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purpose / ˈ p ɚ p ə s/ - the reason why something is done or used : the aim or intention of something - svrha, cilj, namjera The purpose of the new resort.

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Presentation on theme: "purpose / ˈ p ɚ p ə s/ - the reason why something is done or used : the aim or intention of something - svrha, cilj, namjera The purpose of the new resort."— Presentation transcript:

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2 purpose / ˈ p ɚ p ə s/ - the reason why something is done or used : the aim or intention of something - svrha, cilj, namjera The purpose of the new resort is to attract more tourists. There's little/no purpose in restarting the process. These ancient mounds were probably used for ceremonial purposes. think through - to think about all the different parts or effects of (something) for a period of time especially in an effort to understand or make a decision about it - promisliti I need time to think this through. We have thought through the matter and have come to a decision. spell out - to explain the details of (something) clearly –protumačiti, razriješiti The contract spelled out the terms of his employment. She didn't get the hint, so he had to spell it out for her.

3 call a meeting – sazvati sastanak contribution / ˌ k ɑ : ntr ə ˈ bju : ʃ ə n/ - something that is done to cause something to happen – doprinos, prilaganje She's honored for her contributions [=efforts, work] towards finding a cure for AIDS. As mayor, he made many positive contributions to the growth of the city. commit /k ə ˈ m ɪ t/ - to say that (someone or something) will definitely do something : to make (someone or something) obligated to do something – obavezati se I've committed myself to a meeting on Thursday. = I'm committed to a meeting on Thursday. [=I have said that I will definitely go to a meeting on Thursday] The contract commits the company to finishing the bridge by next fall. He keeps delaying his decision because he doesn't want to commit himself. at the outset – at the start, from the start- na početku, od početka He wanted to explain his position from the outset, but there wasnt time. At the outset the problem seemed simple, but then it became quite complicated.

4 degenerate /d ɪˈʤɛ n ə ˌ re ɪ t/ - to change to a worse state or condition : to become worse, weaker, less useful, etc. – degradirati, propasti, propadati As the disease progresses, the patient's health will degenerate [=deteriorate] rapidly. Experts fear that the country is degenerating into chaos. The meeting degenerated into a shouting match. bright (ideas) - showing intelligence : clever bright idea often used in a joking or ironic way to describe a foolish idea, action, etc. Walking on the railroad bridge wasn't too bright. Who's bright idea was it to leave the refrigerator open? conclusion /k ə n ˈ klu : ʒ ə n/ - a final decision or judgment : an opinion or decision that is formed after a period of thought or research – zaključak, ishod What is your conclusion? The evidence does not support the report's conclusions. The logical/obvious conclusion is that she was negligent. After thinking about it, we came to the conclusion [=we decided] that we shouldn't go.

5 intent / ɪ n ˈ t ɛ nt/ - the thing that you plan to do or achieve : an aim or purpose – namjera She thinks I'm trying to make things difficult for her, but that's not my intent. What was the the writer's intent? The intent of the law is to protect consumers. contemplate / ˈ k ɑ : nt ə m ˌ ple ɪ t/ - to think about doing (something) : consider – razmišljati She's contemplating moving to the city. They're contemplating marriage. [=they're thinking about getting married]

6 purely / ˈ pj ɚ li/ - completely or only – čisto, sasvim, potpuno They met purely by accident/coincidence. The organization's mission, purely and simply, is to provide food to people who need it. off the records - used to describe a statement that is not official and should not be repeated or made public by being used in a newspaper, magazine, etc. - nezvanično Government officials did speak to reporters, but only off the record. [=the reporters were not allowed to publish the things the officials said] Her remarks were strictly off the record. Off the record, I don't think he has any real chance of winning. rely /r ɪˈ la ɪ / - to need (someone or something) for support, help, etc. : to depend on (someone or something) – osloniti se My mother relied on me for financial support. He no longer relies upon his parents for money.

7 outsider / ˌ a ʊ t ˈ sa ɪ d ɚ / - a person who does not belong to or is not accepted as part of a particular group or organization – strano lice, onaj koji ne pripada, neupućeni She felt like an outsider in her new school. chap / ˈ t ʃ æp/ - Brit, informal + somewhat old-fashioned : a man – čovjek, momak He's a friendly sort of chap. [=fellow, guy] Don't worry old chap. It'll be all right. sooner or later - at an unspecified time in the future : eventually – prije ili kasnije Sooner or later, we'll have to tell her the truth. The bus should be here sooner or later. foothold / ˈ f ʊ t ˌ ho ʊ ld/ - a position that makes it possible to begin an activity or effort – čvrsto stajalište, uporište The army gained a foothold on the island. The company has secured a foothold in the market.

8 disadvantage / ˌ d ɪ s ə d ˈ vænt ɪʤ / - something that causes difficulty : something that makes someone or something worse or less likely to succeed than others – nedostatak, mana, šteta, gubitak This program has the disadvantage [=shortcoming] of being more expensive than the others. They argued that the new regulations would place their company at a competitive disadvantage in the marketplace. concession /k ə n ˈ s ɛʃ ə n/ - the act of giving up something or doing something in order to reach agreement - ustupak The company has been unwilling to make concessions (to the strikers) during negotiations. outgrow / ˌ a ʊ t ˈ gro ʊ / - to grow too large for (someone or something) - prerasti Our business is outgrowing its small office building.

