Presentation on theme: "Enhancing RtI: Instruction and Intervention"— Presentation transcript:
1Enhancing RtI: Instruction and Intervention Doug Fisher and Nancy Frey
2Traditional View of Learning When time and instruction are held constant…LEARNING… learning outcomesvary.Adapted from Buffum, Mattos, & Weber, 2009
3A New View of Learning When time and instruction are variable… … learning isheld constant.Adapted from Buffum, Mattos, & Weber, 2009
4“Big RTI” Purpose of RtI An alternative way to identify students as having learning disabilities, making sure that students who struggle were not misidentified as disabled when different and/or more intensive instruction addressed their needs.“Big RTI”Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 identified Response to Intervention (RTI) as an alternative way to identify students as having learning disabilities, making sure that students who struggle were not misidentified as disabled when different and/or more intensive instruction addressed their needs.
5A school improvement process designed to ensure that students receive the instruction, intervention, and support necessary to be successful.“little rti”
7What Variables Can You Control? Frequency (time)Duration (time)Assessment (instruction)Group size (instruction)Access to expertise (instruction)Staff collaboration (instruction)Student Monitoring Team (instruction)Others?
8Tier 1: Quality Core Instruction Based on a Gradual Release of ResponsibilityFormative assessments (feed forward, not just feedback)Push-in supports and incidental benefits
9TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY “I do it”Focus LessonGuided Instruction“We do it”“You do ittogether”Collaborative“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYA Structure for Instruction that Works
10Band-Aid… Tiers 2 and 3 intervention are not a …for ineffective Tier 1 instruction.
23Goals of Homework Fluency building Application Spiral review Extension Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Homework and the gradual release of responsibility: Making responsibilitypossible. English Journal, 98(2),
24This was the schoolwide essential question for 9 weeks.
25Spiral Review Homework: Opinionnaire What’s your opinion?SAADSDA patriot is heroic.Sometimes the only thing left to do is fight for what you believe in.The American Revolutionary War could have been avoided if both sides had compromised on taxes.All the colonists were in support of the war.The teacher wanted to get a “general read” on the entire class--find out about their impressions of this time period in general--so she administers a short opinionnaire that contains four statements.] She assured them that there were no “right” answers.(The code in the columns is as follows: SA=Strongly Agree; A=Agree; D=Disagree; SD=Strongly Disagree.
26Extension HomeworkIn English, students chose a worthy cause and established a Facebook page with information about it. A goal was to get at least 20 people to “Like” it. This provided great feedback to students, especially when asked for more information. Students were able to continue to refine their pages based on what others were commenting on. This assignment was the creative component for the question. Students also wrote a formal essay in response to the question. The next slides are examples from this portion of the assignment.
38Increased guided instruction with smaller groups Including preteaching and reteachingIncreased guided instructionwith smaller groups
39Teacher RoleWhat is the teacher doing while productive group work is occurring?
40Zone of Proximal Development Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development“the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers” (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 86).Wood, Bruner, and Ross’s Scaffoldingrequires the adult’s “controlling those elements of the task that are initially beyond the learner’s capability, thus permitting him to concentrate upon and complete only those elements that are within his range of competence” (Wood, Bruner, & Ross, 1976, p. 90).Scaffolding
41“As easy as learning to ride a bike” Guided Instruction is analogous to teaching a child to ride a bike. Scaffolds include training wheels, running alongside the bike, calling directions (“Pedal faster!”)The adult is there to handle the tricky parts, but the child begins to try out the skill or strategy
42Scaffolds in Classroom Instruction Robust questions to check for understandingPrompts that focus on cognitive and metacognitive processesCues to shift attention to sourcesDirect explanation and modeling to re-teach
43Check for Understanding Robust Questions toCheck for Understanding
44Intention uncovering, not testing Focus is on uncovering, not testing Looking for anticipated misconceptions or partial understandingsFeed forward to plan subsequent instruction (Fisher & Frey, 2009)
45Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal? Student: An animal that stays awake at night. Teacher: Good. What is a diurnal animal?I-R-E
46Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal? Student: An animal that stays awake at night. Teacher: Tell me more about that. Does a nocturnal animal have special characteristics? Student: Well, it doesn’t sleep a lot.Probe
47Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal? Student: An animal that stays awake at night. Teacher: Tell me more about that. Does a nocturnal animal have special characteristics? Student: Well, it doesn’t sleep a lot.Misconception
48Prompting for Cognitive and Metacognitive Thinking
50Promptscan be cognitiveormetacognitiveNoteto elf
51Background knowledge prompts use what they know invite students to Includes what has been previously taught and what has been experiencedCan be built directly or indirectly (Marzano, 2004)invite students touse what they knowto resolve problems
52Process or Procedure Prompts specific task To perform a Addresses the “what” and “how” in learningExamples: Order of operations (math), peer response (writing), completing a lab (science)Prompts can be forward chaining (starts the process) and backward chaining (leaves the last step to complete)To perform aspecific task
53Reflective prompt “What did you learn today?” knowing about knowing Trigger metacognitive thinking“Knowing about knowing”Includes invitations to set goals, write in an interactive journal, conferencing with a student“What did you learn today?”“How did you learn it?“What do you need to learn next?”“What did you learn today?”
