosexual acts between consenting adults – The Kingdom of Prussia abolishes the death penalty for sodomy. 10

11 Karl Heinrich Ulrichs 1869 – The term "homosexuality" appears in print for the first time in a German-Hungarian pamphlet written by Karl-Maria Kertbeny. He was an Austrian-born Hungarian journalist, memoirist and human rights campaigner who coined the words heterosexual and homosexual – The term "Crime against nature" first used in the Criminal code in the United States – Brazil decriminalizes homosexual acts; The word asexual is used as a term for the first time in biology – The last known execution for homosexuality in Great Britain Karl Heinrich Ulrichs became the first self-proclaimed homosexual to speak out publicly for homosexual rights. He pleaded at the Congress of German Jurists in Munich for a resolution urging the repeal of anti-homosexual laws. Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825–1895), a pioneer of LGBT rights Karl-Maria Kertbeny, ca

12 American playwright, poet and novelist who lived as an expatriate in Paris, she knew by age 12 she was a lesbian. She was determined to "live openly, without hiding anything Barney presented herself as a "page of love" sent by Sappho to Courtesan Liane de Pougy at her residence. She was charmed by Barney's audacity and they had a brief affair. Natalie Clifford Barney, painted in 1896 by her mother Alice Pike Barney. Natalie Clifford Barney 31 October 1876 – 2 February 1972 Courtesan Liane de Pougy one of the most famous women in France. Elisabeth de Gramont, the Duchess of Clermont-Tonnerre. descendant of Henry IV of France 1899 Barney met the poet Pauline Tarn, better know as Renée Vivien. They shared a love of Sapphos poetry and studied Greek so they could fully appreciate her poetry. Elisabeth de Gramont, was married with two daughters, when she met Natalie Barney. She separated from her husband in The relationship continued until de Gramont's death in

13 Nazis close Eldorado Club. Couples dancing at the Eldorado Club. 17 th March 1933 the West German Morality League began its Campaign against Homosexuals, Jews and Blacks. The first male homosexuals are sent to concentration camps. Gay rights activism The Scientific-Humanitarian Committee movements major goal was to educate the public to bring about the repeal of Paragraph 175. Their motto Justice through science. November 1918 the republic emerged from the German Revolution. In 1919 a new constitution was written, to be adopted on the 11 th August. This became known as the Weimar Republic, a Liberal democracy. Although the Weimar Republic did not repeal paragraph 175, it did not enforce the law with the same zeal as the First Reich. Paragraph 175 was a provision of the German Criminal Code from May March It made homosexual acts between males a crime. Around 140,000 men were convicted under the law. Picture: Scientific Humanitarian Committee board in 1901: left to right, Georg Plock, Dr Ernst Burchard, Dr Magnus Hirschfeld, and Baron von Teschenberg. 13

14 Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld, a Jew and homosexual, one of founders of the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee Institute 1897 (the first worldwide homosexual rights organization). In 1919 he became one of sexology's founding fathers when he started the Institute for Sexual Sciences in Berlin (the world's first sexological institute). He believed that a better scientific understanding of homosexuality would eliminate hostility towards homosexuals. Magnus Hirschfield coined the term transsexualism, identifying the clinical category. Transgender people were on the staff of the Institute, as well as being among the clients there. Various endocrinologic and surgical services were offered, including the first modern "sex-change" operations in the 1930s. Hirschfeld also worked with Berlin's police department to curtail the arrest of cross-dressed individuals on suspicion of prostitution. 14

15 Berlin during the 1920s there was a proliferation of homosexual meeting places, books articles and films. Homosexuality was considerably more open and more openly discussed. Nazis close Eldorado Club. Tranvestites couples dancing at Berlin's Eldorado Club. DVD cover of Richard Oswald's 1919 film first gay-themed film in Germany. Different From the Others. Berlins thriving lesbian community in the 1920s published this magazine between 1924 and

16 1933 Nazis close all gay bars condemning homosexuals as social aberrant. On 23 rd of February police closed bars and clubs as Eldorado. Holocaust 17 th March 1933 the West German Morality League began its Campaign against Homosexuals, Jews and Blacks. The first male homosexuals are sent to concentration camps. On the 6th May 1933 the Institute for sexual Science was destroyed by the SS men and the Nazi students. 10 th May 1933, Nazis in Berlin burned books by authors considered "un-German." Including literature from the Institute for Sexual Sciences. 16