9 backing - support or aid – oslonac, potpora The project has received financial backing from several investors return - finance : the profit from an investment or business – naknada, obrt Investors are promised a return. The company had poor returns last year. He received a large return on his investment. per se /p ɚˈ se ɪ / - formal: by, of, or in itself – used to indicate that something is being considered by itself and not along with other things

10 Can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must and ought to are called modal auxiliary verbs. They are used before the infinitives of other verbs, and add certain kinds of meaning.

11 Modal verbs have no –s in the third person singular. She may know his address. Questions, negatives, tags and short answers are made without do. Can you swim? (NOT: Do you can swim?) He shouldnt be doing that. After modal auxiliary verbs, we use the infinitive without to of other verbs. I must water the flowers. Modal verbs do not have infinitives or participles (there is no such thing as the following forms: to may, maying, mayed, etc.) and they do not normally have past forms.

12 We do not normally use modal verbs to say that situations definitely exist or that particular events have definitely happened. We use them, for example, to talk about things which we expect, which are or are not possible, which we think are necessary, which we want to happen, which we are not sure about, which tend to happen, or which have not happened. He may arrive any time. She could be in London or Paris – nobody knows. I cant swim. We really must clean the garden. What would you do if you had a free year?

13 Can and could are modal auxiliary verbs. There is no –s in the third person singular. She can swim very well. Questions and negatives are made without do. Can you swim? After can and could, we use the infinitive without to of other verbs. I can speak a little Italian. Can and could have no infinitives or participles, but when necessary we use other forms, such as be able to. Id like to be able to stay here. Youll be able to walk soon.

14 Can and could are both used to: talk about ability and possibility Can you speak French? – ability It could rain this afternoon. – possibility Do you think she could be lying? – possibility ask for and give permission You can stop work early today. - permission to make requests and offers Could I have some more tea. – request Can I help you? - offer

15 May and might are modal auxiliary verbs. There is no –s in the third person singular. She may be here tomorow. It might rain this afternnon. Questions and negatives are made without do. May I help you? After may and might, we use the infinitive without to of other verbs. You may be right. We might not be home before midnight.

16 May and might are used mainly to: talk about possibility I may see you tomorrow. - possibility ask for and give permission Do you think I might borrow your typewriter? - permission

17 Might is mostly used as a less definite or more hesitant form of may, suggesting a smaller chance – it is used when people think something is possible but not likely. I may go to London tomorrow. – perhaps a 50% chance Joe might come with me. – perhaps a 30% chance

18 Must is modal auxiliary verb. There is no –s in the third person singular. He must start coming on time. Questions and negatives are made without do. Must you go? You mustnt worry. After must, we use the infinitive without to of other verbs. I must write to my mother. Must has no infinitives or participles, but when necessary we use other forms, such as have to. Its annoying to have to get up early on Sundays. Hell have to start coming on time.

19 Must is used mostly to express the conclusion that something is certain and to talk about necessity and obligation. You must be Annas sister – you look just like her. – certainty, concluding that something is certain You must be here before eight oclock tomorrow. - obligation

20 Ought to is modal auxiliary verb. There is no –s in the third person singular. She ought to understand. Questions and negatives are made without do. Ought we to go now? It oughtnt rain today. After ought, we use the infinitive with to of other verbs. You ought to see a dentist.

21 Ought to is used to: advise people (including ourselves) to do things: I really ought to phone my mother. People ought not to drive like that. tell people that they have a duty to do things; to ask about our duty: What time ought I arrive? You ought to phone him. It is not as strong as must.

22 Put the verb in brackets into the correct tense (5 points): 1. While Tom _______________ (read), Amely _______________ (watch) a documentary. 2. He _______________ (wake up) and _______________ (look) at his watch. 3. I _______________ (cycle) through the park, when I _______________ (hear) a strange noise. 4. Tom _______________ his leg when he _______________ (play) frisbee. 5. My wife _______________ (burn) her hand when she _____________ (iron) her clothes.

23 Complete the following sentences with may, neednt, can/could, ought to, must (5 points): 1. _________ I help you? 2. He _________ start coming on time? 3. She _________ be in London or Paris – nobody knows. 4. I _________ speak a little Italian. 5. I _________ phone my mother.

24 Write the following numbers (3 points): 1. 1/8: ______________________________________________ 2. 2/5: ______________________________________________ 3. 0.162: ____________________________________________ 4. 417: ______________________________________________ 5. 4,562: ____________________________________________ 6. 2,138: ____________________________________________

25 Complete the sentences using the following words (3 points): 1. She is honored for her _______________. 2. After thinking about it, we came to the _______________ [=we decided] that we shouldn't go. 3. The television network's _______________ decided not to air the controversial show. 4. All members of the organization have a role in _______________. 5. Employees receive an annual increase in _______________. 6. Her former teacher gave her a _______________ when she applied for the job. conclusion salary executives wage decision-making contribution advertisement reference

26 Translate (4 points): Da li ćeš moći da do đ eš na sastanak? Moram priznati das am još uvijek pomalo sumnjičav u vezi sa tim poslom s obzirom da je izvoz škakljiv – košta mnogo da se počne, a morate se osloniti na ljude sa strane – agente i slično. Who had to go back to the office? The effective man always states at the outset of the meeting the specific purpose and contribution it is to achieve. He does not allow a meeting called to inform to degenerate into a discussion in which everyone has bright ideas.


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