54Heuristic prompt Informal and less defined Informal problem-solving dispositions and techniqueOften apply a “rule of thumb”“Make a graph so I can see it;” “confirm my prediction;” “keep track of the calculations so I don’t get mixed up;” “Make a list of pros and cons”These are less well-defined techniques than procedural or process knowledge ones, and draw on past experiences and “Eureka moments*“Make a graph so you can see it.”
55Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal? Student: An animal that stays awake at night. Teacher: Tell me more about that. Does a nocturnal animal have special characteristics? Student: Well, it doesn’t sleep a lot. Teacher: I’m thinking of those pictures we saw of the great horned owl and the slow loris in the daytime and at night. Does your answer still work?PROMPT
57Cues Shift attention to sources of information Can highlight an errorMore direct and specific than promptsOften follow a prompt that did not elicit a correct responseMore direct and specific than prompts
58Attention grows with competence the expert commentator sees things you don’tcues do the same for novicesAttention grows with competence
60Using Prompts and CuesContext: Students are creating a Jeopardy®-style game. The teacher is building the background knowledge of a group of students. He draws their attention to a sentence in the text: “When you eat foods—such as bread, meat, and vegetables—they are not in a form that the body can use as nourishment.” He asks Mauricio to retell it is his own words...
61Mauricio: So, I think it says that your body can’t use meat like it is meat. It has to be changed. Jessica: But that’s what we eat to live. That’s good eating. Russell: I don’t eat any vegetables. I only like the meat and bread from this, like a hamburger. Mr. Jackson: How does that meat change so that your body can use it? Russell? Russell: It doesn’t change. It’s meat. Mr. Jackson: So let’s think about what we know about nourishment and our food. There’s a process that it goes through, right? [they nod in agreement] What’s the first step? You know this because you do it several times a day. Sarah: The first thing to eat? Is that what you mean? Mr. Jackson: Yeah, the first thing. Sarah: You take a bite. Mr. Jackson: Exactly, right on. So you’ve changed the food, right? Russell: Yeah, but it’s still meat. Mr. Jackson: It sure is. But it’s changed a bit, and will change more. Remember we talked about different kinds of changes. Physical … Chemical Russell: So the first thing, when you bite it, it’s a physical change, right? Mr. Jackson: You know it! And then what happens?
63When promptingand cueing fail,it’s time fordirectexplanation.
64Direct Explanation Identify Explain Think aloud Monitor Explicitly state what is being taughtTell when and how it will be usedThink aloud to demonstrate reasoningMonitor applicationCheck for understandingTake care not to re-assume responsibility too quickly
71What is “special” about special education? Formalized system of support (continuing interventions)FundingGoals and objectivesCurriculum accommodations and modificationsTesting supportAssistive technologyRelated Services
72The Takeaway Instruction and Intervention are linked Manipulate variables (time, assessment, expertise, instruction) to intensify interventionBuild in a feed forward method so that RtI2 results inform classroom instruction and programmatic improvementsKeep the teacher and family at the center of communication