17 Pierre Seel " I was tortured, beaten... sodomised and raped!", Seel screams in anguish. "The Nazis stuck 25cm of wood up my arse... (it) still bleeds, even today. I was used as a human dart board by camp orderlies with syringes. Frenchman Pierre Seel 17 years old was detained by the invading Germans. He ended up at the camp in Schirmeck. With stupefaction I recognized my beloved, Jo – The loudspeakers played noisy military music as the SS men stripped him naked, and violently jammed a metal bucket over his head. They unleashed on Jo the camp's ferocious guard-dogs, German Shepherds, who began to rip at his flesh -- first his genitals, and his thighs, and then they devoured Jo before our eyes. Screams of pain were amplified and distorted by the bucket over his head. I fervently prayed that he would rapidly lose consciousness.... For fifty years now that scene has kept ceaselessly passing and re-passing through my mind. 17

18 One day they were simply gone Gay prisoners with pink triangles in the concentration camp at Sachsenhausen. "I saw quite a number of pink triangles. I don't know how they were eventually killed One day they were simply gone. In the words of a non-gay survivor: 18

19 Project Pink "The inmates with the pink triangles never lived long; they were exterminated by the SS with systematic swiftness. A recent study estimated that at least 500,000 homosexuals died in the Holocaust. Homosexuals became the most isolated and shunned inmates in the camps. For gay men, the liberation" of 1945 meant no end to the discrimination. Many homosexuals remained prisoners in the camps until 1969 when Paragraph 175 was repealed in West Germany, 24 years after the end of the war West Germany's Federal Reparation Law for the Victims of the holocaust, declared that homosexuals did not qualify for compensation. Four years after re–unification in 1990, Germany finally abolished Paragraph 175 completely the German government issues an apology for the prosecution of homosexuals in Germany after 1949 and agrees to recognise gays as victims of the Third Reich the German parliament completed legislation to pardon all homosexuals convicted under Paragraph 175 during the Nazi era.

20 Alan Turin Breaking The Nazis Enigma Code A Leading Cryptanalyst, who during WW II was pivotal in breaking The Nazis Enigma Code. English mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, and computer scientist. He was influential in the development of computer science and providing a formalisation of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, playing a significant role in the creation of the modern computer. After the war he worked at the National Physical Laboratory, where he created one of the first designs for a stored-program computer, the ACE. Turing's homosexuality resulted in a criminal prosecution in 1952 and he accepted treatment with female hormones, chemical castration, as an alternative to prison. Alan Turing died on 7 June 1954, of cyanide poisoning. An apple was found half-eaten beside his bed, it is speculated that this was the means by which the fatal dose was deliver. 20

21 Stonewall Riots The Stonewall Inn, taken September The sign in the window reads: "We homosexuals plead with our people to please help maintain peaceful and quiet conduct on the streets of the VillageMattachine. The Stonewall riots were a spontaneous violent demonstrations against a police raid; on the 28th June 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, in the Greenwich Village, New York City. They have become the defining event that marked the start of the gay rights movement in the United States and around the world. American gays and lesbians in the 1950s and 1960s faced a legal system more anti-homosexual than those of some Warsaw Pact countries. The Stonewall Inn, at the time, was owned by the Mafia it catered to an assortment of patrons, drag queens, representatives of the transgender community, effeminate young men, hustlers, and homeless youth. Police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s, but officers quickly lost control of the situation at the Stonewall Inn, and attracted a crowd that was incited to riot. Today, Gay Pride events are held annually throughout the world toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots. 21

22 Gender Reassignment Laura Dillon – Coll. of Liz Hodgkinson Michael Dillon, after surgery. - Coll. of Liz Hodgkinson Laurence Michael Dillon was a British physician. (born Laura Maud Dillon; 1 May 1915 – 15 May 1962) His brother, Sir Robert Dillon, was the eighth Baronet of Lismullen in Ireland Sir Harold Gillies and his colleague Ralph Millard carry out the world's first sex change of a woman into a man on the young aristocrat, Michael Dillon. Roberta Cowell, born Robert Cowell, was a Spitfire pilot in World War II and a Racing driver after the war. She was the first known British male-to-female transsexual to undergo sex reassignment surgery by Sir Harold Gillies. Roberta Cowell Transgender Flag 1946 The therapeutic asylums planned in the 1840s failed monumentally, in post war Britain the National Health Service inherited these asylum. Transgender people were considered insane and housed in them. 22

