Presentation on theme: "Enhancing RtI: Instruction and Intervention Doug Fisher and Nancy Frey www.fisherandfrey.com."— Presentation transcript:
Enhancing RtI: Instruction and Intervention Doug Fisher and Nancy Frey
LEARNING Traditional View of Learning When time and instruction are held constant… … learning outcomes vary. Adapted from Buffum, Mattos, & Weber, 2009
LEARNING A New View of Learning When time and instruction are variable… … learning is held constant. Adapted from Buffum, Mattos, & Weber, 2009
Purpose of RtI An alternative way to identify students as having learning disabilities, making sure that students who struggle were not misidentified as disabled when different and/or more intensive instruction addressed their needs. Big RTI
A school improvement process designed to ensure that students receive the instruction, intervention, and support necessary to be successful. little rti
What Variables Can You Control? Frequency (time) Duration (time) Assessment (instruction) Group size (instruction) Access to expertise (instruction) Staff collaboration (instruction) Student Monitoring Team (instruction) Others?
Tier 1: Quality Core Instruction Based on a Gradual Release of Responsibility Formative assessments (feed forward, not just feedback) Push-in supports and incidental benefits
TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson Guided Instruction I do it We do it You do it together Collaborative Independent You do it alone A Structure for Instruction that Works
Tiers 2 and 3 intervention are not a Band-Aid … …for ineffective Tier 1 instruction.
The Role of Assessment in RtI 2
Diagnostic Screening Tools Progress Monitoring
Screening Tools DIBELS Oral fluency SAM SALLI Writing sample Spelling inventory
Homework is NOT a progress monitoring tool! Homework is NOT a progress monitoring tool!
Traditional homework occurs too soon in the instructional cycle. Traditional homework occurs too soon in the instructional cycle.
Cleavers Cheaters Slackers Bewildered
Goals of Homework Fluency building Application Spiral review Extension Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Homework and the gradual release of responsibility: Making responsibility possible. English Journal, 98(2),
Spiral Review Homework: Opinionnaire Whats your opinion?SAADSD A patriot is heroic. Sometimes the only thing left to do is fight for what you believe in. The American Revolutionary War could have been avoided if both sides had compromised on taxes. All the colonists were in support of the war.
Compare English language learners to true peers
Tier 2: 10-15% What could Tier 2 look like?
The focus of the monitoring team
Manipulate the variables Manipulate the variables
Access to Expertise Access to Expertise
Mostly classroom teachers as students work productively Push-in staff (15% rule) Who provides Tier 2?
Time and Duration
CBMs 2 times per month for progress monitoring
Academic Recovery and After school tutorials
Involve the family
Increased guided instruction with smaller groups Increased guided instruction with smaller groups
Teacher Role What is the teacher doing while productive group work is occurring ?
Zone of Proximal Development Scaffolding
As easy as learning to ride a bike
Scaffolds in Classroom Instruction Robust questions to check for understanding Prompts that focus on cognitive and metacognitive processes Cues to shift attention to sources Direct explanation and modeling to re- teach
Robust Questions to Check for Understanding
Intention uncovering, not testing
Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal? Student: An animal that stays awake at night. Teacher: Good. What is a diurnal animal? I-R-E
Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal? Student: An animal that stays awake at night. Teacher: Tell me more about that. Does a nocturnal animal have special characteristics? Student: Well, it doesnt sleep a lot. Probe
Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal? Student: An animal that stays awake at night. Teacher: Tell me more about that. Does a nocturnal animal have special characteristics? Student: Well, it doesnt sleep a lot. Misconception
Prompting for Cognitive and Metacognitive Thinking
Prompts So the student does the cognitive work
Prompts can be cognitive or metacognitive Note to elf
Background knowledge prompts invite students to use what they know to resolve problems
Process or Procedure Prompts To perform a specific task
Reflective prompt knowing about knowing What did you learn today?
Heuristic prompt Informal and less defined Make a graph so you can see it.
Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal? Student: An animal that stays awake at night. Teacher: Tell me more about that. Does a nocturnal animal have special characteristics? Student: Well, it doesnt sleep a lot. Teacher: Im thinking of those pictures we saw of the great horned owl and the slow loris in the daytime and at night. Does your answer still work? PROMPT
Cues to Shift Attention
Cues Shift attention to sources of information More direct and specific than prompts
the expert commentator sees things you dont cues do the same for novices Attention grows with competence
Using Prompts and Cues Context: Students are creating a Jeopardy®-style game. The teacher is building the background knowledge of a group of students. He draws their attention to a sentence in the text: When you eat foods such as bread, meat, and vegetables they are not in a form that the body can use as nourishment. He asks Mauricio to retell it is his own words...
Mauricio: So, I think it says that your body can t use meat like it is meat. It has to be changed. Jessica: But that s what we eat to live. That s good eating. Russell: I don t eat any vegetables. I only like the meat and bread from this, like a hamburger. Mr. Jackson: How does that meat change so that your body can use it? Russell? Russell: It doesn t change. It s meat. Mr. Jackson: So let s think about what we know about nourishment and our food. There s a process that it goes through, right? [they nod in agreement] What s the first step? You know this because you do it several times a day. Sarah: The first thing to eat? Is that what you mean? Mr. Jackson: Yeah, the first thing. Sarah: You take a bite. Mr. Jackson: Exactly, right on. So you ve changed the food, right? Russell: Yeah, but it s still meat. Mr. Jackson: It sure is. But it s changed a bit, and will change more. Remember we talked about different kinds of changes. Physical … Chemical Russell: So the first thing, when you bite it, it s a physical change, right? Mr. Jackson: You know it! And then what happens?
Direct Explanation and Modeling
When prompting and cueing fail, its time for direct explanation. When prompting and cueing fail, its time for direct explanation.
Direct Explanation Take care not to re-assume responsibility too quickly Identify Explain Think aloud Monitor
Tier 3: 5-10% What could Tier 3 look like?
Tier 3: Intensive Individual 30 minutes at least three times per week Increase assessment and monitoring frequency Increase expertise A whole school focus
Keep the teacher at the center of communication
Daily 1:1 instruction
Increased Progress Monitoring with specialized assessments Increased Progress Monitoring with specialized assessments
Every certificated adult meets with students
What is special about special education? Formalized system of support (continuing interventions) Funding Goals and objectives Curriculum accommodations and modifications Testing support Assistive technology Related Services
The Takeaway Instruction and Intervention are linked Manipulate variables (time, assessment, expertise, instruction) to intensify intervention Build in a feed forward method so that RtI 2 results inform classroom instruction and programmatic improvements Keep the teacher and family at the center of communication