Presentation on theme: "Getting Emotional: Using sport to build emotional capital and overcome symbolic violence LAURA GREEN 13 November 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Getting Emotional: Using sport to build emotional capital and overcome symbolic violence LAURA GREEN 13 November 2013
Background to the research 13 November 2013 High drop out rates of British young women in sport Young women report higher levels of dissatisfaction with PE Desire to: conceptualize young people as a resource not a social problem go beyond explanation to take action position young women as decision makers deliver practitioner research in youth work settings
Feminist Participatory Action Research Action Research (McNiff et al. 2003) Identifies problems, Change to improve, Practitioner research, Political Participatory Research (Khanlu & Peter, 2005) Collaborative, Local knowledge, Eclectic, Benefits to data, Demystification, Reciprocity Feminist Participatory Action Research (Frisby et al., 2005) especially focuses on women and girls voices and experiences, and was used in this project to find out how wider social ideas about gender and sport could create barriers for individual girls
Phases of the research process 13 November 2013
Theoretical Framework Bourdieus notions of capitals (economic, social, cultural, symbolic) Symbolic Capital: describe forms of capital that are legitimized as valuable, often unrecognized as capital but instead recognized as legitimate competence or authority. Diane Reays extension of this: Emotional Capital: access to emotionally values skills and assets, which hold within any social network characterized at least partly by affective ties Bourdieus concept of Symbolic Violence: coercion of the dominated, with their consent, through the development and application of common sense knowledges and discourses.
Previous Experiences: Lack of Perceived Sport Related Capital SOCIAL CAPITAL Carrie: I havent done sport for years and I dont really know anybody sporty. The last lot of sporty people I knew were, like, PE teachers at secondary school, and I hated them Laura: What about you Karen? Karen: I dunno, I mean I only really hang around with this lot and none of us are into sport were all smokers I think, no-one in my family even does any sport. PHYSICAL CAPITAL Livvy: I used to do sport but then I fell in love with food, the wrong kind of food and now, the extra weight Ive got makes me feel like people would just be looking at me thinking whats she doing here? Ellie: I wont go to the gym because Im fat thats what puts me off I dont want to show my fat off EMOTIONAL CAPITAL Clare: I know I must admit it is intimidating like when you walk in everyone goes oh Katie: yeah people do look at you I mean I went with my partner, he signed up for the gym and I went with him and had a look around and just walking around there scared me I didnt want to go back in there
Previous Experiences: Symbolic Violence in Action Karen: my teachers were quite competitive as well Laura: in what way? Karen: well theyd be more praising to the girls that were the good ones and theyd point out the good ones every time rather than focusing on the others Clare: they wouldnt try and encourage you? Karen: no I wouldnt get any encouragement at all, no, never any encouragement, I just presumed that obviously I wasnt good for sport so I just gave up, I made up excuses every PE time like Id forgotten my shoes or something like that, I always came up with something. Id always try and miss it. Carrie: I wasnt like, the worst at PE but my PE teacher knew I didnt really like doing PE so she just stopped bothering with me. At the beginning she used to tell me off for not putting in enough effort or talking too much or laughing, a lot of the time because I had a miserable look on my face, but after a while she just switched to ignoring me. I never once got told I had done anything right by her.
The Sports Ethic Clare: I had a sprained ankle I had to take my crutches off, hop over there and jump over the thing onto the mat still! She wouldnt not let me do it! Laura: she still made you do it even though you had a sprained ankle? Clare: she still made me do it, I was on crutches! She thought it was funny! Sara: evil teachers! Chelsea: they are arent they Hughes & Coakley (1991) Positive deviance and the sports ethic
The Results of Previous Experiences: Symbolic Violence in Action Caroline: I never did PE at school, I used to bring in a note or skip school and so did lots of my friends, we were the ones that ended up getting pregnant, you know I bet if you asked most young mums whether they did PE at school they would say no. Its just a personality type I think. Karen: Yeah I definitely agree with that its the same with me
Creating Safe Spaces: Building Emotional Capital Preventing Actual Physical Harm: Reducing risk e.g. risk assessments, Sports as dangerous- (quotes from young women) how was this managed in the project? Risk Assessments Planning for Emotional Security: I never want us to have to pick teams!(Carrie) I want it to be all girls, I cant do this in front of boys(Karen) I want it to be just us lot, you know cos we know each other, we know that were all nervous and nobody is going to try to show off or make anyone else look stupid(Mafunda), I dont want any male coaches or instructors(Livvy) Im not doing anything that Ive done before because I know Ive already failed at that (Yetunde)
Generating Symbolic Capital Normalizing Emotional Disclosure Young Women as: Project leaders Budget holders Employers of coaches
Challenging Symbolic Violence in Action Attending to emotions = continued engagement Young women decided their own level of participation Opportunities to take supporting roles Flexible to changes in situation and priorities Coaches attempted to bypass the new power structure Coach 3: Youre not going to get anything out of this if you dont put the effort in Coach 3: Come on were only here once a week so we dont have time for rest breaks Coach 3: They dont really seem to be in the mood for this today do they Laura: Well isnt it great that they came along and are joining in anyway? Coach 3: Oh… well yes absolutely
Young Womens Recommendations We want fun and variety and not routine We want to be with our friends We dont want to look stupid We want flexibility in commitment levels We want to choose our own projects We need help to make our projects work
REFERENCES Bourdieu, P., (1984) Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste, Routledge, London Bourdieu, P., (1985) The Social Space and Genesis of Groups Theory and Society, Vol.14, No.6, pp Bourdieu, P., (1986) The Forms of Capital in Richardson, J.G., (Ed) (1986) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education Greenwood Press Bourdieu, P., (2001) Masculine Domination Polity Press, Cambridge Hughes, R. & Coakley, J. (1991) Positive deviance among athletes: The implications of overconformity to the sports ethic. Sociology of Sport Journal, 8(4), Khanlou, N. and Peter, E. (2005) Participatory action research: considerations for ethical review, Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 60, pp McNiff, J., Lomax, P., & Whitehead, J., (2003) You and Your Action Research Project (2 nd Edition), Oxon: RoutledgeFalmer Reay, D., Gendering Bourdieus concept of capitals? Emotional capital, women and social class, in Adkins, L., & Skeggs, B., (2004) Feminism After Bourdieu Blackwell Publishing, Oxford Shilling, C., (1993) The Body and Social Theory Sage, London Shiling, C., (1991) Educating the Body: Physical Capital and the Production of Social Inequalities Sociology, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp Skeggs, B., (1997) Formations of Class and Gender Sage, London
Thank you for listening I would be most grateful for any feedback or questions Laura Green Bath Spa University