23 1880 The Empire of Japan decriminalizes homosexual acts Argentina decriminalizes homosexuality 1889 The Cleveland Street Scandal erupts in England In Italy, homosexuality is legalised The October Revolution in Russia repeals the previous criminal code in its entirety In England an attempt to make lesbianism illegal for the first time in Britain's history fails A new criminal code comes into force in the USSR officially decriminalizing homosexual acts Panama, Paraguay and Peru legalize homosexuality Denmark and Philippines decriminalizes homosexuality Uruguay decriminalizes homosexuality Iceland decriminalizes homosexuality Switzerland decriminalizes homosexuality Sweden decriminalizes homosexuality Suriname legalizes homosexuality Portugal decriminalises homosexuality for the second time in its history Greece decriminalizes homosexuality Thailand decriminalizes homosexual acts. Decriminalization of Homosexuality 1961 Czechoslovakia and Hungary decriminalize sodomy Chad decriminalizes homosexuality. The Sexual Offences Act 1967 decriminalizes male homosexual behaviour in England and Wales Homosexual behaviour legalized in Canada 1971 Homosexuality is decriminalized in Austria, Costa Rica and Finland Scotland decriminalizes homosexuality 1982 Northern Ireland decriminalizes homosexuality UK Crown Dependency of Jersey decriminalizes homosexuality Bahamas, Hong Kong and Ukraine decriminalizes homosexuality Estonia, Latvia and UK Crown Dependency of Isle of Man decriminalizes homosexuality Belarus, UK Crown Dependency of Gibraltar, Ireland, Lithuania decriminalize homosexuality. Russia (with the excption of Chechen Republic) Bermuda, Germany, Serbia and South Africa decriminalizes homosexuality. 23

24 1968 The International Olympic Committee tests chromosomes of athletes, and puts a stop to transsexuals competing. Tennis Ace Reneé Richards is outed and barred from competition when she attempts to enter a women's tennis tournament. Her subsequent legal battle establishes that transsexuals are legally accepted in their new identity after reassignment, in the US.1976 In 1950 Foekje Dillema was expelled for life by the Dutch National Athletics Federation, based on a 'sex test'. In 2008, a test on DNA obtained from her clothing found that she was a genetic mosaic, having cells with either 46,XX or 46,XY chromosomes, in approximately a one-to-one ratio, in her skin. Professor Anton Grootegoed of the Erasmus MC concluded that Foekje Dillema was female. This means that she would be allowed to race, if she were competing today. Foekje Dillema 24

25 Member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors from District 5 Harvey Bernard Milk was an American politician who became the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in California, when he won a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors – San Francisco Supervisor Harvey Milk and Mayor George Moscone are assassinated by former Supervisor Dan White. The Rainbow (or Gay Pride) Flag was created by artist and vexillographer Gilbert Baker, a friend of the late Harvey Milk, in The flag debuted at the San Francisco Gay and Lesbian Freedom Day Parade. Original eight-stripe version designed by Gilbert Baker in 1978 Harvey Bernard Milk (May 22, 1930 – November 27, 1978) 25

26 Civil partnerships in Britain Civil partners are entitled to the same property rights as married opposite-sex couples. There is a formal process for dissolving partnerships akin to divorce. Following the Equality Act 2010 same-sex couples in England and Wales may now enter into a civil partnership in a religious venue if the building's proprietor is willing to conduct such a ceremony. granted under the Civil Partnership Act 2004, give same-sex couples rights and responsibilities comparable to civil marriage. Between approximately 40,000 couples entered into a civil partnership. It is prohibited for civil partnerships to include religious readings, music or symbols. As of 2010 the lifting of this restriction is under discussion. In Scotland, some mainstream churches offer only blessing ceremonies for same-sex couples. 26

27 David Kato Kisule David Kato Kisule was a Ugandan teacher and LGBT rights activist, considered a father of Uganda's gay rights movement. He served as advocacy officer for Sexual Minorities Uganda(SMUG). Kato was murdered shortly after winning a lawsuit against the Ugandas Rolling Stone newspaper, for publishing, the names, photographs and addresses of dozens of people the paper claimed were gay or lesbian. The Headline read Hang them. 27

28 The struggle continues In Memory of David Kato Kisule murdered on the 26th January Presiding pastor at David Katos funeral called on homosexuals to repent or be 'punished by God. 28

29 Be The Change You Want To See In The World Mahatma Gandhi 29

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