Presentation on theme: "Properties of a Pure Substance. 3-1 The Pure Substance A pure substance is one that has a homogeneous and invariable chemical composition. It may exist."— Presentation transcript:
Properties of a Pure Substance
3-1 The Pure Substance A pure substance is one that has a homogeneous and invariable chemical composition. It may exist in more than one phase, but the chemical composition is the same in all phases.
3-2 Vapor-Liquid-Solid-Phase Equilibrium in a Pure Substance
Saturation Temperature and Saturation Pressure The term saturation temperature designates the temperature at which vaporization takes place at a given temperature. This pressure is called the saturation pressure for the given temperature. Saturated liquid or saturated vapor, subcooled liquid or compressed liquid, and superheated vapor.
Vapor-Pressure Curve of a Pure Substance
Some Critical-Point Data
The Quality Specific Volume Relation (1/2)
The Quality Specific Volume Relation (2/2) where : quality or dryness
Some Triple-Point Data
P-T Diagram of Water
CO 2 Phase Diagram
H 2 O Phase Diagram
3-3 Independent Properties of a Substance The state of a simple pure substance is defined by two independent properties. In a saturation state, pressure and temperature are not independent properties.
3-4 Tables of Thermodynamic Properties
3-5 Thermodynamic Surfaces Expand on freezing Contract on freezing
P-V-T Surface for a Substance that Expands on Freezing (1/2)
P-V-T Surface for a Substance that Expands on Freezing (2/2)
P-V-T Surface for a Substance that Contracts on Freezing (1/2)
P-V-T Surface for a Substance that Contracts on Freezing (2/2)
3-6 The P-V-T Behavior of Low-and Moderate –Density Gases At very low densities the average distances between molecules is so large that the intermolecular potential energy may effectively be neglected. In such a case, the particles would be independent of one another, a situation referred to as an ideal gas.
The Ideal Gas Equation of State (1/2) : the universal gas constant
The Ideal Gas Equation of State (2/2) R : the gas constant
T-v Diagram for Water
Compressibility Factor Z for ideal gas
Compressibility of N 2
Observations from Figure 3.15 At all temperatures as. At the temperatures of 300K and above the compressibility factor is near unity up to pressure of about 10MPa. At lower temperatures or at very high pressure, the compressibility factor deviates significantly from the ideal-gas value.
Reduced Properties : reduced pressure : reduced temperature : critical pressure : critical temperature